1.ANDROID 2.INTRODUCTION Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance: a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008. 3.ARCHITECTURE 4.Android consists of a kernel based on Linux kernel version 2.6 and, from Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich onwards, version 3.x, with middleware, libraries and APIs written in C, and application software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony. Android uses the Dalvik virtual machine with just-in-time compilation to run Dalvik 'dex-code' (Dalvik Executable), which is usually translated from Java bytecode.The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture. 5.APPLICATIONS Android has a growing selection of third party applications, which can be acquired by users either through an app store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by downloading and installing the application's APK file from a third-party site. The Play Store application allows users to browse, download and update apps published by Google and third-party developers, and is pre-installed on devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements. 6.APPLICATIONS The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the user's device, and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons. Purchases of unwanted applications can be refunded within 15 minutes of the time of download, and some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the user's monthly bill. As of September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Play Store was 25 billion. 7.SECURITY & PRIVACY Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed. Before installing an application, the Play Store displays all required permissions: a game may need to enable vibration or save data to an SD card, for example, but should not need to read SMS messages or access the phonebook. After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept.
Text of Android seminar ppt
1. R.C.PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Prepared by Chakrapani Tripathi BE EXTC Roll no 66
2. Table Of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Platform 3. Software development 4. Overall evaluation 3. What Is Android? Software especially used in hand held devices which acts as an intermediate between user and the device hardware 4. Introduction(1) A software platform and operating system for mobile devices Based on the Linux kernel Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) Allows writing managed code in the Java language 5. Introduction(2) Possibility to write applications in other languages and compiling it to ARM native code (support of Google? No) Unveiling of the Android platform was announced on 5 November 2007 with the founding of OHA 6. Introduction(3) What is OHA? Open Handset Alliance It's a consortium of several companies 7. Introduction(4) Devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices Develop technologies that will significantly lower the cost of developing and distributing mobile devices and services 8. Introduction(5) License Version 2 Apache Software License(ASL) 9. Platform(1) Architecture(1) 10. Platform(2) Architecture(2) Android consists of a kernel based on Linux kernel version 2.6 Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich onwards, version 3.x, with middleware, libraries and APIs written in C, and application software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony. Android uses the Dalvik virtual machine with just-in-time compilation to run Dalvik 'dex-code ARM architecture 11. Platform(3) Hardware Android is not a single piece of hardware It's a complete, end-to-end software platform that can be adapted to work on any number of hardware configurations. Everything is there, from the boot loader all the way up to the applications 12. Platform(3) Operating System(s) Android uses Linux for its device drivers, memory management, process management, and networking. Android native libraries written in C/C++ internally, but youll be calling them through Java interfaces Dalvik Virtual Machine. Runs dex files, which are coverted at compile time from standard class and jar files. 13. Platform(4) Network Connectivity It supports wireless communications using: oGSM mobile-phone technology o3G o802.11 Wi-Fi networks 14. Platform(5) Security Android is a multi-process system, in which each application (and parts of the system) runs in its own process User and group IDs are assigned to applications. Additional finer-grained security features are provided through a "permission" mechanism 15. Platform(6) Performance 16. Platform(7) Features 17. Software Development(1) Development requirements Java Android SDK Eclipse IDE (optional) 18. Software Development(2) IDE and Tools Android SDK Class Library Developer Tools dx Dalvik Cross-Assembler aapt Android Asset Packaging Tool adb Android Debug Bridge ddms Dalvik Debug Monitor Service Emulator and System Images Documentation and Sample Code Eclipse IDE + ADT (Android Development Tools) Reduces Development and Testing Time Makes User Interface-Creation easier Makes Application Description Easier 19. Software Development(3) Programming Language(s) Java officially supported C/C++ also possible but not supported 20. Overall Evaluation(1) Advantages The entire Application framework can be reused and replaced by selective components. Dalvik virtual machine enhances the power management systems. Support for 2D and 3D graphics, So lot of business for animationdevelopers. Reliable and enhanced data storage. Supports common media file format. GSM, EDGE, 3G, HSCSD, Wi-Fi n/w applications support 21. Overall Evaluation(2) Limitations Bluetooth limitations oAndroid doesn't support: Bluetooth stereo Contacts exchange Modem pairing Wireless keyboards But it'll work with Bluetooth headsets Firefox Mobile isn't coming to Android Apps in Android Market need to be programmed with a custom form of Java Mozilla and the Fennec won't have that Giants like Nokia and Microsoft are not the part of the OHA 22. Overall Evaluation(3) Versions & release dates We can only hope that the next versions of Android have overcome the actual limitations 23. THANK YOU