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8/17/2019 Rules for the Conduct of the Wargame 1872 http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rules-for-the-conduct-of-the-wargame-1872 1/55 CONDUCT OF THE WA ' [COMPILED AT THE TOPOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE war Office , by c a p t a in e . b a r in g , royal artillery .] ;• L ondon : ; ; Printed under the Superintendence of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, ADD SOLD BY - - W . CLOWES & SONS, 13, Charing Cross j E . STANFORD, G, Charing Cross; • ' HARRISON' & SONS, 69, Pall Mall; W. H. .ALLEN & Co., 13, Waterloo Place; W. MITCH ELL, Charing Cross j LONGMAN &-Co., and TRUBNER & Co., Paternoster Row; and •• HEN RY S. KING & Co., 65, Comhill; Also by ' , . , r.'i ,':l A. & C. Bl'ACK, tewKBUEon; D. ROBERTSON, 90, St. Vincent St., Glasgow j ALEX. THOM, Abbey.Street, and E. PONSONBY, Grafton St., Dublin. Price 2d. The Box of Men, &c., referred to, 61. Gs., and the 16 Maps, mounted and coloured, Gl.

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C O N D U C T O F T H E W A

' [COMPILED AT THE TOPOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE

w a r Of f i c e , b y c a p t a i n e . b a r i n g , r o y a l a r t i l l e r y .]

• ;• Lo n d o n : ; ;Printed under the Superintendence o f H er Majesty’s Stationery Office,

ADD SOLD BY - -W . CLOWES & SONS, 13, Charing Cross j E . STANFORD, G, Charing Cross;

• ' HARRISON' & SONS, 69, Pall Mall;W. H . .ALLEN & Co., 13, Waterloo Place ; W. MITCH ELL, Charing Cross j

LONGMAN &-Co., and TRUBNER & Co., Paternoster Row; and •• HEN RY S. KING & Co., 65, Comhill;

Also by ' , . , r.'i ,':lA. & C. Bl'ACK, tewKBUEon; D . ROBERTSON, 90, St. Vincent St., G l a s g o w j

ALEX. THOM, Abbey .Street, and E. PONSONBY, Grafton St., D u b l i n .

Price 2d.

The Box of Men, &c., referred to, 61. Gs., and the 16 Maps, mounted and coloured, Gl.

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I N D E X .

IV

1

II. D e s c r i p t i o n o p P l a n s , M a r k e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g

T r o o p s , & c .:

1. Plans . . i2 . Troops . . . . • a • • 1

3. Scales • • • • 34. Description of Table for deciding on the Result of

Engagements, &c... • • • • 4

5. Table for calculating the Losses caused by Infantryand Artillery Fire • . . . 7

6. Table for Noting Time and Losses . . 9

III. R a t e op M a r c h i n g 10

IV. C o n s t ru c t i o n a n d R e p a i r o p B r i d g e s , &c.• •

12

V. M e t h o d o f C o n d u c t i n g t h e G am e 13

VI. R t j l e s t o r t h e C o n d u c t o f E n g a g e m e n ts :

16•B. Infantry :

1. Infantry against Infantry • • • • 182. Infantry against Cavalry. . • • *■ 193. Infantry against Artillery • • e » 19

C. Cavalry:21

2. Cavalry against Cavalry . . • • • • 223. Cavalry against Artillery 244. Cavalry fighting on foot • • • • 24

D. Artillery . . . . . . • • • * 25

E. Attack and Defence of Villages, Defiles, fortified Positions, &c....................... . . • • ' * • 27

F. Debouching from a Defile • • • • 29G-. Burning of Buildings and Villages • • • • 3 0

H. Destruction of Bridges, Barricades, &c. • < • « 31VII. P r i s o n e r s . . • a. t i 32

VIII . Nr g o t A t t a c k ’s . . . . . . 32A p t e n d i x No. I ................... ........................ • • • • 33

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Ho r s e

Gu a r d s

De pa r t me n t

, V f j , W a r O f f i c e ,

February 1 2th , 1872,

T h e Secretary of State for War, having approved of the issue of a certain number of sets of the “ War-Game ’’

for the use of the Officers of the Army, His Royal Highness the Commander-in-Ohief, in recommending that Officers should avail themselves to the utmost of this useful means of instruction, directs that the game is to be played according to the accompanying Eules.

E . A I R E Y,

Adju tant- General.

