of 43 /43
Use of Bio-Coagulants in wastewater treatment and determination of treatment process efficiency using model study BY : KANOJ NEERAJ D. B.E.CIVIL ENGINEERING F.Y.M.Tech EWRE COE

Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

A paper presentation at the Seeram conference on the use of bio coagulants like drumstick seeds and chitosan powder to treat sewage

Citation preview

Page 1: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Use of Bio-Coagulants in wastewater treatment and determination of treatment

process efficiency using model study

BY : KANOJ NEERAJ D. B.E.CIVIL ENGINEERING F.Y.M.Tech EWRE COEP

Page 2: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Introduction

Figure 1:Conventional Wastewater Treatment Process.

Page 3: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Modification in the conventional process

Application of Bio-coagulants

Coagulation and Flocculation

TRICKLING FILTER

SEDIMENTATION TANK

DISINFECTION AND DISPOSAL OF EFFLUENT

SLUDGE

Figure 2:Proposed modification in the conventional treatment process.

Page 4: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

What is Coagulation?• Coagulation: is a process in which dispersed colloidal

particles agglomerate together.• Coagulants: are substances which bring about

coagulation.• Bio-coagulants: Natural, bio-degradable coagulants.

In our project study we have used the following bio-coagulants:

1)Dried Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder(Drumstick seeds).2) Chitosan Powder.

Page 5: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Bio-coagulants used1. Dried Moringa Oleifera seed powder (Drumstick

seeds):

Page 6: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Bio-coagulants used2. Chitosan powder

Page 7: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Why is Coagulation necessary?

Sewage

97% Water 3% Solids

Suspended Solids

Dissolved Solids

Page 8: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Why is Coagulation necessary?

Particles with high specific

gravity

Settle under influence of

gravity

Particles with low specific

gravity

Do not settle under influence

of gravity

Coagulation Helps in Flock Formation

Increases sp.gravity of particles and helps them to

settle

Page 9: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Why use Bio-Coagulants instead of the conventional treatment processes and methods ?

ASP(Activated Sludge

Process)

Used in developing/ed countries to treat

large magnitudes of sewage

Because process is quite expensive to

construct ,operate and maintain

Aerated Lagoons,Oxidation

Ponds

Used in economically weak areas to treat small magnitudes of

sewage.

Because process is relatively cheaper to construct , operate &

maintain.

Page 10: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

BUT WHAT TO DO WHEN LARGE MAGNITUDES OF SEWAGE ARE TO BE TREATED IN ECONOMICALLY WEAKER

REGIONS ????

A GOOD OPTION IS TO USE A BIO-COAGULANT AIDED TF

Page 11: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Why use Bio-coagulant aided TF instead of a normal conventional TF?

Conventional TF

Attached growth process

Attached growth process

Based on formation a bacterial slime

layer on filter media

Page 12: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Why use Bio-coagulant aided TF instead of a normal conventional TF?

Maintenance of aerobic

conditions in slime layer

Difficult in a tropical country

like India

Due to variations in atmospheric conditions

BOD removal efficiency of a

conventional TFUsually 90%

Page 13: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Why use Bio-coagulant aided TF instead of a normal conventional TF?

Due to these reasons

BOD removal efficiency of TF

decreases

This seriously affects the quality of

treated effluent

Inorder to ensure that:

BOD removal efficiency of TF remains high

irrespective of the conditions

We aid the TF with Bio-coagulants.

This also reduces load

on the TF

Page 14: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Components of the project

Project

Determination of optimum dose of

bio-coagulant

Determination of the process

efficiency using model study

Stage: 1 Stage: 2

Page 15: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage: 1

Determination of optimum dose of bio-coagulant for:

Only Moringa Oleifera

Only Chitosan

Mixture of Moringa Oleifera

& Chitosan

Alum

Page 16: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Methodology of Stage:1

Wastewater sample Nephelometer to determine initial turbidity.

Jar test to determine optimum dose of coagulant

Nephelometer to determine final turbidity.

