The Federal BureaucracyChapter 15
Figure 15.2The BureaucratsWhat are some basic American beliefs about our bureaucracy?The bureaucracy is the most demographically representative part of government.Diversity of jobs mirrors the private sector.
The BureaucratsHow did civil service reform change the bureaucracy?Office of Personnel Management: The federal office in charge of most of the governments hiring.What jobs arent filled through the Civil Service System?Plum jobs
Theories of BureaucracyThe Weberian Model Hierarchical, specialized, meritocracyThe Acquisitive, Monopolistic BureaucracyCompeting bureaucracies control govt, expand and spendGarbage Can BureaucraciesTrial and error, not well organized or supervised, ineffective
The Cabinet Departments15 Cabinet departments headed by a Secretary (except DOJ under the Attorney General)Each has its own budget, staff and policy areasExpanded over time to deal with relevant issuesWhat is the most recent addition?What is the difference between Defense and Homeland Security?
Executive AgenciesRegulatory AgenciesIndependent: Responsible for some sector of the economy, making rules and judging disputes to protect the public interestHeaded by commissionsWhat is meant by regulatory capture?
Executive AgenciesGovernment CorporationsBusiness-like: Provide a service like private companies and typically charge for servicesIndependent Executive AgenciesServe a specific purpose, created and serve with support of the president
ImplementationTranslating the goals and objectives of a policy into an operating, ongoing programIncludes:Creating / assigning an agency the policyTurning policy into rules, regulations and forms.Coordinating resources to achieve the goals.Can fail due to program design, lack of clarity, lack of resources, or administrative routine
Implementation: A Case StudyThe Voting Rights Act of 1965Generally considered a success.Had a clear, concise goal.The implementation was clear.Those carrying out the law had obvious authority and vigor to do so.
RegulationUse of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector.Command-and-Control Policy: Government tells business how to reach certain goals, checks the progress and punishes offenders.Incentive System: Market-like strategies are used to manage public policy.Some agencies are proactive, some are reactive.
DeregulationThe lifting of restrictions on business, industry and professional activities.Regulatory problems:Raises pricesHurts U.S.s competitive position abroadDoes not always work wellBut why were regulations created?
Understanding BureaucraciesBureaucracy and DemocracyPresidents try to control the bureaucracy through appointments, executive orders, budget tinkering, reorganizationCongress tries to control the bureaucracy by influencing appointments, changing budget, holding hearings, rewriting legislation
Understanding BureaucraciesBureaucracy and DemocracyIron Triangles and Issue NetworksA mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees.Some argue they are being replaced by wider issue networks that focus on more policies.
Figure 15.5Understanding Bureaucracies
Understanding BureaucraciesHow does bureaucracy impact the size and scope of government?