The Ket Language

  • View
    217

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

In Russian language. Description of the Ket language (about to extinct). Article of A. Dulson.

Text of The Ket Language

  • KPATKHH OHEPK MOPKaiOTCH nocpe^CTBOM acj)-(})HKcauHH. npiiMenjieMbie a^c^H.KCbi ^aiue Bcero hocjit xopomo3aMeTHhifi arrjiioHaTHBHbiH xapaKTep,^To BbicTynaeT b hx ct;ui-AapTHOCTH, OAH03HaMHOCTH H B HX HaHH3bIBaHHH AJIH nOCTpoe-HHH OT^ejlbHOH CJTOBO(f)OpMbI. KeTCKOMy CymeCTBHTeJIbHOMyCBoflcTBeHHbi cjieAyiomne rpaMMamqecKHe KaTeropmi: Kaiero-pna npnTJi/iKaTejibHOCTH

    3ia KaieropHH HMeH cyujecTBHTejibHbix o6o3HawaeTC5i nv-cpe^cTBOM ocoGbix npHTH>KaTe.TbHbix npecJwKCOB, a hmchho:

    EAHHCTBeHHOe MHCJIO MHO>KCCTBeHHOe MHCJIO

    1 ji. 6- Ha-

    2 ji. k- Hra-3 ji. My>KCK. poAa: Aa- Ha-

    >KeH. h cp. p.: a(t)-npHBe^eM npHMcpbi: 6on moh crreu, Kon tboh OTeu. Aaon

    cro OTeu, Aon ee otcu, naon, Ho:n Ham OTeu, nraon,Hro:n Bam OTeu, Haon, Ho:n nxoieu. BMecTO sthx npc^HK-cob ynoTpeoJiHioTCH TaK>Ke nojiHbie cJ)opMbi aTpH6yTHBiibix npn-TH>KaTeJibHbix MecTOHMeHHfi; a6 on moh OTeu, yk on tbohOTeu, 6yAa O'n ero 0Teu, 6yj on ee OTeu, -bTHa on namOTeu, -bkHra on Bain oieu>\ 6yHrna on hx OTeu.

    Te >Ke npetj)HKCbi npHcoeAHHHKrrcH k hmchhoh rJiarojibiioft4)opMe, HMeiomen 3naMeHne HH(j)HHHTHBa (AOJi>KeHCTBOBaHHH)

    ,

    Hanpniviep: *bji'a mejiaHrHH MeHH BwrHaTb HaAO; KTeJiaHrnftTe6H BbirnaTb HaAo, AaTe;iaHrHHeroBbirHaTb HaAo, neJiaH-rHH ee BbirnaTb HaAO; HaieJiaHrHHHac BbirnaTb HaAO; Hraie-jiaHntft Bac BbirnaTb HaAO, HaTejiaHrnfi hx BbirnaTb naAO.

    AnajionmHo: 6H:Ji'6eT MeHH cjiOMaTb, Kn:/i'6eT tc6h cjio-MaTb, AH:ji'6eT ee cjioMaTb, AaH:Ji'6eT ero cJiOMaTb, Ha h:ji'-6eT Hac, hx cjioMaTb, Hra H:Ji'6eT Bac cJioiviaTb; Aee eey6HTb, jyh ee ero y6HTb, i

  • Hn> ee Bac y6HTb, ht> ee Hac, hx y6HTb; ji'hithc 6yHr HHilHHrPec'aHr Ae:xa6ak nepT hx CKymaTb xoqer.

    y nepexoAHbix rviarojiOB 3th npec})HKCbi MoryT ocMbicJiHBaTb-ch KaK noKa3aiejiH o6-beKTa, ho 06'beKTHbie ac})(j)HKCbi (fiaKTH-necKH bo Bcex jinnuux cJ)opMax rviarojia Apyrne. CjieayeTOTMeTHTb eme, mo a^h 3-ro juuxz npHTH^caiejibHbie npecJ)HKCbicoBnaAaioT c OKOHHaHiiHMH poAHTe^bHoro naAe^a hmch cyme-CTBHTe^bHblX.

