Baroque period part 1

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  1. 1. Baroque Period (1600-1750)
  2. 2. Baroque Period
    • The word means bizarre, flamboyant, and elaborately ornamented
  3. 3. Baroque Period
    • Artists of the time; Bernini, Rubens, and Rembrant exploited their materials to expand the potential of color, detail, ornament, and depth.
    • In France Louis XIV held court in the beautifully ornate palace of Versailles.
    • The style was also shaped by the needs of churches trying to make worship more attractive
  4. 4. Baroque Period
    • This was also the time of Galileo (1564-1642) and Newton (1642-1727).
    • These innovators represented a new approach to science and mathematics
    Galileo Newton
  5. 5. Baroque Composers
    • The two greatest Baroque composers were George Frederic Handel and Johann Sebastian Bach.
    Handel Bach
  6. 6. Baroque Period
    • The period can be divided into 3 periods:
      • Early 1600-1640
      • Middle 1640-1680
      • Late1680-1750
    • We will be discussing music from the late Baroque period
  7. 7. Baroque style writing
    • Middle Baroque composers began using new scales (minor scales) instead of the church modes when writing their music
    • By about 1680 major and minor scales were the tonal basis for all composition.Also during this time instrumental music became more important
    • Compositions were written forspecific instruments (the violin family being the most popular)
  8. 8. Features of late Baroque music
    • Unity of Mood
      • If it begins joyfully, it will end joyfully
      • Emotional states (joy, grief,or agitation) were calledaffections
    • Composers molded a musical mood to fit these affections
      • The exception to this rule is vocal music because when the mood of the words changed, the music had to change, but it did so gradually
  9. 9. Features of late Baroque music
    • RhythmUnity of mood is conveyed through continuity of rhythm.
    • Rhythm provides drive and energy.Forward motion is always maintained and the beat is felt more than in most Renaissance music.
  10. 10. Features of late Baroque music
    • MelodyContinuity of melody is also heard in Baroque music.
      • If you hear one melody at the beginning of a piece you will also hear it at the end of the piece.
  11. 11. Features of late Baroque music
    • Dynamics Continuous levels of dynamics are also maintained in Baroque music
      • When they do shift, it is sudden.
    • This shift from suddenly soft to suddenly loud is calledterraced dynamics
      • Gradual changes from soft to loud were not a prominent feature of the period
  12. 12. Features of late Baroque music
    • TextureThe music of the late Baroque period is mainly polyphonic in texture
      • The soprano or bass line is the most important
      • Imitation between voices or melodies is important
    • Not all Baroque music is polyphonic
      • Some pieces may shift in texture between polyphonic and homophonic
  13. 13. Features of late Baroque music
    • Chords and the Basso Continuo
      • Chords became increasingly important during this era
      • In early music the beauty of the individual melody was most important
      • later this music evolved, the selection of just the right chords to fit the melody became important
    • The bass became the prominent feature and the entire musical structure of the piece rested on it.
  14. 14. Basso Continuo
    • Means Continuous Bass
    • One of the prominent features of Baroque music
    • Usually played by 2 instruments:
      • A keyboard instrument, and a low melodic instrument like the cello or bassoon
  15. 15. Figured Bass
    • Baroque composers wrote their bass parts using figured bass.The performer was allowed to improvise what chords to play using the figured bass cues under the music.
  16. 16. Words and Music
    • Like the composers of the Renaissance, Baroque composers also used word painting to depict the meaning of the text of their music
      • The wordheavenmight be set to high tones, the workhellto low tones.Descending chromatic scales were associated with pain and grief.
    • Baroque composers also emphasized words by writing many rapid notes for a single syllable of text
    • This technique also displayed a singers virtuosity.
  17. 17. The Baroque Orchestra
    • During this era, the orchestra evolved into a performing group based on instruments of the violin family. Smaller than todays orchestras,it was made up of between 10 and 40 players
    • The instrumentation would vary depending on the music being played.
    • The heart of the orchestra was the basso continuo (harpsichord plus cello, double bass or bassoon)
  18. 18. The Baroque Orchestra
  19. 19. The Baroque Orchestra
    • It also contained upper strings (violins and violas)
    • Using woodwinds, brass and percussion depended on the music being played
    • This is different from todays orchestra which always contains 4 sections: strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
  20. 20. Baroque Forms
    • Baroque music usually stays in the same mood for the entire piece
    • If it starts slow, it ends slow
    • If it starts happy, it ends happy, etc
  21. 21. Baroque Forms (continued)
    • To change moods, Baroque composers would write music in sets of pieces
    • Each piece of the set could have a different mood These individual songs in a set are calledmovements .
  22. 22. Baroque Movements
    • A movement is a piece that sounds complete, but is part of a bigger composition
    • Usually each movement has its own themes, comes to a definite end, and is separated from the next movement by a brief pause
    • By doing this, a Baroque composer can have contrast in his music
  23. 23. Baroque Movements (cont.)
    • The first movement can be quick and lively, the second slow and solemn, and a concluding movement that is quick, light and humorous
    • Baroque music isall about contrast .
      • Fast to slow, slow to fast, soft to loud, loud to soft, many to few, few to many
  24. 24. Music in Baroque society
    • Before 1800 music was written to meet specific demands that came from churches and aristocratic courts
    • The ruling class surrounded themselves with luxury and needed entertainment
    • This entertainment came in the form of music, and each court had its own composer and stable of musicians
  25. 25. Court Composer
    • Wrote and produced the music for all performances at the court
    • This music included:operas, church music, dinner music, and pieces for court concerts
    • The composer was the director of the music, the musicians, the library of music and was for all accounts just another servant
  26. 26. Church Music
    • Churches also needed music, and church music was often very grand
    • These Baroque churches had organs, choirs and orchestras to accompany services
    • Church was were ordinary citizens heard music
  27. 27. Musical Form
    • Contrastis an important factor in Baroque music
    • This principal is also important in a form of Baroque music called theconcerto grosso
    • In this form, a small group of musicians is pitted against the full orchestra
    • Usually the small group is between 2-4soloistsand thetutti(everyone else) is made up of between 8 and 20 (or more)
  28. 28. Concerto Grosso Form
    • Consists of several movements that contrast in tempo and character
    • Usually these pieces come in 3 movements.
      • 1. Fast
      • 2. Slow
      • 3. Fast
  29. 29. Concerto Grosso Form
    • The first and last movements of a concerto are usually written inritornelloform
    • Ritornello meansrefrain
    • This form is based on the alternation between the tutti and solo sections of instruments
      • The theme which is played by the tutti returns in different keys throughout the piece, but usually you only hear fragments of it.Only at the end of the piece do you hear the entire theme played again in the home key
  30. 30. Ritornello form
    • 1.
      • a. Tutti (f), ritornello in home key
      • b. Solo
    • 2.
      • a. Tutti (f), ritornello fragment
      • b .Solo
    • 3.
      • a. Tutti (f), ritornello fragment
      • b. Solo
    • 4.
      • Tutti (f), ritornello in home key
  31. 31. J