- 1. North and South Chapter 14 pp. 406 - 429
2. Section 1:Industry in the North
- As the Northern economy grew, newinventionsand fastertransportationchanged the way goods were manufactured and shipped.
3. New Inventions
- New inventions forfarmingwere created in the North including newplows , reapers and drills.
- Jethro Woods iron plow hadreplaceableparts
- John Deere invented the more lightweightsteelplow.
4. The Telegraph
- Invented bySamuel Morsein 1844.
- The device sent electrical signals down a wire in acodeof dots, dashes, and spaces.
- Communicationacross the country got faster andimprovedbusiness efficiency.
5. The First Railroads
- Locomotive the engine that pulls railroad cars.
- Peopledidntlike the idea of railroads at first:
- Some feared losingjobsas wagon drivers
- There were manyaccidentsincluding breakdowns and fires.
- Eventually problems were fixed and by the1850sthe railroad system was all over the country.
6. Yankee Clippers
- Demand forimportsandexportsled to the need forfasttrade ships.
- Largemastsand hugesailshelped the ships use more wind to move the ship faster.
- By the 1850s, English ironsteamshipswere being used.
- They werefasterandsturdierthan wooden clipper ships.
7. The Northern Economy Expands
- Many factors led to anexpansionof the Northern economy:
- Railroaddistributionof goods
- Northernfarmersleft their homes to work infactoriesor as clerks or sailors due to the importation of cheapfoodfrom theWest .
8. Section 2:Life in the North
- Industry in the North changed with the arrival of newimmigrantsand the efforts of factoryworkerstoimprovetheir workingconditions .
9. Factory Conditions Become Worse
- Artisansmade small amounts of quality goods by hand.
- Factoryownerswere more interested involume ; more goods = more money.
- Workers labored for over12hours a day inunsafeconditions.
- Sometimes entirefamiliesworked in one factory.
10. Workers Join Together
- Artisans formedtrade unionsto argue for better wages andconditions .
- If their demands were not listened to, worker would stop working ( strike )
- Womenworkers in New Englandtextilemills organized as well.
- Sarah Bagleyformed theLowellFemale Labor Reform Association.
11. A New Wave of Immigrants
- Many people immigrated to America in the early 1840s due tofaminesinIrelandandGermany .
- Some native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants ( Nativists ).
- Know-NothingParty An anti-immigrant, anti- Catholicpolitical party who met in secret.
- When asked, members said, I know nothing.
12. African Americans in the North
- There was discrimination against free African Americans in the North.
- Some African Americans were successful.
- William Whipper Lumberyard owner
- Henry Boyd Owned a furniture business
- Henry Blair invented a corn planting machine
- Macon Allen first African American lawyer
- John Russwurn editor of the first African American newspaper.
13. Section 3:Cotton Kingdom in the South
- Cottonwas the leading crop in the agricultural economy of the South
14. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom
- Eli WhitneysCotton Ginmade processing raw cotton faster.
- Cotton farming expanded to theWest , as didslavery .
- More slaves were needed to pick more cotton onbiggerfarms.
15. An Agricultural Economy / Economically Dependent
- Cotton was not the only cash crop of the South.
- Industry was limited to meeting the needs of thecommunity , not forexport .
- Due to the lack oflocalindustry, the South becamedependenton the North for:
16. Section 4:Life in the South
- Most white southerners werenotplantation owners; however, the plantation system and slavery were thecenterof southern life.
17. The Cottonocracy
- Wealthy planters with 20 or more slaves
- Only 1% had more than 50 slaves.
- Most southern whites werenotpart of the Cottonocracy.
- Small Farmers 75 % of the population
- Worked in the fields along side theslaves .
18. African Americans in the South
- Most lived in the northern part of the South (Maryland, Delaware) where slavery wasdeclining.
- Slave owners made life very hard for free African Americans.
- Enslaved African Americans :
- 1/3of the Southern population by 1860
- Most lived difficult lives and weremistreatedand abused.
- Slave Codeswere laws that restricted the lives of slaves including learning to read or meet in groups.
19. Family Life and Religion
- Families of slaves were oftenseparatedand sold, butextended familiesthat were able to stay together were a source ofstrength , pride, and love.
- Religionhelped slaves cope with the conditions.
- Most slaves were devoutChristiansand would sing hymns andspiritualswhile working the fields.
20. Resistance Against Slavery
- Some slaves escaped to the North, others would resist by breaking tools, destroying crops, and stealing food.
- Denmark Veseywas executed before he could stage a revolt.
- Nat Turnerand his followers killed 57 whites over two months before being caught and hung.