Industrial revo 9a 9c

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  • The Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution is when people stopped making stuff at home and started making stuff in factories!

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  • The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times

    Industrialization: a shift from an agricultural (farming) economy to one based on industry (manufacturing)

  • Key TermsIndustrialization a shift from an agricultural economy (farming) to one based on industry (manufacturing)Manufacturing the use of machines, tools, and labor to make things for use or saleRural farming or country life; villages (sparsely populated)Urban city life (densely populated) Urbanization the movement of people to citiesTenement a substandard, multi-family dwelling; usually old and occupied by the poorFree market a market in which there is no economic intervention and regulation by the state (govt)Capitalism private ownership of means of productionSocialism society (not the individual) owns and operates the means of production

  • Introduction:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Efq-aNBkvc (3:31)Turning Points in History: Industrial Revolution

  • Preview: Reading & QuestionsAs a quick preview to the Industrial Revolution, read each passage and answer the questions that follow

    Overview TopicsWhat is a Revolution?What Caused the American Industrial Revolution?Horrors of the WorkplaceThe Beginning of Child LaborWorking ConditionsLife in the CityThe Assembly Line

  • Pre-Industrial Revolution

    Village life dominated families were nearly self-sufficient

    Most villagers were farmers

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  • Making Cloth Before Machines

    Cottage Industry

    Slow process Business involving people who worked at home

  • Causes of the Industrial RevolutionAgricultural Revolution improved the quality and quantity of food

    Farmers mixed different kinds of soil or tried new crop rotation to get higher yieldsThis led to a surplus of food = fewer people died from hunger = rapid growth in population

    Rich landowners pushed ahead with enclosure: the process of taking over and consolidating land once shared by peasant farmers (farm output and profits rose)

    New technologies and new sources of energy and materials (e.g., James Watts steam engine became a key source of power)

  • Rapid Population Growth

    Population of Britain in 17506 millionPopulation of Britain in 185121 millionPopulation of London in 1750500,000Population of London in 18513 millionFamilies in agriculture in 175065% of populationFamilies in agriculture in 185125% of population

  • Causes____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    The Industrial RevolutionEffects________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    When we get to the end of this lesson, we will complete a Causes & Effects of the Industrial Revolution Graphic Organizer

  • Industrial Revolution Begins In Great Britain

    Stable GovernmentNo warsHad capital (money) to invest in businessesHad overseas markets (colonial empire)

    Natural ResourcesCoal (energy for machines)Iron ore (for tools)Large network of rivers to move products

    Labor SupplyGrowing populationReady workforce

    New TechnologyInvention and improvement of steam engine

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  • Industrial Revolution Spreads to Europe and the United States

  • The Enclosure MovementThe process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers

    Landowners gained:

    More land for pasturesLarger fields for cropsLaborers lost:

    Forced off their landsMoved to growing cities

  • Enclosure One thing Led to AnotherFarmers gained pasture land for animals Raised more sheepWool output increased

    Larger fieldsAble to cultivate product more efficientlyFarm out-put increased Profits rose

  • Land Enclosure in England

  • Push Factors:Where did all the people go?Fewer worker needed on the landsFarmers forced off their landsSmall owners could not competeVillages shrankCities grew and GREW!!

    Over London by Rail Gustave Dor c. 1870. Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities

  • Migration to Cities

  • First Major Industry to FormTEXTILE!The demand for cloth grew, so merchants had to compete with others for the supplies to make it. This raised a problem for the consumer because the products were at a higher cost. The solution was to use machinery, which was cheaper then products made by hand (which took a long time to create), therefore allowing the cloth to be cheaper to the consumer.

    Remember the Spinning Jenny? It reduced the amount of time and work needed to produce yarn (increased productivity)

  • Textile Factory Workers in England

    1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers1850224, 000 looms>1 million workers

  • Growth of Industry

    Growth of factories

    As demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with new machines (e.g., flying shuttle, spinning jenny)To house these new machines, manufacturers built the first factoriesNew machines and factories increased productionBy the 1850s, factories began to be powered by coal and steam engines

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  • Technological Advances that Produced the Industrial Revolution

    Spinning Jenny: James HargreavesSteam Engine: James WattCotton Gin: Eli WhitneyProcess for making Steel: Henry Bessemer

  • Spinning Jenny: 1764Invented by James Hargreaves

    At the time, cotton production could not keep up with demand

    This machine spun many threads at the same time, thus reducing the amount of work needed to produce yarn (increased productivity = produced yarn quickly)

  • Modern Steam Engine: 1763-1775Improved by James Watt

    Offered a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency

    Could be used to drive many different types of machinery (by the 1850s, most factories were powered by the steam engine)

    Increased the demand for coal to heat the water to produce steam (and the need for coal miners)

  • Cotton Gin: 1793Invented by Eli Whitney to mechanize the cleaning of cotton

    A machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seeds, a job previously done by hand

    Led to the demand for more slaves

  • (Henry) Bessemer Process for the Manufacture of Steel: 1856Bessemer process involved using oxygen in air blown through molten pig iron to burn off the impurities and thus create steelLowered the cost of steel production, leading to steel being widely substituted for cast ironSteel used for the production of guns and railway structures such as bridges and tracks

  • TechnologyThe Industrial Revolution was built on rapid advances in technologyWhich of these three inventions most changed the way that raw materials, goods, and people moved?

  • The Impact of the RailroadTransportation innovation that most changed the way raw materials, goods, and people moved

    Allowed communication and trade between places previously deemed too far

  • Where employees workedMajor change from cottage industryHad to leave home to work (travel to cities)

    Life in factory townsTowns grew up around factories and coal minesPollution, poor sanitation, no health codes = sicknessRapid population growthPoor lived in crowded tiny rooms in tenements (multistory buildings divided into apartments)

    Working in a factoryNo safety codes = dangerous work for allPoor factory conditions (e.g., no heat or a/c, dirty, smelly, cramped)Long workdays (12-14 hours)Little pay (men compete with women and children for wages)Child labor = kept costs of production low and profits highMind-numbing monotony (doing the same thing all day every day)Owners of mines and factories exercised control over lives of laborers

    Factories and Factory Towns

  • Conditions in FactoriesDirtyCramped spacesMonotonyDangerous Machinery

  • Young women in the textile mills of Massachusetts died at an average age of 26, constantly inhaling cotton dust, working long hours in unventilated rooms lit by oil lamps

  • Testimonials on Labor Conditions

    Testimony of William Cooper, a witness before the Sadler Commission in 1832

  • Child LaborYoung childrenLong hoursPoor treatmentDangerous conditions

  • Children of the Industrial RevolutionVideo:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kfuUoINOU5I&feature=fvwrel (Music 6:00)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cK6Q4bdKfM&feature=related (Documentary 9:58)

    Pictures:http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/childlabor/

  • Testimony from Child Labor in the Mines

    The Ashley Mines Investigation of 1842

    Children: James Pearce (12), William Drury (10), and Patience Kershaw (17)Mine Manager: Edward PotterMine Owner: William Newbould

  • Life in Factory TownsCramped TenementsPollutionPoor SanitationRapid Population Growth

  • HousingTenement = a substandard, multi-family dwelling, usually old and occupied by th