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Dear Teachers, The musicians and staff of the Fort Worth Symphony are eager to share our love of symphonic music with you and your students this school year! We’ll discover the six naons whose flags have flown over the Lone Star State and we’ll sample the music of each naon – from France and Spain to the Republic of Texas and the United States – as we review the history of our home state. The program includes the following works: Penella: El Gato Montes Bizet: Farandole from L’arlesienne Suite No. 2 Guízar: Guadalajara Marsh/Wright: Texas, Our Texas Tradional: When Johnny Comes Marching Home Sousa: The Stars and Stripes Forever Swander/Hershey: Deep in the Heart of Texas The materials in the study guide bring together many disciplines including reading, history, geography, and cultural studies. The materials meet multiple TEKS objectives, as listed on page 4. Please contact me with any questions. We look forward to performing for you and your students! Warm regards, Lindsey Stortz Branch Director of Education & Community Programs Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra Association 817.665.6500, ext. 102 These materials are for educational use only in connection with the Adventures in Music program of the Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra. Adventures in Music: Six Flags over Texas

Six Flags over Texas Study Guide

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  • Dear Teachers, The musicians and staff of the Fort Worth Symphony are eager to share our love of symphonic music with you and your students this school year! Well discover the six nations whose flags have flown over the Lone Star State and well sample the music of each nation from France and Spain to the Republic of Texas and the United States as we review the history of our home state. The program includes the following works:

    Penella: El Gato Montes Bizet: Farandole from Larlesienne Suite No. 2 Guzar: Guadalajara Marsh/Wright: Texas, Our Texas Traditional: When Johnny Comes Marching Home Sousa: The Stars and Stripes Forever Swander/Hershey: Deep in the Heart of Texas

    The materials in the study guide bring together many disciplines including reading, history, geography, and cultural studies. The materials meet multiple TEKS objectives, as listed on page 4. Please contact me with any questions. We look forward to performing for you and your students! Warm regards, Lindsey Stortz Branch Director of Education & Community Programs Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra Association 817.665.6500, ext. 102

    These materials are for educational use only in

    connection with the Adventures in Music

    program of the Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra.

    Adventures in Music:

    Six Flags over Texas

  • 2

    Six Flags over Texas:

    Table of Contents

    Before, During, and After the Concert 3

    TEKS Objectives 4

    El Gato Montes 5-6

    Farandole from Larleseinne Suite No. 2 7-8

    Guadalajara 9-10

    Texas, Our Texas 11

    Deep in the Heart of Texas 12

    When Johnny Comes Marching Home 13-14

    Stars and Stripes Forever 15-16

    Meet the Orchestra 17-19

  • 3

    BEFORE, DURING, AND

    AFTER THE CONCERT

    Before the concert:

    After reviewing the instruments of the orchestra, ask students to draw a picture of their favorite instrument.

    Ask students to draw a picture of an original, made-up instrument. It can be a new string, wind, brass, or percussion

    instrument. The only restriction is that it must be clear in the drawing how the instrument is to be played.

    Have students draw pictures to illustrate the different pieces of music from the program.

    Practice special audience member skills. Ask students to practice maintaining complete silence for one minute. Before the

    minute of silence begins, tell students they will be listening for any sound they hearsounds might include birds singing, kids

    laughing, a car passing by, or a clock ticking. After the minute of silence is over, ask students to draw a picture of what they

    heard.

    During the Concert:

    ALWAYS remain quiet during a performance. Its impolite to talk

    while the music is being performed.

    BE attentive and give the performers your attention.

    Be CONSIDERATE of others.

    DO not leave early, please.

    ENTER and EXIT in a quiet and organized fashion.

    Expect a FANTASTIC performance!

    GIVE applause when the conductor enters and in between pieces.

    Whistling, yelling, or screaming are not appropriate.

    HAVE a great time!

