The Peculiar Institution - N.E. Montgomery 136 F2F The Peculiar Institution Fall 2018 Created Date:

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  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    The Peculiar Institution:

    From Necessary Evil to Positive Good

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    First Issue: Haitian Revolution: 1791-1804

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

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  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    Colonization

    !6

  • Sunday, May 20, 12 !7

    Rebellions

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    This drawing shows the moment, almost two months after the failure of his famous and bloody slave revolt, when Nat Turner was accidentally discovered in the woods near his home plantation

    15

  • Sunday, May 20, 12 !11

    Rise of Abolition

  • Sunday, May 20, 12 !12

    William Lloyd Garrison: Fiery abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer.

    Unlike previous generations of

    Abolitionists, Garrison and his contemporary were far

    less tolerant and far, far more scathing of

    slaveholders and the south.

  • Sunday, May 20, 12 !13

    William Lloyd Garrison: Fiery abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer.

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    
 “The compact which

    exists between the North and the South is a

    covenant with death and an agreement with hell.”

    !14

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  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    11

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    Southern Reaction

    !17

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    Lock the doors and throw away the

    key.

    !18

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    Intellectual Blockade: Banned All

    Abolitionist Literature (via the post offices)

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    Tightened Rules for Manumission

    !20

    And laws regarding slave movements

  • Sunday, May 20, 12 !21

    One of the ways Charleston attempted to control its African American population was to require all slaves to wear badges showing their occupation. After 1848, free

    black people also had to wear badges, which were decorated, ironically, with a23

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    Internal Slave Trade, 1820-60 Between 1820 and 1860, nearly 50 percent of the slave population of the Upper South was sold south to labor on the cotton plantations of the Lower

    South. This map shows the various routes by which they were “sold down the river.”

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    The Positive Good Defense

    !23

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    John C Calhoun

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    George Fitzhugh

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    fig11_07.jpg

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    fig11_08.jpg

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

  • Cotton Exports as a Percentage of All

    U.S. Exports, 1800– 1860

    The growing share of the export market, and the

    great value (nearly $200 million in 1860) led

    southern slave owners to believe that “Cotton Is

    King.” They believed that the importance of cotton to the national economy entitled the South to a commanding voice in

    national policy.

    30

    Why They Were So Scared

  • Cotton Exports as a Percentage of All

    U.S. Exports, 1800– 1860

    The growing share of the export market, and the

    great value (nearly $200 million in 1860) led

    southern slave owners to believe that “Cotton Is

    King.” They believed that the importance of cotton to the national economy entitled the South to a commanding voice in

    national policy.

    30

    COTTON

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    The Cotton Gin

    !32

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    The Cotton Gin

    !33

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    Cotton Production and the Slave Population, 1820.

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  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    The South Expands, 1790–1850 This map shows the dramatic effect cotton production had on southern expansion. From the original six states of 1790, westward expansion, fueled by the search for new cotton lands, added another six states by 1821, and three more by 1850.

    31

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    Internal Slave Trade 33

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    This engraving from Harper’s Weekly shows slaves, dressed in new clothing, lined up outside a New Orleans slave pen for inspection by potential buyers before the actual auction began. They were often threatened with punishment if they did not present a good appearance and manner

    that would fetch a high price. 34

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    Major Crops of the South, 1860

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    fig11_05.jpg

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    The goal of yeoman farm families was economic independence. Their mixed farming and grazing enterprises, supported by kinship and community ties, afforded them a self-

    sufficiency epitomized by Carl G. von Iwonski’s painting of this rough but comfortable log cabin in New Braunfels, Texas.

    37

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    45

    The gang system used in cotton cultivation necessitated overseers to keep the gang at work. Hence scenes like this where slaves work hard to pick and bale cotton while white overseers

    with whips stand lazily.

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    Size of Slaveholdings, 1860

  • Slaveholding and Class Structure in the South,

    1830

    The great majority of the southern white population were

    yeoman farmers.

    In 1830, slave owners made up only 36 percent of the southern

    white population; owners of more than fifty slaves constituted

    a tiny 2.5 percent.

    Yet they and the others who were middling planters

    dominated politics, retaining the support of yeomen who prized

    their freedom as white men above class-based politics.

    .

    39

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    Slave Population, 1860

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    Distribution of Free Blacks, 1860

  • Free Black Populations 1860

  • Sunday, May 20, 12

    47