1. SELF-REGULATING STREETSMarch 2014Jason TaylorUrban Designer - South Dublin Co Co. 2. There is a long establishedrelationship between speedand street design. Transport Research Laboratory(UK) reports 322, 325 and 551: Driver speed based on avisual and psychologicalinterpretation of streetenvironment. Legislation and regulationplay a secondary role. 3. Self-regulating streets characteristicsof the street instinctively tell driverswhat speed they should be doing. DMURS recognises that place plays acritical role to a drivers interpretation ofthe street. Self regulating streets are establishedby a combination of 'soft' and 'hard'measures. Softer or 'place' based measuresinclude: Built form Landscape Activity Harder measures are more associatedwith conventional road design, i.e.street geometry.Adamstown, Co. DublinChapelizod, Co. Dublin 4. Physical (harder) and psychological (softer), that influence driver behaviour andcalm traffic as illustrated in the Adamstown Street Design Guide (2010). Physical and psychological measures are most effective when used in combination(Transport Research Laboratory 2005). 5. Preparation of DMURS included an analysis of recent Road Safety Authority FreeSpeed Surveys to examine influence of 'hard' and 'soft' measures on drivers inIreland RSA Free Speed Survey 2008, 2009 and 2011 recorded speeds of some 9,500vehicles in free flowing conditions along 23 streets within metropolitan Dublin wererecorded Each street was surveyed with regard to the extent of hard and soft measures.Glasilawn Road Abbey Park Delwood Road Lwr. Kilmacud Road (R825)Stillorgan Clonkeen Road (R827) Morehampton Road (N11) Navan Road (N3) Road (N11) 6. The results demonstrated a strong trend whereby as the frequency and extent ofthe 'softer', or psychological, and 'harder', or physical, design measures increased,operating speeds lowered significantly. Trends were consistent on all street types (i.e. classification)Average Operating Speed (All Streets)Frequency and Extent of Psychological and Physical MeasuresStillorgan Road(60 km/h)Ave. 71.6 km/hLwr Kilmacud Rd(50 km/h)Ave. 48.7 km/hBrian Rd(50 km/h)Ave. 31.0 km/h 7. and the number of drivers exceeding the posted speed limit significantly decreased.% of Drivers Exceeding the Posted Speed Limit (All Streets)Frequency and Extent of Psychological and Physical MeasuresStillorgan Road(60 km/h)83.6%Lwr Kilmacud Rd(50 km/h)37.6%Brian Rd(50km/h)1% 8. The presence of deflections (such as ramps) had a strong influence on reducingspeed. However trend of lower operating speeds was consistent on streetswithout ramps where other measures were present.Average Operating Speed (Streets Without Ramps)Frequency and Extent of Psychological and Physical MeasuresMorehampton Rd(50 km/h)Ave. 53.3 km/hDelwood Road(50 km/h)Ave. 44.8 km/hLorcan Rd(50 km/h)Ave. 34.7 km/h 9. Other softer measures, such as a sense of enclosure, surveillance and activitycreated by landscape treatments and development (esp. where fronting directlyonto the street) also had a significant influence on lowering speed.Average Operating Speed (Enclosure and Frontage)Frequency and Extent of Psychological and Physical MeasuresMalahide Road(60 km/h)Ave. 69.8 km/hMorehampton Rd(50 km/h)Ave. 53.3 km/hBrookwood Rise(50 km/h)Ave. 38.3 km/h 10. Significantly, where there are limited psychological and physical design measureson streets with a speed limit of 50 km/h, most drivers exceeded the speed limit by10 km/h or more.% of Drivers Exceeding the Speed Limit by 10km/h or more (50 km/h streets)Frequency and Extent of Psychological and Physical Measures 11. DMURS outlines these measures in detail to provide a comprehensive toolkit ofprinciples, approaches and standards that designers can use to create a selfregulating street environment.50 km/hMid Level Place FunctionMid Level MovementFunction30 km/hMid Level Place FunctionLow level MovementFunction10 km/hHigh Level Place FunctionLow level MovementFunction (Cars)High Level MovementFunction(Pedestrians/Cyclists) 12. Principles, approaches and standards can be applied according to thesurrounding context (i.e. land uses, densities, pedestrian activity etc) and themovement function of the street to get the balance right.50 km/hMid/High Level PlaceFunctionHigh Level MovementFunction30 km/hHigh Level PlaceFunctionHigh LevelMovementFunction>30 km/hHigh Level Place