The Parmigiano-Reggiano chain Cheese plants (409 and 108.855 tons 4013 milk producers) Production and ageing until 12 months Maturing companies-wholesalers Ageing between 12 - 24 months and more Whole cheese – Portions - Grated Market (77% national 23% export)

The Parmigiano-Reggiano chain

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The Parmigiano-Reggiano chain. Cheese plants (409 and 108.855 tons 4013 milk producers ) P roduction and ageing until 12 mo nths  Maturing companies-wholesalers A geing between 12 - 24 mo nths and more Whole cheese – Portions - Grated  Ma rket (77% national 23% export). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The Parmigiano-Reggiano chainCheese plants(409 and 108.855 tons 4013 milk producers)Production and ageing until 12 monthsMaturing companies-wholesalers Ageing between 12 - 24 months and moreWhole cheese Portions - Grated Market(77% national 23% export)

  • The cheese dairies: a collective system606923549178433856871347677829060730100200300400500600700N. Chhese plants19931998200320052008CoopPrivateFarms

  • Evolution of cheese dairies by type of structure: the relevance of the cooperatives0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%19931998200320052008% on totalCoopPrivateFarms

  • Parmigiano Reggiano in Figures ( 2009)

    - 251.000 cows solely producing milk for Parmesan cheese - 4.013 producers of milk - 409 cheese dairies - 16 litres of milk to make 1 kg of Parmesan cheese - 600 litres to make one wheel - 30 Kg: minimum weight of a wheel- 38 Kg: average weight of a wheel - 12 months: minimum maturation period - 20-24 months: average maturation period- 3.089.732: wheels produced- 0 additives

  • Parmigiano Reggiano: a noble and historic designationThe strong and unique link with the terroir -the cows are fed predominantly with local fodder. Silage is forbidden-the milk is produced and transformed exclusively in the area of origin; it is collected twice a day max 2 hrs after each milking, kept at minimum temp of 18CThe traditional process -partly skimmed raw milk, calf rennet, natural whey starter; copper vats; salt brine-absolute prohibition of additives and conservative elements- the skill and sensibility of the cheese maker (cheese master): a craftsman - Maturation process: minimum 12 months; each cheese is cleaned brushed and turned off regularly


  • Evening milk

    Morning milk

    Natural creaming of milk Overnight at the dairy

    Partly skimmed milk


    Cooking at 55C in 12/15 minutes

    Curd breaking

    Sedimentation1hr under the whey at the bottom of the vat

    Extraction of cheese mass from the vatMoulding with cheese cloth: Marking with pin dots

    Salting: 20 days in saturaated brine

    AgeingMinimum 12 month at min temp 16CInspection and PDO marking

    The TechnologyProduction of Parmigiano Reggiano

    Calf rennet

    Natural starter

    Ageing continues to 24 month or more


  • Eight centuries of nobility- XIII Century: the first relevant tracks of its presence are found in Benedictine Monks properties (ora et labora); - 1254: the notary Guglielmo Vegio from Genoa includes the casei parmensis (cheese from Parma/Parmesan cheese) in a testament- XIV Century: Parmigiano Reggiano is quoted in G. Boccaccios great work, Decameron (Florence, 1348);- XIX Century: the cheese dairies (caseifici) take their octagonal characteristic shape;- 1928: the first Consortium (Consorzio) for the safeguard of the designation. An oval seal is identified to mark each cheese- 1934: the foundation of the Consorzio del Formaggio Parmigiano Reggiano.

  • THE MANAGEMENT OF THE PDOEC Reg. 510/06Italian law 526/99 The Custodian of the PDO: CONSORZIO DI TUTELA Voluntary association of PDO producers representing at least 3/4 of the PDO

    The Inspection system of the PDO: DCQ PR Independent organisation responsible for auditing the adherence to the PDOs Code of Practice

    The cost of the system: 6 Euro per cheese (550 litres of milk)Paid by the producers

  • The Consorzio del Formaggio Parmigiano Reggiano and the use of the PDO Parmigiano Reggiano1.The Consorzio del Formaggio Parmigiano Reggiano

    Created in 1934;Voluntary non-for-profit body in charge of the defence, promotion and safeguarding of the Protected Designation of Origin Parmigiano Reggiano;Members of the Consorzio (on the condition that they are established in the area of origin and certified by the Inspection body-art.10 EC Reg. 510/06-)Milk producing farmers of milk directed to the production of Parmesan;Diaries producers of Parmigiano Reggiano;

  • The Consorzio del Formaggio Parmigiano Reggiano and the use of the PDO Parmigiano Reggiano

    In charge with the protection, safeguard and promotion of the PDO Parmigiano Reggiano, towards every one;Promotion tasks, possibility to apply for changes to specification;During the production, especially:- establishes the modalities/conditions for the use of the marks of origin and their correct use by the cheesemakers, in respect of the specification;- applies on the cheese rind the mark of the PDO at the end of the 12 month minimum ageing period, after verification by the inspection structure.During the commercialisation:- is in charge with the protection of the Designation of Origin against any exploitation of its reputation, against imitation, misuse, etc. (article 13 Regulation 510/2006);- in Italy, its supervisory agents have the qualification of policemen.

