Writing Skills 101 Grammar, Punctuation, and Writing Expert Sentences
What Will We Be Learning? 1.Parts of Speech 2.Crafting an Expert Sentence 3.Punctuation 4.Using the Right Word Every Time 5.Ready to Write
1. Parts of Speech Nouns Nouns are words that name a person, place, or thing. A noun can also name an idea or feeling (like joy, anger, confusion). The nouns in a sentence tell the reader what the sentence is really about.
1. Parts of Speech Common Nouns A common noun names any unspecific person, place or thing Common nouns are never capitalized Proper Nouns A proper noun names a specific person, place, ore thing Proper nouns are always capitalized Some proper nouns have more than one word
1. Parts of Speech Nick helped Mr. Preston make a sign for the carnival in Springdale Linda knows that education is important in South Africa There is no school on Monday because it is Labour Day Grandpa Jack was too young to fight in the Vietnam War Kim and Anna are identical twins Jack did his report on penguins in Antarctica Write down the common and proper nouns found in each sentence
1. Parts of Speech Plural Nouns A plural noun names more than one person, place, or thing (plural = multiple) Sometimes it is as simple as adding an s to the end of the nounbut not always If a noun ends in s, ss, sh, ch, x, or z you must add es to the end of the noun If a noun ends in a consonant followed by a y, change the y to an -ies
1. Parts of Speech Irregular Plural Nouns Some nouns have special forms when they are plural Man Person Mouse Tooth If a noun ends with an f or fe, the f is changed to a v and you add es tom make the word plural Knife Wife Leaf wolf
1. Parts of Speech Possessive Nouns A possessive noun shows that a noun has or owns something To form the possessive of a singular noun, add an apostrophe () and s The phone belongs to Austin Austins phone is broken To form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in s, add an apostrophe () to the end of the word Three doctors share an office The doctors office is next to the hospital To form the possessive of a plural noun that does not end in s, add an apostrophe () and s The children like to act They started a childrens theatre
1. Parts of Speech Mary is wearing a hat. ________ hat has a feather. It took a long time for the jury to reach a decision. The _________ verdict was guilty. Kendall has twin sisters. His ______ birthday is May 15. The animal shelter had four cages for rabbits. The ________ cages were in the back room. Three women went out for lunch together. A waiter brought the ________ menus. A dog jumped over the fence. The ______ collar came off. Fill in the blanks with the possessive form of the nouns.
1. Parts of Speech Subject Pronouns A subject pronoun takes the place of a subject noun Patty likes to shop. The boys bought a game. The dog stole my homework. Object Pronouns An object pronoun is used to replace the object in a sentence Ben broke a cup. Hannah builds robots. Ann likes hamsters. Pronouns are words that stand in for nouns. I, you, she, we, me, he, her, they, us, him, it, them
1. Parts of Speech Compound Pronouns Compound pronouns are sentences with more than one object pronoun Caroline thanked Jack and me Caroline thanked Jack and I Compound object
1. Parts of Speech Compound Pronouns If youre not sure which pronoun to use with a compound object, try the sentence with only one pronoun at a time. Does Caroline thanked I sound right? Louisa and (me/I) are going shopping Kyle and (them/they) are at the arcade (Us and them/We and they) went out for dinner together (Her/she) and Jackson were science partners
1. Parts of Speech Possessive Pronouns A possessive pronoun takes the place of a possessive noun, and do not use apostrophes My dog is sleeping Your dog is chasing a squirrel Her dog is wearing a sweater My, mine, its, her, hers, his, our, ours, your, yours, their, theirs Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and the object of a sentence are the same Reflexive pronouns end in self or selves Dad helped himself to a second piece of cake Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
1. Parts of Speech Verbs Verbs tell what someone or something is or does Every sentence must have a verb, even one word sentences! Help! Wait! Jump!
1. Parts of Speech Action Verbs Action verbs tell us what someone or something does Even non-action words like sleep or think are action verbs Underline the action verb in each sentence The teacher draws a circle on the chalkboard Jasmine raked the lawn James is jumping rope on the sidewalk
1. Parts of Speech Linking Verbs Linking verbs tell us what someone or something is They link the subject of a sentence to some information about it It can also describe somethings state of being Underline the linking verb of each sentence The rabbit is grey with white patches Jerome looks tired Alison feels hungry
1. Parts of Speech Read the paragraph and circle the verbs. Peter and Mary Jane danced in their schools talent show. First, Mary Jane twirled around the room. Then Peter leaped across the stage. He hopped and jumped around. Mary Jane and Peter swayed to the music and sang along with the lyrics. When the music stopped, they stopped. The other students stood while they clapped and cheered. Mary Jane and Peter smiled at each other. They reached for each others hand, and then bowed and left the stage.
