2. Spain is building an empire- Native Americans are the lowest class Native Americans begin to die because of European diseases Introduction of Slavery New ethnicities- Mestizo, Mulatto, Criollo More money from Triangle Trade = more slaves Slaves are unhappy= more rebellions
4. former slave in Haitiformer slave in Haiti; freed in 1777 1791: led a huge slave revolthuge slave revolt against the FrenchFrench in Hispanola France was also fighting a war against Spanish forces in Hispaniola; couldnt deal with slave rebellions promised that any slave who joined the French army & fought the Spanish would be freed 1795: LOuvertures army helped French defeat the Spanish
5. 1801: LOuverture led a huge army into a Spanish colony & freed all slavesfreed all slaves there Six months later, he became governor general of Haiti for life. 1802: Large French army lands in Haiti wanted to restore old French government & regain control of sugar trade LOuvertures army fought the French & lostfought the French & lost French arrested LOuverture and sent him to prison inprison in FranceFrance LOuverture dieddied
6. LOuvertures army was outraged; it took up arms again against France. November 1803: defeated last of the French forces 1804: declared Haiti independent of French rule HaitiHaiti became the 1st country in Latin America1st country in Latin America to break freefree of European imperialism.
7. Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Bolivia
8. wealthy Venezuelan criollocriollo who spent many years traveling Europe While in Italy, he discovered his lifes purpose: to liberate his homeland from European control. 1810: Bolivars army kicks Spanishkicks Spanish governor out of VenezuelaVenezuela 1811: new constitution proclaimed Venezuelas independent of Spanish rule Soon after, Spanish royalists defeated the new countrys army & Bolivar was forced to flee to New Granada (Colombia).
9. Bolivar organized a bigger armybigger army & marched back into Venezuela. 1813: Bolivars army won & took controlwon & took control of Venezuelas capital, Caracas Bolivar was nicknamed El Libertador.El Libertador. Over the next few years, Bolivar liberated New Granada (now Colombia),New Granada (now Colombia), Ecuador, Panama, Peru, & Upper PeruEcuador, Panama, Peru, & Upper Peru (now Bolivia).(now Bolivia).
11. Catholic priestCatholic priest in the town of Dolores began the struggle for MexicosMexicos independence in 1810 September 16th, 1810September 16th, 1810: Cry ofCry of DoloresDolores was his call for revolution; rang church bells and shouted, Long live our Lady of Guadalupe! Death to bad government! Death to the Spaniards! an army of mestizos & Nativemestizos & Native Americans rallied behind HidalgoAmericans rallied behind Hidalgo
12. 80,000 people joined the fight, but the army was soon defeated by the SpanishSpanish. Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811 Mexicans continued to fight for independence over the next decade. 1821: Mexico gained independence1821: Mexico gained independence from Spain.from Spain. Mexico celebrates September 16th as its Independence Day. The president rings a bell in Mexico city and repeats Hidalgos Cry of Dolores.