Unit 3: Social Inequality Ch 8: Social Stratification Ch 9: Inequalities of Race and Ch 9: Inequalities of Race and EthnicityEthnicity Ch 10: Inequalities

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Text of Unit 3: Social Inequality Ch 8: Social Stratification Ch 9: Inequalities of Race and Ch 9:...

  • Slide 1
  • Unit 3: Social Inequality Ch 8: Social Stratification Ch 9: Inequalities of Race and Ch 9: Inequalities of Race and EthnicityEthnicity Ch 10: Inequalities of Gender Ch 10: Inequalities of Gender and Old Ageand Old Age
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  • Ch 8 Social Stratification Social stratification The creation of layers (or ______) of people who ____________________ of scarce resources (ex. Income, wealth, power, + prestige). Each layer in the social stratification system is a social class (a segment of society whose members hold ____________ of resources + shared values, norms, + an identifiable lifestyle). The # of social classes a society has varies. Most _______________ have 3 broad classes (upper, middle, + lower) subdivided into smaller categories. Some societies may only have __.
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  • The political + economic ramifications of social stratification _________ observed the plight of the workers during the Industrial Revolution + wrote The _____________________ (along w/ Friedrich Engels) in response. He believed that history was an ongoing struggle b/w the ______ the haves vs. the have nots. _______________ controlled the legal, educational, economic, + gov.t systems. They used those systems to maintain or their power. He believed that the ___________ (the proletariat) would rise up against the _________ (the bourgeoisie) in a violent revolution. These violent revolutions would continue until eventually the capitalist system would by _________ + everyone would work for the benefit of society + share in its ______________. His ideas led to the rise of _________ + he became known as the father of communism (+ socialism). Communist countries today China, Vietnam, Laos, North Korea + Cuba.
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  • Extremes in income + wealth in the US * In new edition Income is the amount of $ __________ an individual or group over a specific time period. Its what you _______. Wealth is the total amount of economic resources _________ a person or group. Its what you _______. In 2004, approximately __ mil Americans were living in poverty (more than ___%), but there were only about _____ mil millionaires + 341 billionaires. The richest 20% of American households received over __% of the nations income + the lowest 20% received less than 4%. Income inequality is ____________! The top __% of Americans have ___% of the total wealth.
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  • Power + prestige Power is the ability to _______________ of others, even against their will. Not always related to ____. Can come from knowledge, fame, social position, leadership abilities, etc Prestige is the recognition, respect, + admiration attached to ______________. Defined by ones culture + society. Must be _____________ cannot be taken. Social positions that are considered the most important have the most ______ in America its often those positions that accumulate _______ + power b/c they are valued highly w/in our society, but ____________. (Ex. priests or ministers).
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  • Is it an example of wealth, power, or prestige? Is it an example of wealth, power, or prestige? _________ 1. Mr. Chamblees Swiss bank account _________ 2. Anna Rose is voted Most Likeable _________ 3. A politician giving in to the interests of a lobby _________ 4. Ms. Griggs wins the Teacher of the Year award _________ 5. Mr. Bowens stock market holdings _________ 6. A Supreme Court ruling _________ 7. The respect given to Officer Hill _________ 8. A wife makes her husband carry her purse End Section 1
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  • Explanations of stratification: The functionalist theory Believes stratification guarantees that the most ____________ fill the most ________________, that they perform their tasks competently, + that they are rewarded for their efforts. They recognize that _________ exits b/c certain jobs are more important than others + those jobs often require __________ +/or training.
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  • Explanations of stratification: The conflict theory Believes _______________ b/c some people are willing to ________ others. So they believe stratification occurs more b/c of ______ than b/c most people willingly accept it. More accepting of Marxs ideas about ___________. People who own the means of production are able to spread their ______________ through schools, churches, the gov.t, the media, etc False consciousness refers to the working-class _________ of those ideas + values.