1. Parts of Speech Changing the Tense of A Verb The tense of a verb tells the time when something happens Present Tense means something is happening now Claire is happy My brother rides the bus to school Past Tense means something has already happened (add ed) I walked to the store Tony played video games last night Future Tense means something is going to happen (add will) Jeff will sell cake at the bake sale A new store will open in the mall next month
1. Parts of Speech Going Back to the Future? Turn the following regular verbs in to past and future tense verbs Walk Cry Appear Talk Climb Cook
1. Parts of Speech Adjectives Adjectives describe people, places and things They tell more about nouns and pronouns They can describe how many of something, the color, size, or shape, or even the taste, smell, sound of something The Hulk has purple pants!
1. Parts of Speech Adjective Rules Adjectives usually come before a noun or pronoun The Hulk has purple pants Adjectives usually follow a linking verb The subway is noisy Number adjectives tell exactly how many of something, while indefinite adjectives dont She had three pencils Isabelle saw several movies this summer
1. Parts of Speech Proper Adjectives Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns (such as countries, languages, and continents) Proper adjectives always begin with a capital letter Religious words are also proper adjectives
1. Parts of Speech Turn the proper noun into a proper adjective France England Spain China America Italy Japan Asia
1. Parts of Speech Comparing Adjectives Ever seen a movie that was good? How about one that was better than that? Or even, the best ever? Comparative adjectives compare nouns and end in er Superlative adjectives compare more than two nouns and end in-est
1. Parts of Speech Adverbs An adverb tells us how, when, or where something happens Most adverbs end in ly, but not all of them
1. Parts of Speech Adverbs Can DO Three Different Things 1.Adverbs tell how an action takes place She quickly ate her lunch Jean plays the harp beautifully 2.Adverbs tell when or how often an action takes place My grandparents often visit They are leaving for the airport soon 3.Adverbs tell where an action takes place Max hoped his friends would be there During recess, the children played outdoors
1. Parts of Speech Adjectives vs. Adverbs It can be easy to confuse adjectives and adverbs, since both describe something JUST REMEMBER: Adverbs usually end in ly Jack is brave Jack climbed the beanstalk and bravely fought the giant FINAL RULE: If a word ends in with a y (happy), the adverb of that word must end in ily and NOT -ly
1. Parts of Speech Do You Know Your Adverbs? Angry Graceful Cheerful Lazy Polite Slow Merry Quick Mysterious Awkward Here is a list of other adverbs: Ahead Always Everywhere Later Nearby Never Today Tomorrow Yesterday Sometimes There Here
1. Parts of Speech Conjunctions Conjunctions are words that connect words, phrases, or entire sentences Conjunctions are known as joining words The three most common conjunctions are and, or, and but
1. Parts of Speech Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions join ideas that are independent Each phrase could stand alone as a complete sentence Erin ran faster than Greg. She won the race Erin ran faster than Greg, so she won the race
1. Parts of Speech Which of the following coordinating conjunctions is the best choice for joining each of the sentence pairs below? And, or, but, so 1.I like fruit, ______ I like cookies 2.Jeff studied for the math test, ______ he aced it 3.Katie packed her bag, _____ she was ready to go 4.Nathan speaks French and English, _____ Pierre speaks only French 5.The school bus was late, _____ Alice was late for school 6.Lisa slept over at Grandmas house, _____ her brother stayed home 7.Peggy likes scary movies, ______ Billy does not like them
1. Parts of Speech Prepositions Prepositions show a relationship between words in a sentence, and can make a huge difference in the meaning of a sentence Ill meet you before school Ill meet you after school The mouse is on the desk The mouse is under the desk
1. Parts of Speech Pick out the 10 prepositions in the paragraph below. Remember, a sentence can have more than one preposition! Our school has a chess club. It meets on Tuesdays after school for an hour. The members study the rules of the game and talk about different strategies for playing well. Before a tournament, the club members meet for practice games. During the games, the players concentrate hard. I am thinking about joining the chess club.