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T h e “ Kriegsspiel” or War-Game,\in its present form, wasoriginally the invention of a civilian, Herr von Reiswitz ; thedetails were carefully worked out by this gentleman’s son, whowas a Prussian Artillery Officer.* The Militair-Wochenblatt, ofMarch 6th, 1824, contains a notice, signed by Field-Marshalvon Muffling, which speaks in high terms of the instruction andadvantage to be derived from the game.

: Although, therefore, the game is ‘no novelty , it is only

recently that its importance has been fully recognised out ofGermany ; the increased importance which is now attached toit may be, in some measure, due to the feeling th a t the grea ttactical skill displayed by Prussian Officers in the late warhad been, at least partially, acquired by means of the instruction which the game aifords. However this may be, it is certainth a t within the last few months increased atten tion has been paid to the game not only in England, but on the Continent;the numerous articles on the subject in English and foreignmilitary periodicals abundantly testify to the truth of thisstatement.

In point of fact, the names of the officers who have patronizedthe game are a sufficient guarantee of its practical utility.Some 20 years ago a society of officers was formed at Mag

* Some sort of War-Game has been in existence for a long time. The“ Jeu de la Guerre” and “ Jeu de la Fortification,” which were issued inFrance during the last Century, were played with cards, and bear noresemblance whatever to the modern game; there are at present some olddrawings of these cards at the Topographical Department of the WarOffice; they bear no date, bu t from the names used on them i t may

bo inferred th at they were manufactured in the latter part of the reign ofLouis XV.

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deburg for the special object of fla y in g the game; the chief ofthis society was 'Count von Molkte, ilien Chief, of the Staff of

the 4th Army Corps. General Blumenthal attaches great im portance to it. In Austria also the game has met with theapproval of the most distinguished officers of the Army. ,

Apart from the tactical instruction which it is the primaryobject of the game to impart, it teaches officers to realize thespace occupied by troops, either when deployed or oh themarch, and the time required to transport bodies of men from pne poin t to another; it also excites a spirit of emulation,and leads to the frequent discussion of military questions of im portance.* '' Several different codes of regulations for the conduct of thegame have appeared, which differ in points of detail, althoughthe principles maintained throughout are the same.f The

present code is, for the most part, a free transla tion of the“ An leitung zuni Kriegsspiel,” by Captain W. von Tschischwitz,

of the Prussian Army. A good many points have, of course, been altered to suit the organization and tactics of our ownArmy. The arrangement of Table A, Appendix III, has beenaltered; the German code substitutes a separate Table, theexact nature of which it is unnecessary to explain, for the columnwhich, in the Table attache d to the presen t code, is headed“ Odds for or Against”; this arrangement was suggested to

the compiler by a Prussian Officer and appears to be decidedlysuperior, as it ' is simpler than the original; the explanation ofthe manner in which the Table is applied (par. 11) and someother parts liave also been re-written. The introductionof the and — sign is a novelty. In some other small pointsthe present code differs slightly from the 'German arrangement.

It is possible—indeed it is almost certain—that experiencer I t , ; 1 »• . , . / - ; i <• '. ’ ' : I ' > 1 1 ", 1 ' ‘ W i i I • > V " ' ' , i 1 i r , , f *

* “ La pratique de ce jeu suscite entreceux qui s!y livrent desdiseus-“ sions journal ises sur l’ar t de la guerre, et cet echange d’id6es entre“ offieiers de science et d’experience divers'es, est fait pour entretenir dans“ un corps d’offieiers Tamour de l’etude et de la profession dels armes.”-—

Revue Militaire de VEtranger, ! e r Janvier', 18721 " ' ■' -

.+ Amongst the most recent are those, by Lieutenant Zipser, of theAustrian Artilleryj and by Colohel’von Trotha, of the Prussian Army. ‘ ’

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■will Buggest many amendm ents an d alterations in the present

code of regulations; in the meanwhile every endeavour has been made to make them as clear as possible, but th e subjectis somewhat complicated, and it will be impossible for any oneto understand and remember the conventional rules of thegame without careful study. I t should be borne in mind,however, that it is by no means necessary that every officerwho plays a t this game should thoroughly understand allthese conventional rules; it is quite immaterial whetherthey are ignorant of them, or no t; all th at is required o fthem is that they should learn what the various blocks ofmetal severally represent, that they should be able to readan ordinary map, that they should come to their work witha tolerable knowledge of the leading principles which governthe march of troops and their disposition in action, and th a tthey should yield implicit obedience to the decision of the