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  • Explanations of stratification: The symbolic interactionism theory Believes people are _______________ the existing stratification structure. We are taught to believe that a persons ________ is a result of talent + effort. So those on the top _______________ + those on the bottom deserve to be there as well. So we shouldnt ___________ the system. This can often result in people at the ________________ from self-esteem + those at the top have self-esteem. Goes back to the looking- glass self (your image of yourself based on what you believe others think of you). End Section 2
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  • Social classes in the US Class consciousness is a sense of identification w/ the goals + interests of a social class. Never __________________ in the US. Changeable + full of exceptions. The Upper Class ____% of pop. Upper-upper class or _________ old $, _________________ Lower-upper class new $, _________, may have more $ than upper-upper, but still not accepted into the more exclusive groups. The Middle Class _________% of pop. Upper-middle class (14%) successful in business, politics, military, etc Can live well + save $, are usually __________ ________, + often active in voluntary + political organizations. Middle-middle class (30%) _________ group. Includes small business owners, low-level managers, teachers, cops, etc Earn around the national ___________.
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  • The Working Class - _____% of pop. Lower-middle class includes truck drivers, machine operators, clerical workers, etc Paid ____________. Have below average income + _______________. Generally lack medical insurance + retirement benefits. Worry about illnesses + unemployment. Except for ______, not likely to belong to organizations. Rarely enter the ______________. The Working Poor ____% of pop. People employed in ___________ w/ the lowest pay who dont earn enough to get out of _________. Include manual laborers, fast-food workers, etc Often lack steady employment. Rarely belong to organizations or participate in politics.
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  • The Underclass ____% of pop. People who are usually unemployed + often come from families w/ a history of ______________. Either work part-time menial jobs or are on public assistance. Lack education + skills. Commonly have physical + mental _________. Many are single mothers w/ little or no income. Can be born into working poor or underclass or come into them w/ _______, loss of a spouse, lack of education or training, addiction, or through acquiring a ___________. Very difficult to ______________.
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  • End Section 3 Social classes people self- identified with.
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  • What is poverty? * In new edition Absolute poverty is the absence of enough $ to secure ____________________. Relative poverty is a measure of poverty based on the _______________ b/w those at the bottom of a society + the rest of the society. In other words, its how poor a person feels by _________________ to others in their society. Relative poverty ___________ from one society to another (ex. US vs. Nigeria or even the poorest person in a _______ neighborhood). The US gov.t measures poverty by setting an _________________ that anyone making less than would be considered poor. In 2004, the poverty line for a family of 4 was $_______ + _____% of Americans were living in poverty.
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  • Identifying the poor Groups most likely to be poor are _____________ households, children, the elderly, people w/ ___________, + people who live alone or w/ nonrelatives. Approx. ___% of the poor are white; however, only about 7.5% of whites are poor, compare w/ 23% of blacks and Latinos. So although blacks + Latinos only make up about of Americans, they make up about of the poor. Children under 6 yrs old make up _________ of all age groups living in poverty at around 22%. Women have become ________________ to live in poverty since the 1960s as well. The trend of women + children making up an increasing proportion of the poor is known as the feminization of poverty. Why is this occurring? B/c women _______ then men, those w/ kids find it harder to keep long- term employment, + a lack of good ___________.
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  • Fighting poverty The US didnt really begin _______ _______ until the mid-1960s under President Lyndon Johnsons _____ _________ programs. Most American programs fighting poverty focus on ______________ through youth opportunity programs + work experience programs. Some programs have been criticized for _______ + fears that theyre causing people to become _______ upon the gov.t to help them longer than needed. End Section 4
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  • Social mobilityThe movement of people b/w ________________. Horizontal mobility involves changing from one job to another in the _________________ (ex: soldier to teacher, waitress to cashier, etc). Vertical mobility involves ____________________ ___________ in job status or social class When vertical mobility takes place over a ____________, its called intergenerational mobility. In a caste system (a stratification structure that _____________ for social mobility a