  • The composition of the Consorzio409 associates (General Assembly). Elect 48 delegatesBoard of Administration (28 + 4 members))Executive Committee (10 members). It includes the president and 2 vice presidentsTerm: 3 years Members: legal representatives of the cheese plants

  • The structure of the ConsorzioDirectionAdministrationInstitutional services (marking and inspection, legal protection and vigilance)Communication (Internal, International, Public Relation)Technical laboratoryProvincial sections (Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna, Mantova)

  • The Consorzio: a common interest & strategy

    1934: Consorzio Grana Tipico CGT 1955: regulation for Parmigiano-Reggiano 1964: marking of origin 1979: feeding regulation 1983: annual production 1987: marking of origin 1991: extention to the grated form 2001: modification of producing regulation (standard,feeding, marking) 2002: new statute 2003: modification of product specification (on going) 2005: amendement to the statute

  • The amendment to the Specification2003 Dec. 19: General assembly approves the amendement to the Specification (under Reg. 2081/92). Major change: all Parmesan to be conditioned (pre-packed) in the area of origin2004: request sent to the Ministry of agriculture and to the Regions of the geographic area (Emilia-Romagna and Lombardy). 11 March 2005 O.J. n. 58: Publication of proposed amendement13 April 2005: the Ministry sends oppositions to the Consorzio31 October 2005: the ministry sends the request to the EC Commission2 February 2006 O.J. N. 27: decree on the transitory protectionJuly 2007: amendment sent to the EC Commission under the Reg 510/06January 2008: EC Commission send to the Ministry a list of request of explanations. The Ministry has 6 months to answerApril 2009 Publication on EC Official JournalOctober 2009 2 Opposition (Belgium & Danemark)Present: management of oppositions by the Ministry of agricultureThe process is too long and complex

  • International Convention of Stresa, 1st June 1951Law 10 april 1954 n. 125The protection of denominations of origin and typical names of cheesesDPR 30 October 1955 n.1269Recognition of the standards for Parmigiano-ReggianoDPR 17 June 1957Attribution to the Consortium for the inspection of the production and sale of Parmigiano-ReggianoDPR 28 March 1958Attribution of the qualification as agents of Public Safety to the inspection agents of the ConsorzioDPR 22 September 1981Extension of the denomination of P-R from the entire wheels to parts of the product sold in pre-packaged formDPR 4 November 1991Extension of the denomination of P-R to grated typesReg. (EEC) n.2081/92 of 14 July 1992Law 526/99 and subsequent decreesReg. (EEC) 692/03Reg. (EEC) n. 510/06

  • The control system in the PDO Parmigiano ReggianoDCQ-Dipartimento Controllo Qualit P.R.

    Private Organism authorized by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture and in compliance with the Standard EN 45011;The printing of the selection marks on the rind is done by the Consorzio after the control made by the DCQ P.R. that guaranties the compliance with the product specification;Every cheese maker established in the area of origin has a right to the marks of origin and access to the control system: only in the case that the requirements in the specification are complied with. His cheese can than bear the Designation of Origin. Cost paid by producers

  • Market Flows


    112.855 tons

  • Geographical distribution of the Italian consumption

    13,1013,7513,2112,5312,8912,3714,0113,0013,2312,4212,6113,0013,2510,0012,0014,0016,00gen-02gen-03gen-04gen-05gen-06Price (/kg)Parmigiano-Reggiano at retail








    Graf formato di vendita



    Al banco0.427




  • ExportsThe exports of Parmigiano-Reggiano are around 23% of the total production.France, Germany and the United Kingdom represent the main foreign markets.Among the extra-EU countries, the most important for exports of Parmigiano-Reggiano are the United States, Japan and Switzerland.Export destinations (source: CRPA estimate

  • THINK LOCALTradition-natural and human factor- is the key element for the GI system

    ACT GLOBALThe necessity to promote and protect the designation: an advantage to the producer and a guarantee to the consumer

  • The challenge of marketing a PDOThe registration of marks and seals WIPO, Foreign CountriesThe defense of marks and sealsEU: protection of name Parmesan. The EU Court of Justice in 208 has sentenced that Parmesan should indicate only Parmigiano-Reggiano. Monitoring the market/Legal actionsThird Countries:monitoring, legal actions. High costs. Need of a multiralteral framework to protect GIs

  • Parmigiano Reggiano 60GI15/60GJ93 October 2005

    Main spontaneous evocations when parmesan cheese is mentioned

    ABCDEFsignificant difference (90%)

    Wherever the question is asked Italy, Cheese,and pasta are top of mind mentions. To be noticed: many Swedish talking about a good taste, many Brits talking about the smell of parmesan (mainly to say they dont like it, stinky), and only Belgium mentioning Reggiano

    QuestionQ0- Please tell me all the words or expressions that come to your mind when you think of Parmesan cheese (several answers)

  • Parmigiano Reggiano ... from Mexico. The cheese is falsely labelled. A multilateral agreement is needed

  • GI: Benefits and difficultiesProtectionRestrictionsNotorietyImitationsAdded valueCostsVigilanceControlCollective markPrivate brand

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