of 18 /18
Vocabulary

Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Embed Size (px)

Citation preview

Page 1: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Vocabulary

Page 2: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Page 3: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Virginia Standards of Learning for Vocabulary

1.2 The student will continue to expand and use listening and speaking vocabularies.

1.7 The student will use meaning clues and language structure to expand vocabulary when reading.

First Grade: Volume 2, Page 7

Page 4: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

How Language Development Supports Literacy

Development• Language develops throughout childhood – BEFORE LEARNING TO READ: through shared conversations with adults and peers, interactive read-alouds, discussions, etc.

– AFTER LEARNING TO READ: reading books becomes the primary vehicle for learning new words.

• Early vocabulary scores predict later reading comprehension scores.

• Vocabulary influences a text’s difficulty level.

See Cunningham and Stanovich (1991) (Freebody & Anderson, 1983; Marks, Doctorow, &

Wittrock, 1974; Wittrock, Marks, & Doctorow, 1975).

Page 5: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Types of Vocabulary

• Listening-receptive

• Speaking-expressive

• Reading-receptive

• Writing-expressive

Page 6: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

“..a reader’s general vocabulary knowledge is the single best

predictor of how well that reader can

understand text”

Anderson, R.C. & Freebody, P. (1981)

Page 7: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Students learn approximately 2,000-

3,000 words per year, about 6-8 new words per day to their

reading vocabularies.

Anderson, R.C. & Nagy, W. E. (1992)

Page 8: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

How do children learn words?

(Beck, McKeown, McCaslin, & Burkes)

•Unknown

•Acquainted

•Established

Gauge

Yardstick

Ruler

Category of Word Knowledge Examples

Page 9: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Characteristics of Ineffective Vocabulary

Instruction

•Assigning too many new words

•Looking up words to memorize

•Failing to produce in-depth word knowledge

Page 10: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

VocabularyVocabulary

DIRECTDIRECT

INDIRECTINDIRECT

Effective vocabulary instruction includes opportunities for

indirect AND direct

word learning

Page 11: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Indirect Vocabulary Instruction

•Through conversations, especially with adults.

•From listening to adults read to them.

•By reading extensively on their own.

Page 12: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Direct Vocabulary Instruction

•Teach specific words before reading

•Provide extended instruction to promote active engagement with vocabulary

•Promote repeated exposure to vocabulary across many contexts

Semantic Semantic MapsMaps

Page 13: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Direct Vocabulary Instruction

Small Group Activity:Work at Vocabulary Strategy Stations

Page 14: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Teaching Vocabulary Strategies When can I teach direct vocabulary

strategies?

Sample vocabulary activities

Vocabulary instruction might occur during… Word study instruction Small-group reading instruction Writing instruction Content area instruction Interactive read-alouds

Word Map Purpose: Teaching the concept of a definition (the category, the description, examples, & and non-examples). Students might organize these on word cards, keep a notebook of words, use visual displays, etc.

Question: Why is important to discuss examples and non-examples of words? How can teachers use dictionaries effectively during vocabulary instruction? Notes:

List-Group-Label Purpose: To teach students to brainstorm and to organize information about a topic. This activity lends itself to content area instruction and can be used before or after study of a topic.

Question: Why is it important to group and label the brainstormed words? How do you handle off-the wall responses? Notes:

Semantic Feature Analysis Purpose: This strategy teaches students to distinguish the discriminating features of words. Students fill in a visual grid to compare and contrast the distinguishing features of words.

Question: This strategy lends itself to content area instruction, but discuss other ways it might be applied during literacy instruction. Notes:

Activity: Choose 1 of the activities you saw today. Discuss the questions below. Discuss & model how you would train your teachers to use it.

Notes:

Page 15: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Summary: Guidelines for Effective

Vocabulary Instruction• Make sure students are

reading books at their instructional reading level!!!

• Introduce 2-4 new words per week. AVOID OVERLOAD.

• Teach vocabulary directly before, during, & after reading/writing instruction.

• Teach students strategies for using context clues.

• Link new words to familiar words & experiences (e.g., orthography = spelling)

• Familiarize students with common vocabulary test questions: analogies, context clues, cloze procedures, & selecting definitions

• Use reference materials effectively.

See Robb, L. (1999). Easy mini-lessons for building vocabulary. NY: Scholastic Professional Books for additional information.

Page 16: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Vocabulary at Different Stages

• Emergent

• Beginning

• Instructional

Page 17: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

How is vocabulary addressed in your literacy block?

Page 18: Vocabulary. Why is developing students’ vocabulary knowledge important?

Copyright 2005-2007 by the Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia.