Russian Navy-future Development

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We are all aware of the naval power that USA posesses, it is hard not to be aware while the US ships are cruising the seas and oceans all around the world. There is a strong reason why almost everyone consideres US Navy to hold the first place on the top most powerful navies of the globe. I will try in this brief presentation to make you look East to another country, one that maybe can rise to the status of the chalenger for US Navy. Russia has the longest coastline in the world 38,000 km (its coastline is twice the length of that of the United States), it is washed by two oceans and twelve seas, 70% of Russian boundary lies in sea waters. Russia has land borders with only 18 countries, and by sea it has dealings with and co-operates in the political, economic, commercial, cultural, scientific research and military sphere with some 125 states. During the cold war the Soviet Navy was one of the largest and strongest navies in the world, but after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, due to political and especially economic crises, the Russian Navy as with all Russian Armed Forces is embroiled in the same crises as rest of the countries. The Russian navy also suffered from downsizing. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Russian Navy has been reduced by half. Russia retained only 66 percent (113) of the 170 factories and enterprises directly supporting naval shipbuilding. The current state of the Russian Navy and the outlook for its future development are the cause of some concern to her sailors, due to, firstly, Russia's Naval power is diminishing, the shipbuilding industry will be incapable of turning out nuclear submarines and ocean going vessels. Secondly, since 1992, the inventory of vessels has shrunk by a half and naval aviation by 60 percent; ageing of vessels and armament varies from 70 percent to 30 percent according to the type. In order to deal with this, the Russian Navy reduced operations and removed from operational status those ships and submarines with less than half of their planned service remaining. This has resulted in the complete elimination of several classes of ships and submarines, remaining the need for many costly overhauls, nuclear refuelling, and a reduction in the navy's manpower requirements, allowing for the elimination and consolidation of some navy formations. No part of the Navy was spared. Russia is still the largest country in the world. It possesses vast resources and has the potential to overcome its economic crisis. The most encouraging thing is the naval units are regularly visiting and carrying out exercises with other countries especially western navies, exchanging officers, which is a good step to improve the image of Russia as well as the Russian Navy and to foster detente. The regular Russian Navy was originally established by Peter the Great (Peter I) in October of 1696. Nowadays the Russian Navy possesses the vast majority of the former Soviet naval forces, and currently comprises :

1. Northern FleetThe Russian Northern Fleet, established as a modern formation in 1933, is headquartered at Severomorsk and spread around various bases in the Murmansk area. This is the main fleet of the Russian Navy and as currently consists of:

Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier or "heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser(1) Kirov class nuclear-powered cruiser (2) Slava class cruiser (1) Udaloy class destroyer (5) Sovremennyy class destroyer (2) Delta IV class submarine (6) Typhoon class submarine (1)

Oscar class submarine (3) Sierra class submarine (2) Akula class submarine (6) Victor class submarine (4) Kilo class submarine (6) Borei class submarine (2) 2 in sea trials

The Fleet also includes many corvettes, patrol ships, light amphibious ships and support and logistic ships.

2. Baltic FleetThe Baltic Fleet, established on 18 May 1703, is based in Baltiysk and Kronshtadt, with its headquarters in the city of Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast. The Fleet consists of:

Sovremennyy class destroyer (2) Burevestnik class frigate (1) Neustrashimy class frigate (2) Kilo class submarine (2) Lada class submarine (1)

The Baltic Fleet also includes many corvettes, patrol ships, minehunters, light amphibious war ships and support ships.

3. The Black Sea FleetThe Black Sea Fleet, established on 2 May 1783 and is based at the Sevastopol, Karantinnaya, and Streletskaya Bays in Sevastopol which is also the location of its headquarters, and at Novorossiysk in Krasnodar Kray. The fleet also has various other leased facilities on the Crimean Peninsula and facilities in Krasnodar Kray. The Fleet consists of:

Slava class cruiser (1) Kara class cruiser (1) Kashin class destroyer (1) Burevestnik class frigate (2) Kilo class submarine (1)

The Fleet also includes a small number of corvettes, patrol and coastal protection ships.

4. Caspian FlotillaThe Caspian Flotilla, established on 4 November 1722, is based in Astrakhan and Makhachkala with its headquarters in Astrakhan. The Fleet consists of:

Tartarstan/Gepard class frigate (1)

The Fleet also includes a small number of corvettes and patrol ships.