Umpire, whatever it may be. On the other hand, the Umpirehimself must be thoroughly acquainted with th at pa rt of themodem art of war which has reference to the movement oftroops both during an engagement and previous to it, andmust also be ready at once to apply the conventional rules ofthe game to any case which may occur. The value of thegame depends, indeed, almost entirely upon the Umpire, and

it cannot be too strongly impressed upon all officers who actas Umpires, that they must make themselves thoroughlyacquainted with the manner in which the game is conducted.I t is also ve iy desirable that, before c'ommencing any particular game, the Umpire should carefully study the groundon the map, with a view, as far as possible, to anticipatingin his own mind the combinations which may occur. I t ishoped th at the summary of the principal rules, and the tabu larstatements in Appendix II, will be useful for. reference, andwill facilitate the execution of the somewhat difficult dutywhich devolves on the Umpire.

The maps which are issued are on a scale of 6 inches to am ile ; those used in Prussia a re on a scale of 8 inches to a mile;and, though very rough of execution, are admirably suited forthe purpose. I t would, of course, be possible to prepare similar

maps in this country, but the more convenient and economical

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course is to make use of those m aps which already ex is t; shouldthese not be found to answer the purpose, the subject of the

prepara tion of o ther maps can be taken in to consideration.

The annexed proposed regulations for the conduct of the

“ W ar Gam e” have been compiled a t the Topographical andStatistical Department of the W ar Office, by Captain E. Baring,Royal Artillery, after communication with Officers of thedifferent Arms.

C. W . W i l s o n , Captain, B.E., Director.

4

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■INTRODUCTION.

1. Th e “ W a P tja m e 55 is intended to afford a representation ofmilitary manoeuvres on a map drawn to a large scale, the troop s

engaged being indicated by small moveable metal blocks.2. Rules for the movem ent of the troops and for theirconduct in action, as well as for th e m ethod of calculating thelosses w hich are to be supposed to occur und er various circumstances are laid down in pars. 14 to 61. These rules are intendedto impart, as far as possible, a sense of reality to the mimicmanoeuvres.

3. In conducting this game the same difficulties are encoun teredas in the con duct of manoeuvres in the field in time of peace, tha tis to say, it is impossible to . introduce the element of superiorcourage o r training on the p art of one or o ther o f the opposing forces,and it is most difficult to realize the full effect of Infantry and Artillery fire. In orde r, however, to introduce these im portan t elemen tsinto the game as far as possible, Tables have been compiled whichare used in conjunction with dice; the m ethod of applying theseTables will be explained hereafter.

I I . -DESCRIPTION OF PLANS, MARKERS REPRESENTING TROOPS, &c.

1.— Plans.

4. The m aps are drawn to a scale of 6 inches to a mile. Thewoods are coloured g re en ; the main roads, viz., those which are

metalled and are more tha n 18 feet wide, dark bro w n; other roads, 'light brown.

2.— Troops.

5. The troops are indicated by metal blocks, one set beingcoloured red and the othe r blue. In hand ling these blocks it isdesirable to avoid touch ing the coloured surface as much as

possib le , to prevent it becoming defaced; tw o pairs of pincersare provided with each box, which will be found convenient forthe purpose of moving the blocks. Th e Plate in Appendix V Ishows what each metal block is m ean t to represent. The blocksare made to scale in so far as length of fron t is concerned, with .

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the exception of those which represent a company, a patrol, anda sentry or vedette; the size of these latter has been somewhatexaggerated. The Pontoon Train, Telegraph Troop, and Equipment Train of the Engineers are drawn to scale, each being incolumn of route.

6. Each box contains sufficient metal blocks for themanoeuvres on either side of an Army Corps constituted asfollows:—

Men. Horses. Q-uns.

27,000 3,411 362,093 1,881 6

Reserve Artillery.673 612 18609 552 18

1 Artillery Reserve Ammunition Column . . . . 128 126 ••

Eeserve Engineers.124 8244 117 . .

251 154 , .

249 120 ••

31,271* 6,981 78

Each Division of Infantry is constituted as follows

Men. Horses. Guns.