Model Study

(Stage:2)

Page 17: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:1 Test Results

0 5 10 15 20 250

5

10

15

20

25

30

Dosage of Chitosan( mg/l)

% Re-duction in Tur-bidity

0 5 10 15 20 250

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Dosage of Chitosan and Moringa Oleifera (mg/l)

% Re-duction in Tur-bidity

Graph 1:optimum dose of coagulant is 15 mg/l % Reduction in turbidity is 18%.

Graph 2:optimum dose of coagulant is 20 mg/l % Reduction in turbidity is 38.92%.

Page 18: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:1 Test Results

0 5 10 15 20 250

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Dosages of Moringa Oleifera (mg/l)

% Re-duction in Tur-bidity

Graph 3:optimum dose of coagulant is 15 mg/l % Reduction in turbidity is 80%.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 500

10

20

30

40

50

60

Dosages of Alum (mg/l)

% Re-duction in Tur-bidity

Graph 4:optimum dose of coagulant is 30 mg/l % Reduction in turbidity is 24.11%.

Page 19: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:1 Test ResultsBIO-COAGULANTS TURBIDITY RANGE (NTU) REDUCTION IN TURBIDITY(%)

MORINGA OLEIFERA 45 – 50 20 – 48

CHITOSAN POWDER 45 – 70 25 – 40

M.OLEIFERA + CHITOSAN 32 – 70 17 – 47

ALUM 45 – 70 15 – 30

Table 1:Results depicting estimated reduction of turbidity

BIO-COAGULANTS OPTIMUM DOSE (mg/l) REDUCTION IN TURBIDITY(%)

MORINGA OLEIFERA 15 38.4

CHITOSAN POWDER 15 32.52

M.OLEIFERA + CHITOSAN 20 27.2

ALUM 30 25.84

Table 2: Optimum dosages of bio-coagulants and actual reduction in turbidity obtained

Page 20: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:1 Test ResultsSAMPLE ORIGINAL TURBIDITY NEW TURBIDITY REDUCTION IN

TURBIDITY (%)I 86.1 56.7 34.14

II 87.9 66.7 24.11

III 77.6 44.3 42.91

IV 77.4 39.1 49.48

Table 3: Reduction in Turbidity using Alum as a coagulant.

SAMPLE ORIGINAL TURBIDITY NEW TURBIDITY REDUCTION IN TURBIDITY (%)

I 86.1 49.5 42.5

II 87.9 54.1 38.4

III 77.6 42.3 45.48

IV 77.4 39.0 49.61

Table 4: Reduction in Turbidity using Moringa Oleifera as a coagulant.

Page 21: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:1 Test Results

COAGULANT DOSAGE(mg/l) AVERAGE TURBIDITY REDUCTION( % )

MORINGA OLEIFERA 15 38.4

CHITOSAN 15 32.52

M.OLEIFERA + CHITOSAN 20 27.2

ALUM 30 24.11

Table 5: Reduction in Turbidity using various coagulants.

Maximum reduction in turbidity is obtained by using Moringa Oleifera at it’s optimum dosage of 15 mg/l.

Page 22: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:1 Test Results

1 2 3 40

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Series1

% Reduction inTurbidity

Graph 5:Histogram of Optimum reduction in turbidity

CHITOSAN

MORINGA OLEIFERA

M.OLEIFERA+CHITOSAN

ALUM

Page 23: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:2

Stage:2Determination of the

process efficiency using model study

A:Design stage

B:Assembly(model making) stage

C:Testing Stage

Page 24: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:2 (Part: A Design Stage)

Design stage

Design of CLARIFLOCCULATOR Design of TF Design of SST

Page 25: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:2 (PART:A Design Stage)

• Click here to view the design data.• 1.Design Of Clariflocculator.• 2.Design Of Trickling Filter.• 3.Design Of Sedimentation Tank.

