The Layers of the EarthLook for patterns in these pictures of the inside of the Earth:
Why are there distinct layers of the Earth?How are they different?DepthTemperatureState, (solid liquid or gas?)Composition, (Iron? Aluminum?)
Layers of the Earth
Inner CoreOuter CoreMantleCrustStateSolidLiquidPlay-DoughSolidComponentsIron, Si, CIron, NickelMgO & SiO2 Si, Alum.Distance from Surface (km)6000 (very centre of the earth)5000300035Temp.o Celsius.540040002500
The thickness of the crust varies:35 km thick7 km thick
How do Scientists know so much about the centre of the earth?Direct Evidence:Earths magnetic field suggests the presence of iron;
More Direct Evidence:The lava from volcanoes shows us whats below the surface.
Indirect Evidence:Scientists can infer that the core is solid by measuring seismic waves.Try this:Create 1) S-waves by moving a slinky side to side;2) P-waves by pushing the slinky.
Scientists create S and P waves at one point on the crust, and measure where they come out on the other side.Some seismic waves dont travel through liquids, so when they dont show up on the other side of the earth, it suggests there is liquid down there.
More Indirect Evidence:The melting points of the minerals, (Iron, Silicon, Aluminum, etc.) suggest the temperatures of the layers.
Some Melting Points,(degrees Celsius):Iron: 1535Carbon: 3600Magnesium: 670Nickel: 1452Silicon: 1420
Use the table on the screen to complete the worksheet.