6,594 601,099 10 , ,

634 559 , #2 Batteries, Field Artillery . . .......................... 406 368 121 Company, Engineers . . . . . . , , 124 8 , .1 Infantry and Artillery Reserve Ammunition Column 143 142 ••

/9,000 1,137 12

Each Brigade of Infantry consists of 3 battalions, each of 1,099 officers and men. A Company of Infantry consists of 3officers and 130 non-commissioned officers and men ;. there are 8companies in a battalion.

The Cavalry Brigade consists of 3 Regiments and 1 Battery ofHorse Artillery.

A Regiment of Cavalry consists of 634 officers and men and559 horses (79 officers, 480 troop). A Squadron consists of 5officers and 120 mounted non-commissioned officers and men;there are 4 squadrons in a regiment. "

* Exclusive of Staff.

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A Battery of Horse Artillery consists of—

6 9-pr. Guns.9 Ammunition Wagons.1 Forge Wagon.1 Store Wagon.1 General Servico Wagon.XStore Cart.1 Cavalry Ball Cartridge Wagon.

Total.. .. 20

191 Officers and Men.204 Horses.

A Field Battery of 9-pr. guns consists of— 6 Guns.

12 Ammunition Wagons.1 Forge Wagon.XStore Wagon.1 General Service Wagon.1 Store Cart.

Total.. . . 2 2

203 Officers and Men.184 Horses.

The Artillery and Infantry Reserve Ammunition Column consists of 27 wagons of different kinds. •

The Artillery Reserve Ammunition Column consists of 24wagons of different kinds. It carries the reserve ammunition forthe 3 Field Batteries and 3 Horse Artillery Batteries in reserve.

A Company of Engineers consists of 124 officers and men.An Equipment Troop of the Engineer Train consists of 33

wagons and carts of different kinds, and carries tools for 3 com panies of Engineers. The troop is divided into 3 sections, eachof which carries tools for 1 company.

The Pontoon Train carries material for the construction of a . bridge 120 yards long, capable of supporting Siege Artillery.

The Telegraph Troop carries 36 miles of wire.

3.— Scales.

7* The ivory scale (Fig. 1, Appendix V II ) admits of measure

ments being made in yards or in paces.8. The ivory scale, of which Fig. 2, Appendix VII, is a representation, shows the intervals between contours at differentdegrees of slopes from 5° to 25°; all measurements must, ofcourse, be made from the left of each line on the scale, and caremust be taken to ascertain whether the contours on the map aredrawn at intervals of 25, 50, or 100 feet. The diagram at the back of the scale shows the section of the different slopes from 5°to 45°.

9. The metal scale (Fig. 3, Appendix V II) will be founduseful in the case of short moves.

B 2

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10. The pieces should be moved by the Umpire, or hisassistants, and not by the players themselves.

4.— Description o f Table A, fo r deciding on the Result of Engagements, SfC.

11. In deciding as to whether an attack has succeeded or failed,the nature of the ground, the numerical strength of the opposingforces, and their condition, that is to say, whether the troops arefatigued or fresh, whether disordered, or the contrary, &c., have allto be taken into consideration. In order to facilitate a decisionwith reference to these points, an ordinary die is used in con junction with Table A (Appendix III).

It will often occur that one of two opposing forces has aconsiderable primd facie advantage over the other, by reason ofnumerical superiority, position, or some other cause; at thesame time, although the defeat of the party which is placed at adisadvantage is probable, the uncertainty of war is such that itcannot be said that his defeat is certain unless the disparity ofnumbers, the difference in the reciprocal position of the opposingforces, or some other equally important condition gives advantagesto one side of such a nature as to render success on the other

side impossible. The object which it is sought to attain in theapplication of the Table is to represent, as far as possible, thesechances o f war, or, in other words, to represent in the mathematical language of favourable and unfavourable chances thedegree of probability with which success or failure can be predicted under various coaditions. The method of applying theTable is very simple.’

I t will be observed that the Table is divided into three principalcolumns, headed respectively red, faces of the die, and blue.

The two outer columns are somewhat similar. The one markedred, intended to be used only by the force which is characterised by that colour, is divided into two sub-columns, headed “ Numberof Index Points ” and “ Odds for or Against/' The other outercolumn, sub-divided in a similar manner, is for the use of theforce having blue for its distinguishing colour.

These vertical columns are separated across the diagram byhorizontal lines enclosing spaces in which are marked the differentcombinations of “ odds ” which can occur. On examining thearrangement it will be seen that the column for red is marked5: 1 against, 4 : 1 against, and so on through the series ending with5: 1 on.

