Topic: Health – SymptomsTopic: Health – SymptomsI’ve gotI’ve got a headachea headache
(a) backache(a) backache(a) stomach-ache(a) stomach-achetoothachetoothachea pain in my chesta pain in my chesta pain in my lega pain in my lega sore throata sore throata cougha cougha temperature (a fever)a temperature (a fever)
I feelI feel sicksickillillunwellunwell
I’m going to be sick!I’m going to be sick! faint!faint!
When recording When recording vocabulary, note vocabulary, note
How do you (or your school) usually assess vocabulary?
What sorts of vocabulary knowledge are being tested in each of the tests?
Do you see any problems with some of the tests?
Various vocabulary assessment tools
(available at http://www.lextutor.ca/tests/) Vocabulary Levels Tests (VLTs)
To check vocabulary size Tests of vocabulary of different levels of frequency
2000, 3000, 5000, 10000-word levels; AWL Aim at score of at least 80%
Word Association Test Meaning (different senses), collocations
Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS) To check “quality” or “depth” of vocab knowledge
Vocab Profiler Lexical richness (type/token ratio) – more different
words More frequent words or more low-frequency words
Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS)
iii. I have seen this word before and I think it means iii. I have seen this word before and I think it means “stop working because of old age” “stop working because of old age” (3 pts)(3 pts)
iv. I know this word. It means “stop working because iv. I know this word. It means “stop working because of old age” of old age” (3 pts)(3 pts)
v. I can use this word in a sentence:v. I can use this word in a sentence:
He spent more time with his family after retire. He spent more time with his family after retire. (4 pts)(4 pts)
He spent more time with his family after he retired. He spent more time with his family after he retired. (5 (5 pts)pts)
He decided to retire. (? pts)He decided to retire. (? pts)
Problems: Self-reported in nature Level V: ability to produce sentence
with target vocab = ability to use the word appropriately?
Given what we have discussed so far Given what we have discussed so far about vocabulary learning and about vocabulary learning and teaching, would you do anything teaching, would you do anything differently next term? What would differently next term? What would you keep doing?you keep doing?
To sum up… Teach and consolidate the 2000
most frequent words Provide students with a variety of
vocabulary building activities Encourage students to read widely Encourage students to become
independent learners, esp. for learning low-frequency words outside the classroom
Train students to use vocabulary learning strategies
Vocabulary learning strategies (VLS)1. Taxonomies of Vocabulary learning
strategies2. Memory strategies, e.g. the Keyword
technique, using mental images3. Guessing word meaning from the context4. Selecting, recording and revising
vocabulary5. Research studies on VLS of Asian
Vocabulary Learning Strategies
Important for independent learning of low-frequency words
It is important to use a range of strategies The quality of strategy use counts for more
than the quantity of strategies used It is important to choose strategies flexibly
and appropriately according to context Strategies can be taught and weaker
learners can benefit from strategy training
Taxonomy of VLS by Schmitt (1997) Taxonomy of Language Learning Strategies (LLS) by O’Malley & Chamot,
1990: cognitive, metacognitive, socio-affective Oxford’s (1990) LLS taxonomy – direct strategies: involving the target
language directly and require mental processing of the language (memory, cognitive, compensation) and indirect strategies: (metacognitive, affective, social)
Nation (1990) – discovery vs consolidation strategies
Schmitt’s (1997) VLS taxonomy: (1) Discovery: discovering the meaning of unknown words
Determination strategies (finding meaning without recourse to others) Social strategies (consulting or working with others to discover meaning)
(2) Consolidation: remembering words once their meaning has been discovered Social strategies Memory strategies (mnemonics) Cognitive strategies (similar to memory, but without the use of mnemonics) Metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, evaluation of learning)
Find out about your use Find out about your use of VLSof VLS
Complete the questionnaire* developed based on Schmitt’s (1997).
* Adapted from Loong Y & Chan S W L, A Study of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Adopted by Dentistry Students in Hong Kong In Learning Specialized Dental Vocabulary, September 2012, Asian ESP Journal
Preparation for Session 5 Preparation for Session 5 --
Studies of VLS by Asian Studies of VLS by Asian learnerslearners Form a group of 4 students.
Each student reads one of the readings research methodology results