    After the concert:

    Have students write a letter to the conductor and musicians telling

    them what they thought of the concert! Encourage students to

    describe how the music and the concert experience made them

    feel. Send your letters to us at: Fort Worth Symphony Education,

    330 E. 4th Street, Suite 200, Fort Worth, TX 76102.)

    As a class project, create a poster describing the experience of

    attending a symphony performance. Have each student contribute

    their own adjective or memory of the performance. Take a picture

    and share with us on Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram!

  • 4

    Six Flags over Texas:

    TEKS Objectives

    Chapter 110, Language Arts and Reading:

    15b.2, 16b.2 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Student understands new vocabulary and uses it correctly when reading and writing;

    15b.3, 16b.3 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Student analyzes, makes inferences and draws conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provides evi-dence from the text to support his/her understanding.

    15b.10, 16b.10 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Student analyzes, makes infer-ences and draws conclusions about the authors purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provides evidence from the text to support his/her understanding. 15b.11, 16b.11 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Student analyzes, makes infer-ences and draws conclusions about expository text, and provides evidence from text to support his/her understanding.

    15b.14, 16b.14 Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning.

    15b.27, 16b.27 Listening and Speaking/Listening. Student uses comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings.

    Chapter 113, Social Studies:

    15b.2, 15b.3, 15b.4, 16b.1, 16b.4 History. Student understands the causes and effects of European exploration and colonization of Texas and North America; the importance of the Texas Revolution, the Republic of Texas, and the annex-ation of Texas to the United States; the political, economic, and social changes in Texas during the last half of the 19th century.

    15b.6, 16b.6 Geography. Student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data.

    15b.19, 16b.21, 16b.22 Culture. Student understands the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and reli-gious groups to Texas; the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created.

    Chapter 117, Music: 115b.1, 118b.1 Foundations: music literacy. Student describes and analyzes musical sound.

    115b.5, 118b.5 Historical and cultural relevance. Student relates music to history and cultures.

    115b.6, 118b.6 Critical evaluation and response. Student listens to, responds to and evaluates music and musical performance.

  • 5

    Special points of interest:

    Manuel Penella was born in Valencia, Spain.

    His father was Manuel Penella Raga, a composer and director of the city

    conservatory.

    He was a violinist until he hurt his left hand, then became a composer.

    Traveled with opera companies all over the world in his adult life.

    About the Music:

    El Gato Montes (The Wild Cat) is Manuel Penellas most popular work. It is a zarzuela, a Spanish opera that mixes European

    traditions with Spanish folk culture. El Gato Montes is a favorite work of Placido Domingo, who championed its return to the

    stage in the 1990s. It was first performed in the United States in its original language in 1994.

    The pasodoble takes place in act two of the opera. In this scene, Rafael, one of two suitors hoping to win the hand of Solea,

    prepares to fight six bulls. Pasodobles are traditionally used as entrance music for the bullfighters.

    Manuel Penella (1880-1939):

    El Gato Montes

    Spain:

    The Spanish flag flew over Texas from 1519 to 1821.

    The first explorations into Texas were by the Spanish. The first was a

    map-making expedition in 1519 led by Alfonso Alvarez de Pineda and

    Cabeza de Vaca.

    Spain was forced to relinquish its control of Texas in 1821, when Texas

    became a province of the newly formed nation of Mexico.

  • 6

    Dancing the Pasodoble!

    The pasodoble is a Spanish dance style which imitates bullfighting. The leader of the dance imitates the

    bullfighter while the follower imitates the cape of the bullfighter. The pasodoble is danced mostly by

    professional dancers due to its strictly choreographed steps. This page is an introduction on how to

    dance the pasodoble.

    The pasodoble is a performance dance, where the man usually represents the bullfighter and the woman represents his cape. Her dance is soft, flowing and circular; whereas he dances more aggressively. The dance is full of dramatic postures. They often occur during intense moments in the music. The man sometimes stamps on the ground like a bullfighter stamps to get the attention of the bull.

    The rhythm of the dance is 1-2-1-2. The dance has about 60 beats a minute. The woman usually wears a

    long, wide skirt to illustrate the cape. The dance is very fast and requires a lot of energy. The music is

    often very dramatic. When the dancers are in closed position, their upper bodies are touching.