    KaieropHH po^a

    3Ta KaTeropiifl cBoeoopn3Ha h no cBoeMy 3HaHeHHioHe coBinaA^eT c HHAoeBponeficKHM poaom; 0Ha Bbipa>Ka-eT noHHTHe oAymeBJieHHocrii (>KHBbie npeAMeTbi) h HeoAy-uieB;ieHHOCTH (neiuH) , npn^eM y nepBbix mo>kct pa3JiHqaTbcano;i MyjKCKoft h >KeHCKHH. KareropHji poAa y cymecTBHTeJib-Hbix ocoSbiMH cJ^opMa.ibHbiMH npH3HaicaMH nocvieAOBaTejibHO HeBbiAe^HercH. OAHaKO jxjw uejioro pnAa naAe>Ken eAHHCTBeHHoromi an a, iok mw yBiiAHM Aajibme, HMeiOTCH napHbie BapHaHTbiac{)c})HKC0B, ynoTpe6jiHeMbie b 3aBHCHM0CTii ot poAa CKjioHHeMO-ro cyiuecTBHTejibHoro. BapnaHTbi sth ouiH^aiOTCH TeM, mtob oa-hoh cepHH coAep>KHTCH 3ByK h, a b Apyroii, coBnaAaKDmefi BOBceM ocTa^bHOM, 3ByK a (cM.TaSjiHuy naAe^CHbix acJ^HKcoB HaCTp. 71). Ac})4)PIKCbI C0 3ByK0M HnpHC0eAHHHIOTCfl TOJIbKO k Ha-3BainiHM semen hjih yue oAyiueBJieHHbix npeAMeTOB >KeHCKoro nojia,a ac})4)HKCbi, HMeiomHe 3ByKa b cbocm cocrraBe, npHcoeAHHHioTcnk Ha3BaHHHM oAymeBJieHHbix npeAMeTOB Boo6me, t. e. 6e30THO-cirrejibHO k nojiy, npn Hajin^HH >Ke y AaHHoro cymecTBHTejibHoronpoTHBonocTaB.icHHJi My>KCKoro nojia h >KeHCKoro ohm Bbipanca-iot TOJibKO My>KCikho cKajaib, nroy KeTCKoro cymecTBHTejibHoro cf)opMajibHO BbiAeJinioTCH tojii^koABa KJiacca KJiacc a h KJiacc h; KJiacc a Bbipa>KaeTOAymeBJieHHOCTb BOo6me hjih noHHTHe >KHBoro npeAMCTa My>K-cKoro nojia. a KJiacc h Bbipa>KaeT HeoAyuieBJieHHocTb BOoSme(Beiub) hjih >Ke noHHTHe >KHBoro npeAMeTa aceircKoro nojia.OCHOBHbIM H nepBH^HblM B 3T0H KJiaCCH(})tfKaUHH, nO-BHAHMOMy,HBJIHIOTCH nOHHTHH OAVHieBJieHHOCTH H HeOAyUieBJieHHOCTH. FIpH-MenaTe^bHOH oco6eHHOCTbio KercKoro cymecTBHTejibHoro hbjih-eTCH to, hto Bee cymecTBHTejibHbie, Bbipaaauomne noHHTHe>KHBbix cymecTB, npoTHBonocTaBjineMbix no nojiy, Moryx ckjio-HHTbCH KaK no Tuny KJiacca a, Tax h no THny K;iacca h,b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot KOHKpeTHoro cMbicjia Aannoro cviOBa, Hanpn-Mep: KeTAaHra MejioBeKy-My>KMHHe 1 KerAHHra qejioBCKy->KeHLU,HHe (HMeH. naAe>K: Ke?T); AbuTAaura peoeHKy-MajibqH-Ky, AWJi'AHHra pe6eHKy-AeBOMKe (hm. n. AbuT); koHAan-ra MeABeAio (caMuy), koflAHHra MeABeAnue (HM.^n.koft), kaftAaHra jiock), kafiAHHra jiocnxe (hm. n. kaft);6Hc*enAaHra 6paiy, dnc'enAHHra cecTpe (hm. n. 6Hc'en).