In the same way the column for blue is marked 5 : 1 o n ,.4 :1 on, and so on through the series ending with 5 :1 against.*

* The arrangement is obvious, for supposing red to cast the die, andit is decided tha t he is to throw with — II Index Points, or in otherwords tha t the odds against the success of his enterprise are 2 :1 , it isevident that the odds in- blue’s favour are 2 :1 on, which, by carryingthe eye across the table, is seen to be the case.

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To decide any question by means of the Table it is in the firstinstance necessary to determine the number of Index Points

+ or — with which the thrower is to cast the die, or, in otherwords, what are the chances for or against the success of the particular enterprise in question.

The method of determining the chances under differentcircumstances is laid down in paragraphs 14-61.

The column marked “ Faces of the Die ” is sub-divided into6 sub-columns corresponding to the faces. The letters It. T. D.are abbreviations for repulses, defeats, and total defeats; thenumerals refer to the losses of the defeated side in men.

The numbers above the letters refer to losses per battalion,those below per squadron. These losses are those- caused by thearme blanche, i.e., by the bayonet or sabre; in order to estimate thelosses caused by previous fire, reference must be made to Table B(Appendix IV). Thus, if the odds are 2 : 1 against red, or hethrows with —II Index Points and the die turns up •, theside represented by that colour, or blue in this case, wins anddefeats red, inflicting a loss on his troops of 18 men per battalion,or 4 men per squadron, if ■ turns up, red wins and repulses blue,with a loss to blue of 12 men per battalion or 2 men per squadron.

In order to make the foregoing description more clear, it will perhaps be as well to give a couple of examples of the manner inwhich the Table is applied; in the first instance, however, it isnecessary to state that in so far as mere numerical strength is con-’irj&edj a battalion of Infantry column is supposed to have the

nances of success as a regiment of Cavalry or as 4 com pan ies-^ Infantry in extended order, or as half a battery^ ofartille''iilleV g

Example I .

C r ^ J ^ W ^ l u e squadrons surprise and attack a red battalion in'^Sphirnn/ In applying Table A in order to decide on the success

oMailiire of the attack, what number of Index Points should beused ?

In so far as. numerical strength is concerned a battalion ofInfantry is considered to have the same chances of success as 4squadrons; in this case, therefore, as there are 8 squadronsopposed to one battalion of Infantry, the chances are 2: 1 againstthe Infantry, or the number of Index Points the red Infan tryshould have would be — II . But according to the rule laid down in

paragraph 33, when Cavalry attacks Infantry in column, it loses 4Index Points, or, which is the same thing, the Infantry gain 4Index Points; therefore the number of Index Points the redInfantry should have would be — 2 + 4 = + 11. But by therule laid down in paragraph 26 troops which are surprised forfeit2 Index Points, therefore the number of Index Points thered Infantry have must be reduced by 2, the final number istherefore + 2 — 2 = 0, or the “ odds” are even for or against tbe

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enterprise, and if the die turns up ; , or ; ■; blue wins, if or • • red wins.

As regards the loss sustained by the Cavalry in attacking from

the fire of the Infantry, it may either be calculated by means ofTable B (Appendix IV), or the rule laid down in par. 33 may beapplied, that is to say, that a loss of 15 men per squadron issupposed to be incurred if the attack is successful, or a loss of20 men per squadron if unsuccessful. .

If the charge of Cavalry is successful, and the men remain inconflict with the Infantry, the latter, by virtue of the rule laid downin par. 33, lose a quarter of their strength for every move (that is,as will be hereafter explained, for every period of two minutes),during which the melee lasts ; the Cavalry lose 5 men per squadronfor every move during which the melee lasts.

Example I I ,Three red squadrons of Cavalry which have been much

shaken are attacked by two intact blue squadrons ; the action takes place on a hill which slopes about 10°; the force of 2 squadronsoccupies the lower, the opposing force the higher ground.

In deciding the result of the action by means of the Table,what number of Index Points should be used ?

If both forces were intact it is clear that the chances of successwould be unfavourable to the forces which is numerically inferiorin the proportion of 3 : 2, hence the blue squadrons would throwwith —I ; but this latter force gains an advantage of one IndexPoint from the nature of the ground (see paragraph 38), and oftwo further Index Points from the fact that the red squadrons aremuch shaken.