    There are some common steps in the pasodoble:

    The chassez cape: the woman imitates a cape

    The Apel: the man stamps his foot, appearing to attract attention of a bull

    The Arpel: the man and woman stamp their feet, then walk in opposite directions

    Unlike a waltz, there is no one basic step in the pasodoble, but the dance is a

    choreographed performance of several different steps after each other. These

    steps have several things in common: the movements should be sharp and

    quick, and the steps should be march-like.

    Not all of the steps blend into each other, unlike other ballroom dances.

    Steps are added to transition from one step to another one.

    http://www.mahalo.com/spain

  • 7

    Special points of interest:

    Georges Bizet was born in Paris, France.

    His father was a voice teacher; his mother taught him piano lessons.

    He went to the Paris Conservatory at the age of nine; they waived the age

    limit.

    Bizet also wrote the opera Carmen.

    Many of his pieces were not performed until after his death at age 37.

    About the Music:

    The farandole is an open-chain community dance based on the carol March of the Kings. This carol originated in a region of

    France called Provence. Each year, three youths are chosen to play the kings in a procession. It is a great honor to be chosen

    as a king.

    The farandole is still popular in the county of Nice, France. The farandole is similar to other dances like the gavotte, jig, and

    tarantella.

    Georges Bizet (1848-1875):

    Farandole from

    Larleseinne Suite No. 2

    France:

    The French flag flew over Texas from 1685 to 1690.

    The French explorer, Robert La Salle, hoped to start a settlement in the

    French Louisiana Territory at the mouth of the Mississippi River. Not

    realizing he was actually in Texas, he established Fort St. Louis on

    Matagorda Bay. Life was extremely hard for these settlers. Within five

    year they had all been killed by Indians or disease.

  • 8

    Dancing the Farandole!

    The farandole is a hands-joined musical game of follow the leader. Many sources consider it to be an ancient French dance, probably descended from Greek labyrinth dances, and various kinds of spiraling and winding figures are found in many dances from other cultures. The leader is often distinguished in some way, such as holding a scarf, hat or decorated pole. In more sophisticated versions, the leader may sing a verse which the others echo, or execute fancy steps which the others must copy. Formation: line of dancers, hands joined, leader on left end. Steps: skipping or walking; the leader dances around the available space, creating patterns to amuse and challenge.

    Some Common Patterns:

    Spiral:

    Lead the line in a spiral toward the center, then turn over the

    left shoulder to lead out of the circle.

    Snake:

    Simply dance around the available space, making up

    patterns.

    Thread the needle:

    Lead the dancers through on or several arches. Note that this

    will require the dancers to adjust their hands in order to twist

    around under the arch, and there will be interruptions of the

    flow.

    Ball of wool:

    This begins like the spiral. When the center gets fairly tight, a

    few (3-4) center dancers stop moving (keep holding hands!),

    and this will result in a tightly packed (and very friendly) ball.

    When the outside dancers have completely wrapped the line,

    the leader ducks down (keep holding hands!) and wiggles out

    backwards through the crowd. The line will unwind from the

    center, just like a ball of wool.

    Play the white keys from C to C. This is a MAJOR scale.

    Is the Farandole Major or Minor?

    Now play the white keys from A to A. This is a MINOR scale.

  • 9

    Special points of interest:

    Pepe Guzar was born in Guadalajara, the capital of Jalisco.

    He went to law school before he became a composer. He was also an

    actor, singer, and pianist.

    He is often referred to as El Pintor Musical de Mxico The Musical

    Painter of Mexico.

    He was a folkloric composer and aimed to bring Hispanic music to the

    concert halls.

    About the Music:

    Guzar is best remembered for "Guadalajara," a Mexican standard that paid tribute to his home town of Guadalajara, Jalisco.