Page 26: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:2 (Part:A Design Stage)• THE FINALISED DIMENSIONS AND DESIGN PARAMETERS OF

VARIOUS TREATMENT UNITS ARE AS FOLLOWS:

A)CLARIFLOCCULATOR:1. DIAMETER = 0.3 M.2. DEPTH = 0.15 M.3. DESIGN DISCHARGE = 10 L/HR.4. DETENTION PERIOD = 1 HOUR.5. ORGANIC LOADING RATE = 60,000 L/SQ.M/DAY

Page 27: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:2 (Part:A Design Stage)

B)TRICKLING FILTER:1. DIAMETER = 0.3 M.2. DEPTH = 1 M.3. DEPTH OF FILTER MEDIA = 0.7 M.4. DESIGN DISCHARGE = 10 L/HR.5. ORGANIC LOADING RATE = 1500

KG/HA-M/DAY.

Page 28: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:2 (Part:A Design Stage)

C)SEDIMENTATION TANK:1. DIAMETER = 0.3 M.2. DEPTH = 0.15 M.3. DESIGN DISCHARGE = 10 L/HR.4. DETENTION PERIOD = 1 HOUR.5. ORGANIC LOADING RATE = 70000

L/SQ.M/DAY

Page 29: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:2 (Part:B Assembly Stage)

Page 30: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage)

• Click here to view the video of the working model.

Page 31: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage)

5-DAY BOD OF THE INFLUENT TO CLARIFLOCCULATOR IS CALCULATED (INITIAL BOD)

5-DAY BOD OF THE EFFLUENT FROM SEDIMENTATION TANK IS CALCULATED (FINAL BOD)

THE BOD REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF THE PROJECT IS CALCULATED.

Page 32: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage Results)SR.NO FILTER MEDIA SAMPLE

DESCRIPTIONINITIAL DO FINAL DO DILUTION

FACTORBOD5 @ 20°C (mg/l)

1 NONE INFLUENT 21 16.5 20 902 AGGREGATE WITHOUT

COAGULANT17.2 15.9 20 26

3 AGGREGATE WITH COAGULANT

18.2 17.6 20 12

4 PLASTIC WITHOUT COAGULANT

18.9 17.5 20 28

5 PLASTIC WITH COAGULANT

18.4 17.6 20 16

TRIAL 1:

Page 33: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage Results)SR.NO FILTER MEDIA SAMPLE

DESCRIPTIONINITIAL DO FINAL DO DILUTION

FACTORBOD5 @ 20°C (mg/l)

1 NONE INFLUENT 23 17.9 20 1022 AGGREGATE WITHOUT

COAGULANT17.8 16.4 20 28

3 AGGREGATE WITH COAGULANT

18.6 17.9 20 14

4 PLASTIC WITHOUT COAGULANT

18.2 16.7 20 30

5 PLASTIC WITH COAGULANT

17.9 17.1 20 16

TRIAL 2:

Page 34: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage Results)SR.NO FILTER MEDIA SAMPLE

DESCRIPTIONINITIAL DO FINAL DO DILUTION

FACTORBOD5 @ 20°C (mg/l)

1 NONE INFLUENT 23.2 18.9 20 862 AGGREGATE WITHOUT

COAGULANT17.6 16.3 20 26

3 AGGREGATE WITH COAGULANT

18.2 17.7 20 10

4 PLASTIC WITHOUT COAGULANT

18.4 17.1 20 26

5 PLASTIC WITH COAGULANT

18.6 17.9 20 14

TRIAL 3:As per BIS the 5-day BOD of the effluent to be released in rivers is <= 20 mg/l

Page 35: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage Results)SR.NO TRIAL NO. FILTER MEDIA BOD REMOVAL

EFFICIENCY WITHOUT COAGULANT (%)

BOD REMOVAL EFFICIENCY WITH COAGULANT (%)

1. I AGGREGATE 71.11 86.67

PLASTIC 68.88 82.23

2. II AGGREGATE 72.55 86.27

PLASTIC 70.58 84.31

3. III AGGREGATE 69.76 88.37

PLASTIC 69.76 83.72

Page 36: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage Results)

AVERAGE BOD REMOVAL

EFFICIENCY

SAND/AGGREGATE FILTER

WITH COAGULANT:87.10%

WITHOUT COAGULANT:71.14%

PLASTIC FILTER

WITH COAGULANT:83.42%

WITHOUT COAGULANT:69.74%

Page 37: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

RATE ANALYSIS AND COST COMPARISON

SR.NO PARTICULARS AMOUNT (Rs/MONTH)

1 OVERALL COSTS 5,00,000

2 ELECTRICITY COSTS 1,90,000

3 LABOUR COSTS 2,00,000

TOTAL 8,90,000 OR 30,000 PER DAY

1) For A Conventional ASP Based STP Located At Bhatnagar, Chinchwad, Pune: (Plant Capacity=30MLD).