Hence the final number of Index Points for blue would be-1 + 1 + 2 = + II, or the odds are 2 :1 on blue.

As the Index Number employed in this case is + II, it is necessary, in the first instance, to determine, by means of the Table,whether the decision takes place in the same move as that inwhich the charge is effected, or whether it is delayed to the subsequent move (see par. 39). Blue is anxious that there should not be any delay, therefore if :, •, !•! or • • (blue colours) turnup the result is to be taken by that very throw, bu t if • or :: (redcolours) turn up then the decision will not take place that move.

In the next move the die is again cast to determine which sideis victorious; suppose • to be thrown; a blue square stands vertically beneath •, blue is therefore victorious and defeats the forceof three squadrons, inflicting a loss of 4 men per squadron foreach move during which the meUe lasts; that is with a total loss of8 men per squadron; the 2 victorious squadrons suffer a loss of 4men per squadron by virtue of the rule laid down in paragraph 39.

Now, suppose the victorious Cavalry to pursue for a period of2 moves, the beaten party would in these 2 moves incur a furtherloss of 16 men per squadron, and would then be deemed “ totallydefeated” ; that is to say, by virtue of the rule laid down in

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par. 22, it would not be capable of offering resistance until 8 moveshad elapsed, or of re-assuming the offensive till ] 6 moves had

elapsed. The victorious Cavalry would incur a loss one-sixthas great as the beaten party; that is to say, they would lose 3 menin the pursuit. If, immediately after the pursuit were discontinued, the pursuers were attacked by another force, the Umpirewould have to decide whether the former.were to be considered as“ slightly shaken” or “ much shaken” (par 24). Probably hewould decide that they were “ much shaken.”

5.— Table B fo r Calculating the Losses caused by Infantry and Artillery Fire.

12. 'Fable B (AppendixIV) is intended to afford a means of calculating the losses occasioned by the fire of Infantry and Artillery.In the case of the Artillery, the numbers given in each square repre*sent the loss occasioned during a period of one move* by a batteryof 6 guns; in the case of the Infantry, the numbers given in eachsquare represent the losses occasioned by one battalion in line,or by 4 companies in extended order during a period of onemove. Troops under cover or in extended order suffer onlyone-third of the loss given in the Table; Infantry in line, whenexposed to the fire of shrapnel or common shell incur one-half of theloss shown in the Table; on the other hand, Cavalry suffers a lossone-fifth greater than that given in the Table. The number oftroops against which the fire is directed does not, of course, affectin any way the loss occasioned in a given time, provided the aim be correct, and has not, therefore, to be considered in applyingthis Table, but the foimation is a matter of great consequence, andmust always be taken into account.

The losses occasioned by a greater or less force than a battalion

in line, 4 companies in extended order, or a battery of Artillery,can of course readily be calculated from the data given in the Table by multiplying or dividing.

It will be observed that the Table is divided into two principal parts, one headed “ good effect,” and the other “ bad effect;” itremains with the Umpire to decide which of these two parts shall be employed in any particular case ; in coming to a decision onthis point he will be influenced by the size of the object againstwhich the fire is directed, the relative position of the opposingforces, &c.f

* That is to say, during 2 minutes; see par. 17.t Although, as has been already mentioned, the number of troops

against which the fire is directed does not affect the loss occasioned in agiven time, provided the aim be correct, it is of course clear that thechance of. aiming correctly varies according to the size of the object

* against which the fire is directed; for instance, a single shell bursting inthe midst of a battalion in quarter-column would probably place as manymen hors de combat as one bursting in the midst of a brigade formed incontiguous quarter-column of battalions; but, inasmuch as the former isof smaller dimensions than the latter object, it is more difficult to hit.

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Each portion of the Table is further divided into six verticalcolumns, each'headed by one of the figures on the six sides of a die.

Th e manner of applying the Tab le is similar to tha t alreadydescribed for the application of Tab le

A.;it will, perhaps, be best

explained by an example. Suppose a half ba ttery of 9-pr. guns tohave been firing shrapnel at a line of Infantry skirmishers for fourm inutes (2 moves) a t 850 yards, the range being lcnown, and th e U m

pire having decided th a t the effect of the fire may be considered as“ good;” the die is cnst; suppose ' to be throw n; from the Tableit appears th at 32 men are placed hors de combat in one move bya b attery of 9-prs. firing shrapnel a t the given ra n ge; hence 64 menwould be placed hors de combat in 2 moves. A ha lf battery willtherefore place 32 men hors de combat in two m ove s; bu t inasmu cha:s the Infantry are in extended order, they only incur a loss one-third as great as that given in the Table, that is to say, they lose11 men.