    Guzar not only wrote about the Mexican state of Jalisco, he wrote about Mexico in general, and his songs really did bring Mexico

    to life as effectively as the country's best painters. In Guadalajara (the second largest city in Mexico), an outdoor plaza has been

    named after Guzar: La Plaza de los Mariachis (Mariachi Square) includes a plaque in honor of Guzar. Over the years,

    "Guadalajara" has been recorded countless times, usually by traditional Mexican mariachi and ranchera artists. The song was

    even performed by Elvis Presley in the 1963 movie Fun in Acapulco.

    Jos Pepe Guzar (1912-1980):

    Guadalajara

    Mxico :

    The Mexican flag flew over Texas from 1821 to 1836.

    In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain and the region of Texas

    became part of Mexico. General Sam Houston and his army of Texans

    rebelled against Mexico in 1835. They fought and won independence for

    Texas at the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836.

    http://www.allmusic.com/artist/gu%C3%ADzar-mn0000837238http://www.allmusic.com/artist/gu%C3%ADzar-mn0000837238http://www.allmusic.com/artist/gu%C3%ADzar-mn0000837238http://www.allmusic.com/artist/gu%C3%ADzar-mn0000837238http://www.allmusic.com/artist/gu%C3%ADzar-mn0000837238http://www.allmusic.com/artist/elvis-presley-mn0000180228http://www.allmusic.com/artist/gu%C3%ADzar-mn0000837238

  • 10

    What is

    Mariachi?

    Mariachi is a genre of folk music that originated in

    the 19th century in the Mexican state of Jalisco, in

    the town of Cocula. It is a mixture of Spanish,

    African, and native traditions and differs from region

    to region. Mariachi is also influenced by musical

    styles such as the polka and the waltz. The word

    mariachi can refer to the style of music, the group

    of musicians, or just a single musician.

    Mariachis in formal charro suits performing (from left to right): the violin, the guitarrn, the trumpet, and the vihuela.

    The mariachi ensemble generally

    consists of violins, trumpets,

    guitars, a vihuela (a high-pitched,

    five-string guitar), a guitarrn (a

    large acoustic bass guitar), and

    occasionally a harp. The

    musicians dress in formal charro

    suits with wide-brimmed hats.

    The term charro refers to

    traditional horsemen, or

    cowboys, from Mexico. Their

    colorful attire typically includes

    short jackets and loose pants

    adorned with silver studs.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaliscohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guitarr%C3%B3n_mexicanohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trumpethttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_guitarhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_vihuelahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guitarr%C3%B3n_mexicanohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charro

  • 11

    Special points of interest:

    Texas, Our Texas was written in 1924 and is the

    official state song of Texas.

    William J. Marsh was born in Liverpool, England

    and emigrated to Texas, where he became the

    choir director and professor of organ,

    composition and theory at TCU. Gladys Yoakum

    Wright was a native of Fort Worth.

    The song was adopted by the State Legislature in

    1929 after a statewide contest.

    After Alaska received its statehood in 1959, it

    became the largest state. The lyric largest and

    grandest was changed to boldest and

    grandest.

    William J. Marsh (music) & Gladys Yoakum Wright (lyrics)

    Texas, Our Texas

    Republic of Texas :

    The flag of the Republic of Texas flew from 1836 to 1845.

    The Republic of Texas was created on March 2, 1836. Sam Houston was

    elected the first president. The town of Waterloo was chosen to be the

    capitol and it was renamed Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin. The

    last president of the Republic of Texas, Anson Jones, was elected in

    1844. He ruled just one year before Texas joined the United States.

    Lyrics:

    Texas, our Texas! All hail the mighty state! Texas, our Texas! So wonderful, so great!

    Boldest and grandest, withstanding every test; O empire wide and glorious, you stand supremely blessed.

    God bless you, Texas! And keep you brave and strong. That you may grow in power and worth, throughout the ages long.

    Texas, O Texas! Your freeborn single star. Sends out its radiance to nations near and far. Emblem of freedom! It sets our hearts aglow.

    With thoughts of San Jacinto and glorious Alamo.

