The word means bizarre, flamboyant, and elaborately ornamented
3. Baroque Period
Artists of the time; Bernini, Rubens, and Rembrant exploited their materials to expand the potential of color, detail, ornament, and depth.
In France Louis XIV held court in the beautifully ornate palace of Versailles.
The style was also shaped by the needs of churches trying to make worship more attractive
4. Baroque Period
This was also the time of Galileo (1564-1642) and Newton (1642-1727).
These innovators represented a new approach to science and mathematics
5. Baroque Composers
The two greatest Baroque composers were George Frederic Handel and Johann Sebastian Bach.
6. Baroque Period
The period can be divided into 3 periods:
We will be discussing music from the late Baroque period
7. Baroque style writing
Middle Baroque composers began using new scales (minor scales) instead of the church modes when writing their music
By about 1680 major and minor scales were the tonal basis for all composition.Also during this time instrumental music became more important
Compositions were written forspecific instruments (the violin family being the most popular)
8. Features of late Baroque music
Unity of Mood
If it begins joyfully, it will end joyfully
Emotional states (joy, grief,or agitation) were calledaffections
Composers molded a musical mood to fit these affections
The exception to this rule is vocal music because when the mood of the words changed, the music had to change, but it did so gradually
9. Features of late Baroque music
RhythmUnity of mood is conveyed through continuity of rhythm.
Rhythm provides drive and energy.Forward motion is always maintained and the beat is felt more than in most Renaissance music.
10. Features of late Baroque music
MelodyContinuity of melody is also heard in Baroque music.
If you hear one melody at the beginning of a piece you will also hear it at the end of the piece.
11. Features of late Baroque music
Dynamics Continuous levels of dynamics are also maintained in Baroque music
When they do shift, it is sudden.
This shift from suddenly soft to suddenly loud is calledterraced dynamics
Gradual changes from soft to loud were not a prominent feature of the period
12. Features of late Baroque music
TextureThe music of the late Baroque period is mainly polyphonic in texture
The soprano or bass line is the most important
Imitation between voices or melodies is important
Not all Baroque music is polyphonic
Some pieces may shift in texture between polyphonic and homophonic
13. Features of late Baroque music
Chords and the Basso Continuo
Chords became increasingly important during this era
In early music the beauty of the individual melody was most important
later this music evolved, the selection of just the right chords to fit the melody became important
The bass became the prominent feature and the entire musical structure of the piece rested on it.
14. Basso Continuo
Means Continuous Bass
One of the prominent features of Baroque music
Usually played by 2 instruments:
A keyboard instrument, and a low melodic instrument like the cello or bassoon
15. Figured Bass
Baroque composers wrote their bass parts using figured bass.The performer was allowed to improvise what chords to play using the figured bass cues under the music.
16. Words and Music
Like the composers of the Renaissance, Baroque composers also used word painting to depict the meaning of the text of their music
The wordheavenmight be set to high tones, the workhellto low tones.Descending chromatic scales were associated with pain and grief.
Baroque composers also emphasized words by writing many rapid notes for a single syllable of text
This technique also displayed a singers virtuosity.
17. The Baroque Orchestra
During this era, the orchestra evolved into a performing group based on instruments of the violin family. Smaller than todays orchestras,it was made up of between 10 and 40 players
The instrumentation would vary depending on the music being played.
The heart of the orchestra was the basso continuo (harpsichord plus cello, double bass or bassoon)
18. The Baroque Orchestra
19. The Baroque Orchestra
It also contained upper strings (violins and violas)
Using woodwinds, brass and percussion depended on the music being played
This is different from todays orchestra which always contains 4 sections: strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
20. Baroque Forms
Baroque music usually stays in the same mood for the entire piece
If it starts slow, it ends slow
If it starts happy, it ends happy, etc
21. Baroque Forms (continued)
To change moods, Baroque composers would write music in sets of pieces
Each piece of the set could have a different mood These individual songs in a set are calledmovements .
22. Baroque Movements
A movement is a piece that sounds complete, but is part of a bigger composition
Usually each movement has its own themes, comes to a definite end, and is separated from the next movement by a brief pause
By doing this, a Baroque composer can have contrast in his music
23. Baroque Movements (cont.)
The first movement can be quick and lively, the second slow and solemn, and a concluding movement that is quick, light and humorous
Baroque music isall about contrast .
Fast to slow, slow to fast, soft to loud, loud to soft, many to few, few to many
24. Music in Baroque society
Before 1800 music was written to meet specific demands that came from churches and aristocratic courts
The ruling class surrounded themselves with luxury and needed entertainment
This entertainment came in the form of music, and each court had its own composer and stable of musicians
25. Court Composer
Wrote and produced the music for all performances at the court
This music included:operas, church music, dinner music, and pieces for court concerts
The composer was the director of the music, the musicians, the library of music and was for all accounts just another servant
26. Church Music
Churches also needed music, and church music was often very grand
These Baroque churches had organs, choirs and orchestras to accompany services
Church was were ordinary citizens heard music
27. Musical Form
Contrastis an important factor in Baroque music
This principal is also important in a form of Baroque music called theconcerto grosso
In this form, a small group of musicians is pitted against the full orchestra
Usually the small group is between 2-4soloistsand thetutti(everyone else) is made up of between 8 and 20 (or more)
28. Concerto Grosso Form
Consists of several movements that contrast in tempo and character
Usually these pieces come in 3 movements.
29. Concerto Grosso Form
The first and last movements of a concerto are usually written inritornelloform
This form is based on the alternation between the tutti and solo sections of instruments
The theme which is played by the tutti returns in different keys throughout the piece, but usually you only hear fragments of it.Only at the end of the piece do you hear the entire theme played again in the home key