Unit D Digital Electronics and File Management

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Text of Unit D Digital Electronics and File Management

  • 1.Computer Concepts Illustrated 8 th edition Unit D: Digital Electronics and File Management

2. Objectives

  • Discuss data representation
  • Introduce integrated circuits
  • Explore processors
  • Explore computer memory: RAM
  • Explore other types of computer memory

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 3. Objectives (continued)

  • Explore file management
  • Examine folders
  • Explore computer files
  • Work with files

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 4. Discussing Data Representation

  • Data representation
    • Form in which data is stored, processed, output, and transmitted
  • Binary number system
    • Has only two digits: 0 and 1
  • Digital data
    • Text, numbers, graphics, sound, and video that has been converted into 0s and 1s
    • Each 0 or 1 is one binary digit, orbit
    • Byte : a series of eight bits

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 5. Discussing Data Representation (continued)

  • Digitizedimages are a series of colored dots, called pixels
    • Each pixel is assigned a binary number based on the color of that pixel
  • Digital sound files
    • To digitize sound:
      • Sample an analog sound wave at various points
      • Convert those points into digital numbers

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 6. Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-3: Digitizing sound 7. Introducing Integrated Circuits

  • Integrated circuit (IC)
    • An incredibly thin slice ofsemiconducting material(or semiconductor)
    • Are packed with microscopic circuit elements
    • Also called computer chip, microchip, and chip
    • Chip packages vary in shape and size
      • DIP (dual inline package)
      • DIMM (dual inline memory module)
      • PGA (pin-grid array)

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 8. Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-5: Packaging for integrated circuits Figure D-4: An integrated circuit 9. Introducing Integrated Circuits (continued)

  • Integrated circuits are connected to themotherboard
    • Motherboard: computers main circuit board
  • Processor : one type of chip or integrated circuit
  • CPU (central processing unit) : the main processor in a personal computer
  • Intel is the worlds largest chipmaker
  • AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) is Intels chief rival in the PC chip market

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 10. Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-6: Chips on a motherboard 11. Exploring Processors

  • Central processing unit (CPU)
    • Contains the circuitry to perform the central processing tasks of the computer
  • Clock speed : pace at which processor executes instructions
  • Bus : electronic pathway that carries electronic signals between electronic parts
    • Bus speed: identifies how fast electronic signals move along the bus pathway
  • Word size : number of bits that a processor can manipulate at one time

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 12. Exploring Processors (continued)

  • Cache : high-speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly
  • Instructions for processors
    • Source code : human-readable version of a program
    • Translation of source code into 0s and 1s:
      • Done by acompileror aninterpreter
  • Overclocking: a technique for increasing the speed of a computer part
    • Very risky

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 13. Exploring Computer Memory: RAM

  • RAM (random access memory)
    • Holds operating system instructions that control the basic functions of a computer
    • Also a temporary holding area for:
      • Program instructions
      • Data waiting to be processed, displayed, or printed
      • Results of processing until they can be stored more permanently
    • Performance of a computer is directly related to how much RAM is available

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 14. Exploring Computer Memory: RAM (continued)

  • How RAM works
    • Content of RAM is changed by changing the charge ofcapacitors
      • Capacitors: hold the bits that represent data
  • RAM differs from hard drive storage
    • RAM is temporary storage
  • Important to have the most RAM possible
  • RAM speed
    • Faster RAM generally means faster performance

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 15. Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-16: How RAM works 16. Exploring Other Types of Computer Memory

  • Virtual memory : an area of the hard drive
    • Used when RAM is reaching its capacity
  • ROM (read-only memory) : memory that holds the computers startup routine
    • Permanent and nonvolatile
      • RAM is temporary and volatile
    • Contains the bootstrap program, which:
      • Tells a computer what to do during the boot process

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 17. Exploring Other Types of Computer Memory (continued)

  • Boot process
    • Six major events take place:
      • Power up
      • Start boot program
      • Power-on self-test
      • Identify peripheral devices
      • Load operating system
      • Check configuration and customization

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 18. Exploring Other Types of Computer Memory (continued)

  • ROM BIOS (basic input/output system)
    • A small set of instructions stored in ROM
  • EE PROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory)
    • A nonvolatile chip that requires no power to hold data
    • Holds computer configuration settings, such as:
      • Date and time, hard drive capacity, number of CD/DVD/BD drives, RAM capacity

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 19. Exploring File Management

  • Computer file(or file): a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium
  • Folder : a logical representation of where you store your files on a computer
  • File specification(or apath ): identifies a computer files location
  • Most operating systems providefile management programs
    • Windows providesWindows Explorer

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 20. Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-24: Files are stored in folders Figure D-25: A file specification 21. Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-26: Windows Explorer 22. Examining Folders

  • To create a new folder:
    • Use New Folder button of Windows Explorer
  • To work with folders:
    • Select the folder(s), then copy, move, rename, or delete
  • Folder Properties dialog box
    • Provides general information about files and folders stored in that folder
  • Folder Options dialog box
    • Used to view or change a folders options

Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition 23. Computer Concepts Illustrated 8th Edition Figure D-31: Properties dialog box for My Documents folder 24. Exploring Computer Files

  • Filename : identifies a file
    • Must adhere tofilenaming conventions
  • Save and Save As commands
    • Save command: s