    God bless you, Texas! And keep you brave and strong. That you may grow in power and worth, throughout the ages long.

    Texas, dear Texas! From tyrant grip now free, Shines forth in splendor your star of destiny!

    Mother of heroes! We come your children true. Proclaiming our allegiance, our faith, our love for you.

  • 12

    Special points of interest:

    Deep in the Heart of Texas is the unofficial state song of Texas.

    The song was first recorded by Perry Como in 1941.

    Many singers have recorded this song including Gene Autry, Ray Charles, and George Strait.

    In the song, doggies are cows or longhorns.

    Don Swander (music) &

    June Hershey (lyrics)

    Deep in the Heart of Texas

    The stars at night, are big and bright, (Gesture with your arms to the sky)

    (Clap-clap-clap-clap) deep in the heart of Texas.

    (Place your hand over your heart)

    The prairie sky is wide and high, (Open arms wide)

    (Clap-clap-clap-clap) deep in the heart of Texas.

    (Place your hand over your heart)

    The sage in bloom is like perfume, (Pretend to smell a flower)

    (Clap-clap-clap-clap) deep in the heart of Texas.

    (Place your hand over your heart)

    Reminds me of, the one I love, (Point to your head, then your heart)

    (Clap-clap-clap-clap) deep in the heart of Texas.

    (Place your hand over your heart)

    The coyotes wail, along the trail, (Pretend to howl)

    (Clap-clap-clap-clap) deep in the heart of Texas.

    (Place your hand over your heart)

    The rabbits rush, around the brush, (Hop in place)

    (Clap-clap-clap-clap) deep in the heart of Texas.

    (Place your hand over your heart)

    The cowboys cry, "Ki-yip-pee-yi," (Pretend to throw a lasso)

    (Clap-clap-clap-clap) deep in the heart of Texas.

    (Place your hand over your heart)

    The doggies bawl, and bawl and bawl, (Bend at the waist and pretend to be a longhorn

    use your arms as horns) (Clap-clap-clap-clap)

    deep in the heart of Texas. (Place your hand over your heart)

    Lyrics and Movements:

  • 13

    Special points of interest:

    Patrick Gilmore was born in Ballygar, Ireland.

    He started his music career at age 15 and was a very good cornet player.

    He founded two music festivals in Boston after the Civil War: the National

    Peace Jubilee in 1869 and the World's Peace Jubilee and International

    Musical Festival in 1872

    He lead the celebration for the dedication of the Statue of Liberty. He also

    started the tradition of ringing in the New Year in Times Square, New York.

    Patrick Gilmore (1829-1892):

    When Johnny Comes

    Marching Home

    The Confederate :

    The Confederate flag flew over Texas from 1861 to 1865.

    When the Civil War broke out in 1861, the state of Texas decided to join

    with the southern Confederate states. The last battle of the Civil War

    was fought at Brownsville on May 11, 1865a month after the formal

    surrender of General Lee at Appomattox. Texas was readmitted to the

    Union on March 30, 2870.

    The Civil War: The Civil War threatened to split the United States in the early 1860s. Songs from this period celebrated victories or mourned defeats; they told of patriotism and hope for freedom. Other songs were for pure enjoyment. 1. Ask the students what they know about the Civil War.

    2. Discuss the time period (1860-1865) and some of the issues involved (economics, states rights, slavery, etc.)

    3. Have the students listen to the introduction about this period in our history and briefly discuss any songs of this era they may

    already know.

  • 14

    About the Music: The lyrics to When Johnny Comes Marching Home were written by the Irish-American bandleader Patrick Gilmore while serving in the Union army during the American Civil War. The tune came from the song, Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye. Its first sheet music publication was deposited in the Library of Congress on September 26, 1863, with words and music credited to Louis Lambert. Its not clear why Gilmore wrote under this pseudonym, though it was popular for composers during his time to use different names.

    When Johnny Comes

    Marching Home

    Lyrics:

    When Johnny comes marching home again, Hurrah! Hurrah!