    63

  • TaK KaK 3Ta oco6eHHOCTb BCTpe^aexcH y Bcex cjiob Ha3BaHHH>KHBbix cyiuecTB, pa3^H^aeMbix no nojiy, to HeT ocHOBaHHH tobo-pHTb HajIH'IUH R&yX OMOHHMHHHblX pHAOB CymeCTBHTeJIbHblX6ncen l 6par, 6ncen 2 cecTpa), pasjiH^aiomnxcn TOJibKo noHeKOTopbiM naAe^HbiM cfjopiviaM; 3to Mo>KHOCKa3aTb eme h no-TOMy, HT0 3TH a4>(|)HKCbI qaCTO OCMblCJIHBaiOTCH KaK MeCTOHMeHHH3-ro Jinix'a b cooTBeTCTBytomeM naAe>Ke, HanpHMep: AaHra eMy,AHHra en. Bee sto no3BOJineT HaM roBopHTb otom, hto Kaie-ropnn poAa KeTCKoro H3biKa, KorAa 0Ha Bbipa>KaeT noji, KaTero-pHH HenocTOHRHan (nepeMeHHan). CymecTBHTeJibHbix, y KOTopbixKaTeropHH poAa HBJineTCH nocTOHHHOH, cpaBHHTejibHo neMHoro:OTeu, MaTb, cbiH, AO lib, My>K, >KeHa, My>KMHHa, >KenmHHa, caivieu,caMKa h HeKOTopbie Apyrne. C/ieAyeT 3aMeTHTbeme, mo noiiHTneBemn, no KpaHHeft Mepe, KaK oho nojiy^aeT CBoe Bbipa/Kenneb cj>opMa.jibHbix cpeA'CTBax H3biKa, ne coBnaAaeT c tcm, KoiopoeHMeercH b HHAoeBponencKHx H3biKax.TaK, HanpHMep, pacTymeeAepeBo paccMaTpuBaexcH KaK oAyineBJieHHbin npeAMer (KJiacca); cnHjieHHoe hjih 3acoxmee KaK HeoAymeBJieHHbiH (KJiaoc h,mm. n. b o6onx cjiy^anx okc') ; oroHb, peKa, aeMjia, cojiHixe oc-MbicJiHBaKDTCH KaK cymecTBa >KeHCKoro nojia, jiyHa khkMy>KHHHa; Ha3BaHHH neKOTopux (pacTymnx) AepeBbeB, Hanpii-Mep, 6e,pe3bi, othochtch jihoo k >KencKOMy KJiaccy (ecjin y 11 hxHMeeTCH KpeHb), jih6o k My>KCKOMy (ecJin KpeHH y AepeBa hot).O6bIMH0 0(J)OpMJIHIOTCfl C My>KCKHMH OKOHHaHHHMH: c'eiC* JIHCT-BeHHiiua, to?t TanMeHb, ah? opeJi k-bHrb MypaBen, c\ftKOMap, ki>jeHrok oboa, chm. y:pec Ao>KAb, Ky.Tbn OKynb, ekkbmr rpoM; yjiyji yjiHTKa; c >kch-CKHMH OKOH^iaHHHMH: kl> ?H JIHCHUa, 6e?C' 3aHU, TbIT M011I-Ka, -bji' jiHryuiKa, Tyji'H*b HmepHua, AbiJiTbiM irnmKa,y?T Kpbica, 6yjiTak najieu norH h Ap.

    Boo6me naAO CKa3aTb, mto b kctckom H3biKe Ha6.iKuaeTcaTeHAeHUHH K3aKpenjieHHio oAHoro onpeAejieHHoro poaa 3a cy-meCTBHTCJIb'HblMH, o603HaHaiOIUHMH >KHBbie CymeCTBa (BO.'IK,Jiocb, M.eABeAb, 3anu h ap.), y KOTopbix pa3JiHqaeTCH noji. 3toCKa3biBaercH b tom, hto TaKHe cymecTBHTeJibHbie, KorAa ohho6o3HaqaiOT ne KOH-Kperayio oco6b, a bha jkhboto cymecTBa,nojiynaiOT naAOKHbie oKOHHamin jih6o TOJibKO KJiacca a, jihSoTOJibKo KJiacca h; HanpHMep, c.iobo kail Jiocb (BOo6u;e)OTHOCHTCJi, KaK npaBHJio, k KJiaccy a, a cjiobo" 6e?c' 3a5iu(Boo6n;e) k KJiaccy h. TaK KaK b STHXc^y^anxnaAOKHbieOKonqaHHH c nojiOM BOBce He coothochtch, TaKHe cjiynan ynoT-pe6jienHH KeTCKHX cymecTBHTejibHbix onenb 6jih3kh k KaTeropHHMy>KCKoro hjih >KeHCKoro poAa HMeH cymecTBHTejibHbix b HHAoeB-poneftcKHx H3biKax. Pa3Hbie npHMHHbi cnocoScTByiOT noHBJieHHK)h yKpenJieHHK) stoh TeHAeHunn: KorAa Ha3biBaeTca bha >KHBorocyuxecTBa, HeT HaAo6HOCTH b yKa3aHHH Ha ero noJi; MacTO onpe-AejieHne nojia HBJiHeTCH3aTpyAHHTejibHbiM, bo MHornx cjiv^anx3T0HeHMeeT HHKaKoro npaKTHnecKoro 3Ha^eHHH; cjieAVeT ot-

    64

  • KaTeropHH nncjia

    B KeTCKOM 5i3biKe pa3Jin iiaioTCH TOJibKo ABa nncjia oahh-CTBeHHoe h MHOKecTBeHiioe. Tunbi h npaBHjia o6pa3oiuiHHHMHO>KecTBeHHoro MHCJia nozipo6Ho H3Jio>KeHbi A. KacTpeHOM.llpaBAa, OTcyTCTBHe y aBTopa ciaTHCTH^ecKoro noAXOAa co3Aa-eT BneqaTJieHHe 06 omeJioMjiHiomeM MHoroo6pa3HH cnoco6oB06pa30BaHHH MHO>KeCTBeHHOrO HHCJia H HeMOTHBHpOBaHHOCTII HX.