2) For The Bio-Coagulant Aided Process Based STP: (Plant Capacity=30mld).SR.NO PARTICULARS AMOUNT (Rs/MONTH)

1 OVERALL COSTS 5,00,000

2 ELECTRICITY COSTS 86,450

3 LABOUR COSTS 2,00,000

4 COST OF BIO-COAGULANTS 90,000

TOTAL 8.76,450 OR 29,215 PER DAY

Page 38: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

ConclusionsAccording to the project results it is concluded that:

1) Cost of sewage treatment using bio-coagulants < Cost of sewage treatment using ASP.

2) Cost of treatment using the natural bio-coagulants < Cost of treatment using Alum.

3) Efficiency of treatment process using bio-coagulants > Efficiency of treatment process using Alum.(in terms of turbidity reduction).

4) Efficiency of treatment process using bio-coagulants > Efficiency of treatment process using no coagulants.( in terms of BOD removal).

5) Efficiency of treatment process using Aggregate/Sand Filter > Efficiency of treatment process using Plastic Filter.( in terms of BOD removal).

6) Coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera and Chitosan powder stock solution > Coagulation efficiency of Alum.

Page 39: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Significance and Future Scope of the project

The use of bio-coagulants in waste water treatment has the following benefits:

1 )Reduced expenditure on processing of costly chemicals.

2) Reduced dependency on chemical coagulants.

3) Process is very economical for developing countries.

4) The bio-coagulants are eco-friendly.

5) Development of a new industry of bio-coagulant production.

6) Saving of electricity which is already deficient in India.

Page 40: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

Sponsors

• The project was funded by BCUD PUNE UNIVERSITY.

Page 41: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

References1) John Samia A.A. (1998) , “Using Moringa Oleifera and Chitosan as coagulant

in developing countries.” journal of AWWA Management and Operations.

2) Prof.M.R.Gidde, Prof.A.R.Bhalerao, Mr.C.P.Pise “Turbidity removal by blended coagulant Alum and M.Oleifera”, ICER BITS Pilani, Goa campus-403726.

3) Hitendra Bhupawat, G.K.Folkard, Sanjeev Chaudhary “Innovative physico-chemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa Oleifera seed coagulant.” CESE, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076, India.

4) Suleman A. Muyibi, Lillian Evision et al.(1995), “Optimizing the Physical Parameters affecting coagulation of turbid waters with Moringa Oleifera seeds.”

Page 42: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

References

5. Gassenschmidt U., Jany K. D., Tauscher B. and Niebergall H. (1995) “Isolation and characterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera lam”. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 143, 477-481.

6. Muyibi S.A. and Okufu C. A. (1995) “Coagulation of low turbidity surface water with Moringa oleifera seeds”. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 48, 263-273.

7. Muyibi S.A. and Evison L.M. (1995) “Optimizing Physical Parameters Affecting Coagulation of Turbid Water with Moringa Oleifera seeds”. Wat. Resources, 29(12), 2689-2695.

8. Ndbigengesere, A., Narasiah, K.S. and Talbot, B.G. (1995). “Active Agent and Mechanism of Coagulation of Turbid Waters Using Moringa Oleifera”. Wat. Resources, 2, 703-710.

Page 43: Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

THANK YOU!!!!

PROJECT BY : KANOJ NEERAJ D. (F.Y.M.Tech EWRE CoEP)

PROJECT GUIDE: PROF.S.A.NIKAM (M.E. Environmental Engg.),RSCOE,Pune.