    We'll give him a hearty welcome then, Hurrah! Hurrah!

    The men will cheer and the boys will shout, The ladies they will all turn out,

    And we'll all feel glad when Johnny comes marching home.

    The old church bell will peal with joy, Hurrah! Hurrah!

    To welcome home our darling boy, Hurrah! Hurrah!

    The village lads and lassies say, With roses they will strew the way,

    And we'll all feel glad when Johnny comes marching home.

    Get ready for the Jubilee, Hurrah! Hurrah!

    We'll give the hero three times three, Hurrah! Hurrah!

    The laurel wreath is ready now, To place upon his loyal brow,

    And we'll all feel glad when Johnny comes marching home.

    Let love and friendship on that day, Hurrah! Hurrah!

    Their choicest pleasures then display, Hurrah! Hurrah!

    And let each one perform some part, To fill with joy the warrior's heart,

    And we'll all feel glad when Johnny comes marching home.

  • 15

    Special points of interest:

    John Philip Sousa was known as The March King.

    He was enlisted in the United States Marine Band when he was only 13

    years old.

    He formed his own band, the Sousa Band, in 1892. The band toured the

    world from 1892-1931, performing over 15,000 concerts.

    About the Music:

    The Stars and Stripes Forever is the national march of the United States of America. Sousa wrote that he composed the march on

    Christmas Day, 1896. He was on an ocean liner on his way home from a vacation with his wife in Europe. The Stars and Strips

    Forever follows the standard American march form. Its trio section is the most famous part of the march. Most bands adopt the

    Sousa band one or three (never two) piccolo players play the famous obbligato in the second trio section.

    In 1987, Congress declared The Stars and Stripes Forever the National March of the United States. The piece is often played on

    the Fourth of July.

    John Philip Sousa (1854-1932):

    The Stars and Stripes Forever

    United States of America :

    The United States flag flew over Texas from 1845-1861 and 1870-

    present.

    In 1845 Texas became the 28th state of the United States of America.

    The US president at the time was James K. Polk. In a special ceremony,

    J. Pinckney Henderson became the first governor of the state of Texas.

  • 16

    Lyrics:

    Let martial note in triumph float And liberty extend its mighty hand;

    A flag appears mid thundrous cheers, The banner of the western land.

    The emblem of the brave and true Its folds protect no tyrant crew;

    The red and white and starry blue Is freedoms shield and hope.

    Other nations may deem their flags the best And cheer them with fervid elation

    But the flag of the North and South and West Is the flag of flags, the flag of freedoms

    nation.

    Hurrah for the flag of the free! May it wave as our standard forever,

    The gem of the land and the sea, The banner of the right.

    Let despots remember the day When our fathers with mighty endeavor Proclaimed as they marched to the fray

    That by their might and by their right It waves forever!

    Let eagle shriek from lofty peak The never-ending watchword of our land;

    Let summer breeze waft through the trees The echo of the chorus grand. Sing out for liberty and light,

    Sing out for freedom and right; Sing out for the Union and its might,

    Oh patriotic sons.

    Other nations may deem their flags the best And cheer them with fervent elation

    But the flag of the North and South and West Is the flag of flags, the flag of freedoms

    nation.

    Hurrah for the flag of the free! May it wave as our standard forever,

    The gem of the land and the sea, The banner of the right.

    Let despots remember the day When our fathers with mighty endeavor Proclaimed as they marched to the fray

    That by their might and by their right It waves forever!

  • 17

    STRINGS The string family is the largest section of the orchestra. String

    instruments are all made of wood. The bodies of the string

    instruments are hollow inside to allow sound to vibrate within

    them. The strings on the instrument are most often made of nylon

    and steel, and are played by drawing a bow across them.

    Sometimes string players use their fingers to pluck the strings.

    The VIOLIN is the smallest of the string instruments and can play

    the highest notes. You play the violin by resting it between your

    chin and left shoulder. Then you press down on the strings with

    your left hand to change the pitch, while your right hand moves the

    bow or plucks the strings.