    HoACHeTbi >Ke noKa3biBaioT39 ), q-ro 93% Bcex cymecTBHTe.ib-Hbix o6pa3yeT cBoe MHo>KecTBeHHoe hhcjio oAHOo6pa3Ho, .11160nocpe^cTBOM atfxJDH'Kca -Hr (50%), jik6o nocpeACTBOM a{})(l)HKca-h (43%); TOJTbKo 7% cymecTBHTejibHbix o6 tpa3yiOT CBoe mho-jKeciBCHHoe mhcjio pmane, HanpHMep:

    a) HecKOJibKo cjiob o6pa3yiOT (})opMy mho>k. HHCJia nocpeA-ctbom BapHaijHH iviacHoro, HanpHMep: cec' peKa, cac' peKH;

    6) HecKOJibKo cjiob noMHMo BapnauHH rjiacHoro bo mho>k.MHCJie npHHHMaiOT eme OKOH^aHiie, HanpHMep: TeT My>K, TaxHMy>KbH;

    b) y HeKOTopbix cymecTBHTejibHbix c})opMbi HHCJia pa3JiH^a-iotch yAapeHHCM, HanpHMep: kannrok Myxa, kaHHrok Myxn.

    39) Hame H3^o>KeiiHe ocHOBaHo 11a yneTe 1378 kctckhx cymecTBHTeJibHbix.

    68

  • r) HeKOTopue cymecTBHTejibHbie o6pa3yiOT t})opMbi qncjianocpeACTBOM BapnauHH TOHa, nanpHMep: cbim. Aec rjia3 (hh3-KHli TOH)

    AC?C rJia3a (BblCOKHH, HHCXOAflmilH TOH 40 ).

    npaBH.Ta o6pa30BaHHH mho>k. qHc/ia nocpeACTBOM acJ)(})HKcaHr hjih ac})(f)HKca h bo MHornx c/iyqaax HeAOCTaTOMHO hchli; no-cpeACTBOM ac})(J3HKca Hr o6pa3yiOT cBoe mho>k. qncvio 6ojibiueftqacTbio Ha3BaHH5i Bemcfi h cJiOBa, oKanqHBaioiUHecH na k, m, h, t,n, h MHorne cymecxBHTejibHbie, oKaHHHBaiomneca b ejx. qncjic naropTaHHbiH cMbiHHbifl, nanpHMep: 6o?k pbi6ojiOBHan MopAa,mh. q. 6o?k-Hr; hbi? (J3h;ihh, mh. q. hbiknr; aM MaTb>\ mh. q.aMaHr; on OTeu, mh. q. o6aHr; ao?h ho>k, mh. q. Aonanr; ko-IaT ropAO, mh. q. kolaAeHr. CymccTBHTCJibHbie c ApyrHM hc-XOAOM OCHOBbI H Ha3BaHHJI oAyineBJieinibix npeAMCTOB 6ojibiueftqacTbio npHHHMaiOT bo mh. qHCJie OKOHqainie h, HanpHMep:ko? 3Be3Aa, mh. q. ko:H; -bYT> cyK, mh. q. -bYeH; ho?HrceTb, mh. q. hoHreH; hnY My>KHK, mh. q. hnYeH; kbui* Bopo-na, mh. q. kbLi'en; a:Acc' rB03Ab, mh. q. a:Aec*H; koJi'aT bo-poH, mh. q. koji'ara; hy: cepAUe, mh. q. hy:n; toh npoToxa,mh. q. tohh. Bo MHorHx cJiyqanxHaG^iOAaioTCH K0Jic6aHiiH b cno-co6e o6pa30BanHH mh. qncjia, Hepe/iKO Aa>Ke KOJieCannji BnyipnoAHoro h Toro >Ke rosopa, nanpHMep: leM ctoji, mh. q. leMHHhjih leMiiHr.

    Cjiejxyer OTMeTHTb eme, qio 06a ociiobiilix cnoco6a o6pa3o-BaHHH mhojk. qncjia, atf)(J)HKC Hr h a^cfwKC h, fiBJiHiOTcn TaK>KecpeACTBOM Bbipa>KeiiH5i Miio^ecTBenHoro qncjia b pa3-*inqnb[x(])opMax rjiarojia, npnqeM ac|)c})HKc h, KOTopbin npHcoeAiinneTCHk KOHuy cji