As the ranges must, in almost all cases, be estimated, and arenot in the first instance accurately known, the officer who ordersfiring to commence must be called upon to give his estimate of therange; should he judge it incorrectly, the fire is supposed to produce no effect during the first move of its duration. Inactual war, the Artillery would be able to correct its range

by seeing where the shells burst; if, therefore, the officer incommand of a battery in action should estimate the range incorrectly, the Umpire should inform him whether he has under orover-estimated it, and allow him to estimate it a second time inthe next move, and so on until the correct range be found; untilthis be done the fire is not to be considered as producing anyeffect. As regards the fire of Infantry, if the range be judgedincorrectly, the Umpire must use his discretion as to whether acorrection may be made or not, and also as to whether the fireis to be allowed to produce any effect in subsequent moves, orwhether it is to continue ineffective.

If curved fire* be used, and the range be estimated correctly,it is supposed to take effect, but the party firing is not to beinformed that such is the case. After the fire has lasted for a periodof two moves, Table A is to be employed to decide whether any

As regards the relative position of the troops engaged, the following,which is extracted from Colonel Sir Garnet Wolseley’s “ Soldier’s Pocket-Book,” may be found useful:—

“ 5°—Fire of Infantry and Artillery more effective down than“ up-hill.

“ 10°—Effectual and constant fire of Artillery up-hill ceases.“ 15°—Fire of Infan try in close formations up-hill is without

“ effect. Fire of Artillery up-hill totally ceases.“ 20°—Infantry can only fire up-hill singly with effect.”

* By “ curved ”— or, as it is termed in German, “ indirect ”—fire, ismeant the fire at an object which is concealed from view, e.g., a regimentof Cavalry on the reverse slope of a hill.

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movement on the part of the troops exposed to the fire has withdrawn them from its range, or whether they are still exposed to it.The party firing throw with — I, that is to say, their fire continueseffective if they win the throw, but is considered ineffective ifthey lose it.

In the case of curved fire, if the range be wrongly estimated, thefire is to be considered as producing no effect, but the Umpire mustuse his discretion as to allowing any correction in the range to bemade.

6 .— Table C fo r Noting Time and Losses.

,13. Table C (Appendix Y) is intended to afford a means ofnoting the number of moves which have elapsed, and also ofrecording the losses which are sustained in the course of themanoeuvres. One of these Tables pasted on a board is providedwith each box, together with a few pins.

The moment at which the troops on either side are to begin tomove may either be left to the discretion of the officers in command, or it may be decided by the Umpire; in either case thetime at which the first movement takes place is recorded inTable C in a manner which will best be described by a couple ofExamples:— (1) Supposing the first move to be at 3.30 a .m . ; a pinwould be stuck in the circle numbered 3 of the column headed“ hour,” and another pin in the circle numbered 15 of the columnheaded “ move.” (2) Supposing the first move to be at 5.40 a .m . ;a pin would be stuck in the circle numbered 5 of. the columnheaded “ hour,” and another in the circle numbered 20 of thecolumn headed “ move.” The pin in the column of moves isshifted lower as the game proceeds until the circle numbered 30is reached, when the pin in the column recording the hour isshifted one circle lower, and the record of moves recommences atthe top of its own column. As each move occupies 2 minutes, itis clear that at the end of 30 moves an hour must have elapsed.

The losses are recorded in a precisely similar manner; sup posing, for instance, that in the first move after the actual fightingcommences, the Horse Artillery of the " re d ” side lose 3 menand the Cavalry 6, a pin would be stuck into the circle numbered 3of the column headed “ Horse Artillery” on the “ red” side ofthe Table, and another into the circle numbered 6 of the column

headed Cavalry ” on the same side; these would, of course, beshifted as fresh losses were incurred.It will be observed that in the case of the Infantry and Engi

neers, the numbers stop at 40 ; the reason being that when 40 menhave been placed hors de combat, one company is supposed to berendered non-effective for further action, and must be given up to theUmpire ; in the case of the Cavalry, the loss of 60 men is supposedto entail the loss of a squadron; in the case of the Artillery,the loss of 25 men is supposed to be equivalent to the loss ofone gun.