    The VIOLA is slightly larger than the violin and plays lower notes.

    The strings on a viola are also thicker. You play the viola the same

    way you do the violin.

    The CELLO is much larger than the violin and the viola. You play it

    sitting down with the body of the cello between your knees and the

    neck of the instrument on your left shoulder. The body of the cello

    rests on the ground and is supported by a metal peg.

    The DOUBLE BASS is the largest string instrument and plays the

    lowest notes. This instrument is so large that you have to stand up

    or sit on a tall stool to play it. Like the cello, the body of the

    instrument stands on the ground and is supported by a metal peg.

  • 18

    WOODWINDS Woodwind instruments produce sound when players blow air into

    them. All of these instruments were originally made out of wood,

    which is why they are called woodwinds! Today, they are made of

    wood, metal, plastic or some combination.

    The FLUTE is made of metals such as silver, gold, or platinum. You

    play the flute by holding it sideways with both hands and blowing

    across a hole in the mouthpiece. You change notes by pressing

    down on round, metal buttons called keys.

    The OBOE makes sound when the player blows air through a

    mouthpiece containing two cut pieces of bamboo that have been

    tied together called a double reed. You play the oboe by holding it

    upright and pressing down on the keys to change the pitch. The

    first oboist is also responsible for tuning the whole orchestra before

    each concert.

    The CLARINET looks a lot like the oboe, except for the mouthpiece,

    which uses a single reed. You play the clarinet as you do an oboe, by

    holding it upright, blowing through the reed, and using your fingers

    to press the keys and change the pitch.

    The BASSOON is the largest of the woodwind instruments. Like

    the oboe, the bassoon uses a double reed. You play the bassoon by

    holding it upright and blowing through the double reed. The air

    travels down a long pipe, then makes a U-turn, and goes out the top.

  • 19

    BRASS Brass instruments got their name because they are made of brass!

    This family of instruments plays louder than any other in the

    orchestra. Brass instruments are long tubes that are bent into

    different shapes and widen and flare out at the end.

    The TRUMPET is the smallest brass instrument and can play the

    highest notes of all the brass instruments. You play the trumpet by

    holding it horizontally, buzzing your lips into the mouthpiece, and

    pressing down the valves to change the pitch.

    The HORN is a very long tube that is twisted and curled into an

    instrument about one foot wide. If you untwisted the tube, it would

    be 18 feet long! You play the horn by holding it with the bell

    curving downward and buzzing into the mouthpiece. Your left

    hand plays three valves. You can change the type of sound by the

    way you place your right hand in the bell.

    The TROMBONE is the only brass instrument that does not use

    valves. Instead, the player moves a curved tube, called a slide, back

    and forth in order to change notes. You play the trombone by

    holding it horizontally, buzzing into the mouthpiece, and using your

    right hand to push or pull the slide.

    The TUBA is the largest and lowest sounding instrument in the

    brass section. If you uncoiled it, it would be 35 feet long! You play

    the tuba sitting down with the instrument on your lap and the bell

    facing up. The you blow and buzz into the mouthpiece and use your

    hand to press down on the valves which changes the sound.

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    PERCUSSION Percussion instruments include any instrument that makes a

    sound when it is hit, shaken, or scraped.

    One of the most commonly used percussion

    instruments is the TIMPANI. They are also called

    kettledrums. Timpani are big copper pots with

    drumheads made of calfskin or plastic stretched

    over the top. The timpani are played by striking the

    covering with padded sticks called mallets. Timpani

    are tuned instruments, which means they can play

    different notes.

    Other percussion instruments that are struck by a

    mallet or stick are the SNARE DRUM, BASS DRUM,

    TRIANGLE, XYLOPHONE, GONG, and CHIMES.

    A few other percussion instruments are CYMBALS,

    CASTANETS, MARACAS, and TAMBOURINE.

    The PIANO is also considered a percussion instrument.

    You make sound on the piano by pressing down on a

    key with your finger, which lifts a hammer inside the

    piano that then strikes a steel string.