Chapter 14 north and south

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Differentiating the economies of the North and South

Text of Chapter 14 north and south

  • 1. North and South Chapter 14 pp. 406 - 429

2. Section 1:Industry in the North

  • Main Idea:
  • As the Northern economy grew, newinventionsand fastertransportationchanged the way goods were manufactured and shipped.

3. New Inventions

  • New inventions forfarmingwere created in the North including newplows , reapers and drills.
    • Jethro Woods iron plow hadreplaceableparts
    • John Deere invented the more lightweightsteelplow.

4. The Telegraph

  • Invented bySamuel Morsein 1844.
  • The device sent electrical signals down a wire in acodeof dots, dashes, and spaces.
  • Communicationacross the country got faster andimprovedbusiness efficiency.

5. The First Railroads

  • Locomotive the engine that pulls railroad cars.
  • Peopledidntlike the idea of railroads at first:
    • Some feared losingjobsas wagon drivers
    • There were manyaccidentsincluding breakdowns and fires.
  • Eventually problems were fixed and by the1850sthe railroad system was all over the country.

6. Yankee Clippers

  • Demand forimportsandexportsled to the need forfasttrade ships.
    • Largemastsand hugesailshelped the ships use more wind to move the ship faster.
  • By the 1850s, English ironsteamshipswere being used.
    • They werefasterandsturdierthan wooden clipper ships.

7. The Northern Economy Expands

  • Many factors led to anexpansionof the Northern economy:
    • Steampower
    • Machine-Producedgoods
    • Railroaddistributionof goods
  • Northernfarmersleft their homes to work infactoriesor as clerks or sailors due to the importation of cheapfoodfrom theWest .

8. Section 2:Life in the North

  • Main Idea:
  • Industry in the North changed with the arrival of newimmigrantsand the efforts of factoryworkerstoimprovetheir workingconditions .

9. Factory Conditions Become Worse

  • Artisansmade small amounts of quality goods by hand.
  • Factoryownerswere more interested involume ; more goods = more money.
  • Workers labored for over12hours a day inunsafeconditions.
    • Sometimes entirefamiliesworked in one factory.

10. Workers Join Together

  • Artisans formedtrade unionsto argue for better wages andconditions .
    • If their demands were not listened to, worker would stop working ( strike )
  • Womenworkers in New Englandtextilemills organized as well.
    • Sarah Bagleyformed theLowellFemale Labor Reform Association.

11. A New Wave of Immigrants

  • Many people immigrated to America in the early 1840s due tofaminesinIrelandandGermany .
  • Some native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants ( Nativists ).
    • Know-NothingParty An anti-immigrant, anti- Catholicpolitical party who met in secret.
    • When asked, members said, I know nothing.

12. African Americans in the North

  • There was discrimination against free African Americans in the North.
  • Some African Americans were successful.
    • William Whipper Lumberyard owner
    • Henry Boyd Owned a furniture business
    • Henry Blair invented a corn planting machine
    • Macon Allen first African American lawyer
    • John Russwurn editor of the first African American newspaper.

13. Section 3:Cotton Kingdom in the South

  • Main Idea
  • Cottonwas the leading crop in the agricultural economy of the South

14. Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom

  • Eli WhitneysCotton Ginmade processing raw cotton faster.
    • Cottonprofitsgrew.
  • Cotton farming expanded to theWest , as didslavery .
    • More slaves were needed to pick more cotton onbiggerfarms.

15. An Agricultural Economy / Economically Dependent

  • Cotton was not the only cash crop of the South.
    • Rice
    • Tobacco
    • Sugar Cane
    • Livestock
  • Industry was limited to meeting the needs of thecommunity , not forexport .
  • Due to the lack oflocalindustry, the South becamedependenton the North for:
    • Furniture
    • Farm Equipment
    • Machines

16. Section 4:Life in the South

  • Main Idea:
  • Most white southerners werenotplantation owners; however, the plantation system and slavery were thecenterof southern life.

17. The Cottonocracy

  • Wealthy planters with 20 or more slaves
    • Only 3% of Southerners
    • Only 1% had more than 50 slaves.
  • Most southern whites werenotpart of the Cottonocracy.
    • Small Farmers 75 % of the population
    • Worked in the fields along side theslaves .

18. African Americans in the South

  • Free African Americans :
    • Most lived in the northern part of the South (Maryland, Delaware) where slavery wasdeclining.
    • Slave owners made life very hard for free African Americans.
  • Enslaved African Americans :
    • 1/3of the Southern population by 1860
    • Most lived difficult lives and weremistreatedand abused.
    • Slave Codeswere laws that restricted the lives of slaves including learning to read or meet in groups.

19. Family Life and Religion

  • Families of slaves were oftenseparatedand sold, butextended familiesthat were able to stay together were a source ofstrength , pride, and love.
  • Religionhelped slaves cope with the conditions.
    • Most slaves were devoutChristiansand would sing hymns andspiritualswhile working the fields.

20. Resistance Against Slavery

  • Some slaves escaped to the North, others would resist by breaking tools, destroying crops, and stealing food.
  • Denmark Veseywas executed before he could stage a revolt.
  • Nat Turnerand his followers killed 57 whites over two months before being caught and hung.