EG1471 AY 2010 Forms of Verb TensesSimple presentPresent progressive*Simple pastPast progressive*Present perfectPresent perfect progressive*Past perfectPast perfect progressive*FutureFuture progressive*Future perfectFuture perfect progressive*
(*The progressive is also called the continuous)
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Simple Present now
UseExamplesTo express habitual actions or a condition that is true at any time
To express general truthsThe campus is quiet during the vacation.
The sun sets in the west.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Simple Present nowFormationInfinitive / Base form of the verb (with -s or -es for third person singular).
UseExamplesTo report what is in print e.g. academic writing.
In her article, Jones claims that renewable energy is a viable alternative in the long run.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Present Progressive
UseExamplesTo express that an action or activity is happening.
To express that an action happening at present is temporary.
To express that an action is already in progress at a specified point of time in the present. The student is preparing for her final year project.
The trainees are undergoing training at he moment.
At 8:30am, most of the employees are working at their desks.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Present ProgressiveFormationam/ is/ are + present participle (-ing). I am writing an academic essay for this module.They are doing some research on nanotechnology.He is preparing the lab set up for the next class.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChanSimple Past Formation:Regular verbs: base form + d/-ednow
UseExamplesTo indicate a completed action
To indicate that an action took place at a specific time in the past.He majored in engineering.
The students did this project last semester.
2011Past ProgressivenowFormationwas/ were + present participle (-ing)
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Present Perfectnow
UseExamplesTo express an action or state that began in the past and continues to the present.
To show that an event occurred in the past. The exact time is not specified or important.I have been an architect for four years.
They have gone to Tokyo on business.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Present PerfectnowFormation:has/ have + past participle
UseExamplesTo express an action or state which happened in the very recent past.
To indicate that an event has occurred more than once in the past (specific times are not given or important).Teacher. Ive finished.
The students have approached their tutor several times for assistance.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Past PerfectnowFormation:had + past participle
UseExamplesTo indicate an event that was completed by a definite time or before another action was completed in the past.By the time the rescue team arrived at the scene, the waters had reached 1.5 metres.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Past Perfect ProgressivenowFormation:had + been + present participle (-ing)
UseExamplesTo stress the duration of an activity that was completed before another action or time in the past.The students had been struggling with the problem for an hour before they found a solution.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan FuturenowFormation:will + base form (no -s or -es)
Note: Future time can also be expressed in am/is/are + going to + base form simple progressive or present progressive
UseExamplesTo express an action, event or state that will occur in the future.They will complete their assignment tonight.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Future ProgressivenowFormation:will + be + present participle
UseExamplesTo express an action that will occur over a duration at some specific point in the future.
To emphasize the duration of an action in the future.The final year students will be doing their internship in December.
The professor will be going on sabbatical during the vacation.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Future PerfectnowFormation:will + have + past participle
UseExamplesTo indicate that an activity will be completed before another event or time in the future.The postgraduate students will have finished their thesis by the end of this semester.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan Future Perfect ProgressivenowFormation:will + have + present participle
UseExamplesTo indicate that an activity has been in progress for a period of time before another event or time in the future.By March next year, the engineers will have been working on the project for three years.
EG1471 AY 2008/09/10 JChan SourcesLane, A. and Lange, E. (1999). Writing Clearly: An Editing Guide (2nd ed.). USA: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.
Oshima, A. and Hogue, A. (2006). Writing Academic English (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Education, 3-25.
Raimes, A. (2006). Grammar Troublespots: A Guide for Student Writers (3rd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 41-45.