TL 1.16 Material Allowable Strength Data

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Text of TL 1.16 Material Allowable Strength Data

TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATADesign Allowables Data Sheet

A B C D E

Metallic Materials Threaded Fasteners Wire Ropes and Cables Wood Rivets

Issue Status Iss No. 1 Date Change Description

29/06/06 Initial Issue, Metallic Materials Only Following Sections Added:

2

11/07/06 Threaded Fasteners Wire Ropes & Cables Wood

3

07/06/07 Following Section Added: Rivets

Notes on Blind Rivets added. Following Steels Added: 4 27/06/07 S510 S514 S515 T45

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATACorrection to lb.in to N.mm conversion 01/11/07 factor. Affects bolt and plywood bending allowables.

5

6

18/01/08 Notes on 4340 temper levels added

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATAA Metallic Materials IMPORTANT: Guidelines For Use 1. The Design Allowable strengths presented here are taken from Data Sources acceptable to the LAA. Within each material designation, considerable variation in properties may occur, due to the factors listed below. The values chosen represent the worst case figures from all of the cases provided by the relevant Data Sources. As worst case data is provided, it may be possible for any specific case, to find allowables considerably higher than those given. Using low allowables will increase the weight of the item being designed. If weight-saving is of high importance in the design, then it is recommended that the user goes directly to the original Data Sources to obtain higher allowables. For example, for small modifications or repair schemes, the weight penalty involved in using these allowable, will be small, but for a major mod or a completely new airframe design, the weight penalty may be significant. 2. Where these LAA design allowables are used in a submission or report to the LAA, the user should include a reference to this data sheet. 3. All of the figures given are for room temperature applications only. The user should seek relevant specific data for elevated temperature applications. 4. For each material designation, a list of heat treatments and temper conditions is provided. The design allowable given is the worst case for all of the conditions listed. If the user has a material condition not listed, the LAA allowable should not be used, and a relevant specific figure obtained elsewhere. 5. Yield strengths should be compared with Limit Loads, and Ultimate strengths should be compared with Ultimate Loads. 6. The Youngs Modulus figures quoted are lowest value. This will be conservative when using the value to calculate buckling loads.

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATA7. The density figures quoted are lowest value. This WILL NOT be conservative from a weight estimation point of view. 8. Down factored allowables must be used in the heat affected zone of welded structures. If not given on this data sheet for the material in question, then the LAA allowable should not be used and a relevant specific figure obtained elsewhere. 9. The correct abbreviation for applicable Data Source, is given. each quantity, in the

Factors Affecting Design Allowables from Data Sources Material Shape and Form:- The thickness of a material can have a large effect on its allowable strength. The way in which it was formed (e.g. rolled or extruded) can also have an influence. Anisotropy:- The strength of some metals can vary dependent on the direction of the applied load, relative to the crystal structure (i.e. grain) of the metal. Heat Treatment:- Heat treatment or temper conditions can have a dramatic effect on the properties of metal alloys. Statistical Basis:- Design data is generated from large numbers of physical tests. The more samples tested, the higher the confidence that can be assigned to the figures obtained. The statistical basis of the data concerns the number of samples, and the way in which the resulting data is manipulated to obtain the design allowable. The three bases usually quoted are named A, B and S. The LAA design allowables are the lowest figure of all the bases quoted in the Data Source.

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATAContents Steels AISI 4130 (Normalised, tempered & stress relieved) AISI 4130 (Quenched & tempered) AISI 4130 Welded allowables AISI 4340 S 96 S 99 S 510 S 514 S 515 T 45 Aluminium Alloys AISI 2014 AISI 2024 AISI 6061 AISI 7075 L 114 L 163 (was L 72) L 168 (was L 65)

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATASteels

Material Designation

4130 Mil-Hdbk-5 Iss H Table 2.3.1.0(C1) Sheet, Strip, Plate & Tubing Normalised, Tempered & StressRelieved E Ftu Fty Fsu Fbru Fbry 29.0 2003

Data Source Reference Available Forms

Heat Treatments and Tempers Youngs Modulus X 103 ksi GPa Density Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Ultimate Shear Strength Ultimate Bearing Strength Yield Bearing Strength lb/in g/cm ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa3