FunctionLow Level MovementFunction (Cars)High Level MovementFunction(Pedestrians and Cyclists) 13. Sense of Enclosure (proximity of buildings, continuity of street wall, street trees) Well defined urban space (active frontages, interaction, surveillance, shelter) Increased pedestrian/cyclist comfort, safety Traffic claming effect/increased driver cautionAdamstown, Co. Dublin Ingress Park, Kent, UK 14. Activate Streets (active uses, animated frontages, multiple entrances, own door) Generation of pedestrian activity Increased surveillance of the street (safety in numbers) Traffic claming effect/increased driver cautionDrogheda, Co. Louth Adamstown, Co. Dublin 15. Minimising signage and line marking (within the Traffic Signs Manual). Excessive signage can distract and confuse drivers. With less regulativefeatures, drivers pay closer attention to the street environment andcommunicate with other users (i.e. what should I do?). Minimise signage on Arterial or Link streets/ scope for naked streets on Localstreets. Signage and line marking can be substituted/supplemented by landscapefeatures.Kensington High Street, London, UK Exhibition Road, London, UK 16. Changes in material, colour and texture Highly effective for very low design speeds and/or defining changes inconditions (shared spaces, gateways, schools). Surface changes (such as paving) can slow vehicle speeds by 4-7 kph (UKManual for Streets). Can supplement/reduce the need for signage and line marking.Adamstown, Co. Dublin Ashford Ring Road, UK 17. Frequent Crossing Points and Junctions Traffic claming effect/increased driver caution (TRL 2006). No significant increased in collision risk within more permeable networks (TRL2006, UK Manual for Streets Evidence and research 2007). Higher levels of access for slow modes (include motor vehicles at slowspeeds)Adamstown, Co. Dublin 18. Self-regulating street networks will not requirethe same restrictions to be placed on motorvehicles as compared to more segregatednetworks. Slow and constrained nature of Local Streetsmake them unattractive to through traffic. Arterial/Link streets attract traffic, more direct,moderate speeds. Other benefits (at local level) Drivers more likely to maintain lower speeds Increased permeability for pedestrians andcyclists More equitable distribution of traffic More compact junctionsDendritic NetworkPermeable Off-Set/Filtered Network 19. Narrow carriageways One of the most effective measures to reduce speeds (UK Manual for Streets2007). Measured from kerb to kerb, from outside line of a Cycle Lane or from parkingspaces (build outs are essential)Fettercairn, Co. Dublin New Hall, Essex, UK 20. Horizontal and vertical deflections No need for physically intrusive ramps. Supplementary measures raised tables and carriageway narrowing. Enforce low speeds at strategic locations (gateways, areas of high pedestriansactivity).Ingress Park, Kent, UK Dorset Street, Dublin 21. On-street parking Reinforces narrow carriageway Increases driver caution Can support small scale retail/on-street activity Formalises parking (reduces temptation to kerb mount)Adamstown, Co. Dublin New Hall, Essex, UK 22. Reduced Corner Radii Most vehicle/cyclist/pedestrian interactions will happen at corners. Critical thatspeeds are minimised. 23. Reduced Forward Visibility One of the most effective measures to reduce speeds (UK Manual for Streets2007)Poundbury, Dorset, UK 24. DMURS highlights issues withconventional design approaches thatseek to minimise risk and delay formotor vehicles Frontage free Wide carriageways Continuous rails, walls and fences Low connectivity/Ped activity Limited junctions This approach is counter productivein urban areas as drivers are moreinclined to drive at inappropriatespeeds and behave moreaggressively Further implications for sustainabilityand quality of life. If streets are notperceived to be safe, people willretreat to the safety of their cars 25. To moderate speeds, streets need tobe fronted with development,overlooked, landscaped and withonly as much space dedicated tomotor vehicles as is reasonablynecessary DMURS presents designers with aholistic package 'soft' and 'hard'measures to manage driver behaviour Application will increasepedestrian/cyclist mobility. Application will enhance sense ofplace 'win win' scenario, where streets aremore attractive, more sustainable andsafer.