5. Pacific FleetThe Pacific Fleet, established on 10 May 1731 and is headquartered in Vladivostok and based around Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy. The Fleet consists of:

Slava class cruiser (1) Sovremennyy class destroyer (1) Udaloy class destroyer (4) Delta III class submarine (3) Oscar class submarine (2) Akula class submarine (5) Kilo class submarine (7)

The Pacific Fleet also includes coastal combatants such as corvettes and patrol ships, mine warfare vessels, support and logistic ships and light amphibious ships. Recently approved, a rearmament program until 2015 puts, for the first time in Soviet and Russian history, the development of the navy on an equal footing with strategic nuclear forces. The program covering the period until 2015 is expected to replace 45% of the military inventory in the army and navy. Out of 4.9 trillion rubles ($192.16 billion) allocated for military rearmament, 25% will go into building new ships. These are some of the new ships of the Russian Navy:

1.DESTROYERMulti-purpose nuclear destroyer represents the fourth generation of Russian surface fighting ships. Will be laid down in 2012 and delivered in 2016.The ship is intended to engage major surface combatants and submarines, perform anti-submarine and air defense, as well as fire support for landing operations. The propulsion system allows a top speed of 29.5 knots, an economical speed of 18 knots with a maximum range of 5,800 nautical miles (10741km). The ship's stability allows the armament and machinery to be operated at up to sea state 5 levels. An aft flight deck and hangar provides facilities for two Ka-27 helicopters.

2.BALLISTIC MISSILE SUBMARINES1.

Borei class submarine - 3 orderedo o o K 535 YURIY DOLGORUKIY - On sea trials. Planned to enter service in 1st half 2011 (if her main armament, missile Bulava, be commissioned) K 550 ALEKSANDR NEVSKIY - Laid down in 2004, launched 6.12.2010, on sea trials, planned to be commissioned in late 2012 K ??? VLADIMIR MONOMAKH - Laid down in 2006

2.

Upgraded Borei II class submarine - 1 ordered + 4 planned o SVYATITEL NIKOLAY - Was planned to be laid down in 2010

3.NUCLEAR ATTACK SUBMARINES

Yasen class submarine - 1 ordered

- Laid down in 1993. Launched 2010. On sea trials and planned to be delivered in 2011 Yasen M class submarine - 1 ordered + 8 planned to be delivered by 2020 o K KAZAN - Laid down in 2009. Planned to be delivered in 2015 o K - Will be laid down in 2011o K 329 SEVERODVINSK

4.CONVENTIONAL ATTACK SUBMARINESIn State Arms Program 2011-2020 is planned to build up to 20 submarines.

Improved Kilo class submarine - 3 ordered [102] + 3 more planned [103] (probably ordered - need to be confirmed) o B 261 NOVOROSSIYSK - Laid down in August 2010 [105] Planned to be commissioned in 2013 [106] o B 237 ROSTOV NA DONU - Laid down in November 2011.[107] Planned to be commissioned in 2014 o B ??? ??? - Will be laid down in 2011. Planned to be commissioned in 2014 Lada class submarine - 2 ordered + 5 planned In 2011 was project suspended. Class will not enter into service, as it failed to achieve required standards o B 586 KRONSHTADT - Laid down in 2005 - construction suspended o B 587 SEVASTOPOL - Laid down in 2006 - construction suspended

5.FRIGATESGRIGOROVICH CLASS FRIGATE 6 orderedo ADMIRAL GRIGOROVICH - Laid down in 18 December 2010 Planned to be delivered in 2013 o ADMIRAL ESSEN - Laid down in 8 July 2011 Planned to be delivered in 2013 o ADMIRAL MAKAROV - Will be laid down in autumn 2011. Planned to be delivered in 2014

SERGEY GORSHKOV CLASS

Gorshkov class frigate - 6 ordered + 14-24 more plannedo o ??? ADMIRAL FLOTA SOVETSKOGO SOYUZA GORSHKOV - Laid down in 2006. Was launched on 29 October ??? ADMIRAL FLOTA KASATONOV - Laid down in 2009. Planned to be delivered in 2014

2010 and planned to be delivered in 2012

GEPARD CLASS FRIGATE

Gepard class corvette - 2 ordered

o o

??? DAGESTAN - laid down in 1994, launched 1.4.2011, planned to enter ??? BUREVESTNIK - status unclear

service by end of 2011

STEREGUSHCHIY CLASS CORVETTE

Steregushchiy class corvette - 14 ordered + 10 planned o ??? BOIKIY - Laid down in 2005, launched on 15 April.2011. Planned to be delivered in 2012 o ??? SOVERSHENNYY - Laid down in 2006. Planned to be delivered in 2012 or later (status unclear) o ??? STOIKIY - Laid down in 2006. Planned to be delivered in 2012 o Improved Steregushchiy class corvette - 4 ordered o ??? PROVORNYY -Laid down on 26 May 2011

BUYAN CLASS

6.MINESWEEPERS

Project 12700 Alexandrit class minesweeper - 1 ordered + 3 planned o Alexandrit