0.283 7.83 90 621 70 483 54 372 190 1310 120 827

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATA

Material Designation

4130 Mil-Hdbk-5 Iss H Table 2.3.1.0(C2) Tubing Quenched & Tempered 29.0 2003

Data Source Reference Available Forms Heat Treatments and Tempers Youngs Modulus X 103 ksi GPa Density Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Ultimate Shear Strength Ultimate Bearing Strength Yield Bearing Strength lb/in ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa g/cm3

E Ftu Fty Fsu Fbru Fbry

0.283 7.83 125 862 100 689 75 517 194 1338 146 1007

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATA

Material Designation

4130 Mil-Hdbk-5 Iss H Table 8.2.2.1.1 (a) Welded (Heat Affected Zone) No heat treatment after welding. 72 Ftu 496 Fsu 43 296

Data Source Reference Available Forms

Heat Treatments and Tempers Ultimate Tensile Strength Ultimate Shear Strength ksi MPa ksi MPa

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATA

Material Designation

4340 Mil-Hdbk-5 Iss H Table 2.3.1.0(f1) Bar, Forging & Tubing Quenched & Tempered N.B SEE NOTE BELOW E Ftu Fty Fsu Fbru Fbry 29.0 2003

Data Source Reference Available Forms Heat Treatments and Tempers Youngs Modulus X 103 ksi GPa Density Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Ultimate Shear Strength Ultimate Bearing Strength Yield Bearing Strength lb/in ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa NOTE 4340 can be conditions. obtained in a g/cm3

0.283 7.83 260 1793 217 1496 156 1076 347 2392 312 2151

variety

of

heat

treatment

This reference quotes the HIGHEST only. Contact LAA Engineering if using a lower heat treatement or normalised 4340.

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATA

Material Designation

S 96 ESDU 00-932 Iss 2. 1988 Bars & Forgings

Data Source Reference Available Forms Heat Treatments and Tempers Youngs Modulus X 103 ksi GPa Density Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Ultimate Shear Strength Ultimate Bearing Strength Yield Bearing Strength lb/in ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa3

E ft t2 fso

29.6 204 0.284 7.86 123 849 99 680 81 560

g/cm3

b10

141 973

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATA

Material Designation

S 99 ESDU 00-932 Iss 2. 1988 Bars & Forgings

Data Source Reference Available Forms Heat Treatments and Tempers Youngs Modulus X 103 ksi GPa Density Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Ultimate Shear Strength Ultimate Bearing Strength Yield Bearing Strength lb/in ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa3

E ft t2 fso

29.0 200 0.284 7.86 176 1215 157 1080 112 770

g/cm3

b10

242 1667

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATA

Material Designation

S 510 ESDU 00-932 Iss 2. 1988 Sheet & Strip

Data Source Reference Available Forms Heat Treatments and Tempers Youngs Modulus X 103 ksi GPa Density Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Ultimate Shear Strength Ultimate Bearing Strength Yield Bearing Strength lb/in ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa3

E ft t2 fso

30.0 207 0.286 7.92 62.4 430 37.0 255

g/cm3

b10

65.0 448

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATA

Material Designation

S 514 ESDU 00-932 Iss 2. 1988 Sheet & Strip

Data Source Reference Available Forms Heat Treatments and Tempers Youngs Modulus X 103 ksi GPa Density Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Ultimate Shear Strength Ultimate Bearing Strength Yield Bearing Strength lb/in ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa3

E ft t2 fso

29.0 200 0.285 7.89 111.7 770 91.3 630

g/cm3

b10

137.0 945

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TL 1.16 Issue 6 18 Jan 08

MATERIAL ALLOWABLE STRENGTH DATA

Material Designation

S 515 ESDU 00-932 Iss 2. 1988 Sheet & Strip

Data Source Reference Available Forms Heat Treatments and Tempers Youngs Modulus X 103 ksi GPa Density Ultimate Tensile Strength Tensile Yield Strength Ultimate Shear Strength Ultimate Bearing Strength Yield Bearing Strength lb/in ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa3

E ft t2 fso

29.0 200 0.285 7.89 66.7 460

g/cm3

b10