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The yellow pins are used to note the moves and hour; thelosses on the red side are scored with the red, those on the blueside with the blue pins.

III.—RATE OF MARCHING.*14. Infantry on the march moves at the rate of 200 paces in a

move; when advancing*to the attack of a position without firing,250 paces; when advancing firing from a standing position, 100

paces; when advancing firing from a lying position, and runningfrom one spot affording shelter to another, 50 paces; at the double,350 paces in a move. No more than 3 moves out of 8 may bemade at the double, and to every move at the double there mustsucceed one at the ordinary marching pace. In a thick wood, Infantry are not to be allowed to advance more rapidly than 100 paces in a move.

A Field Battery at a walk advances at the rate of 200 paces ina move; or at the rate of 400 paces in a move when trottingand walking alternately ; 8 moves out of 10 may be allowed atthis latter rate. During an engagement a battery advances walkingat the rate of 250 paces in a move; trotting, at the rate of

600 paces in a move; 2 moves out of 10 are the maximumnumber allowed at the latter rate ; in exceptional cases, 1 move outof 10 may be made at a gallop of 800 paces to a move.

Cavalry and Horse Artillery advance at a ivalk at the rate of200 paces in a move; alternately trotting and walking, 400 paces; at a trot, 600 paces; after every 10 moves at this latter pace, at least 5 subsequent moves must be at the rate of 200 paces: at a gallop, 900 paces; only 2 moves out of 10 are allowedat this latter pace; it can be used by orderlies, individual officers, &c.

In the case of long marches, executed beyond the immediatefield of battle, Cavalry and Artillery may be allowed to advancefor 40 moves, at the rate of 400 paces to a move; after which thesubsequent 20 moves must be at the rate of 200 paces.f In a thinwood they may be allowed to advance at the rate of 200 paces.Cavalry and Artillery movements in a thick wood are consideredaltogether impossible.

If the roads are bad, the country hilly, the night dark, or anyother special circumstances exist which would influence the rate ofmarching, the Umpire can introduce any modifications he pleases.He can also decide as to the duration, &c. of forced marches.During the progress of an engagement the Umpire may allow

* For convenience of reference a summary of this and the nextChapter is given in Appendix II.

j As an instance of what Horse Artillery can do when the necessityarises, the two Horse Artillery Batteries of the Illrd and Vllth GermanArmy Corps in the campaign of 1870-71 marched from Ottweiler toSaarbriicken, a distance of 21 English miles, in 3 hours, reaching the

battle-field of Spicheren in fighting condition. .

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Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery to advance at # walk at the rate of250 paces to a move, if he considers that the nature of the ground

would admit of so rapid an advance.It will be as well to state here the amount of roadway occupied by troops on the march; the figures in each case show the amountof roadway which would be occupied without making any allowancefor the opening out of the columns; the allowance which must bemade on this account must necessarily vary considerably, accordingto the state of the road and other accidental and adventitiouscircumstances; but in the case of large bodies of troops, one-thirdthe total length of the column may generally be regarded as aminimum, allowance.*

* The Umpire must pay great attention to the rapidity of march andthe length of roadway occupied by the columas; the former is veryfrequently oyer-estimated, and the latter under-estimated. ColonelLewal, of the French Army, has gone at great length into the subjectof the length of roadway occupied by troops on the march, in his “ Conference sur la Marche d’un Corps d’A r m e e h e estimates tha t the totallength of roadway occupied by any large body of troops would practically

be two-thirds as much again as that occupied if the regulated distanceswere maintained, and estimates that the length of roadway occupied by an

Army Corps consisting of 39,323 men, in three divisions, would be asfollows:— Yards.

Cavalry Advanced Guard.. ...................................... 2,156Interval .. .. .. .. .. .. 2,187

Infantry Advanced Guard . . .. . . . . 4,62CInterval .. .. .. .. . . . . 3,0(32

Main Bod y.. . . . ..................................................12,332Interval .. . ■ .. .. . . . . 951

Reserve .. . . .. .. . . .. .. 10,081Interval .. .. .. .. .. .. 6,201

Train . . •• •• >• ». •• •• 16,191Interval . . . . .. .. • • • • 328Bear-Guard . • .. . . . . • • . . 1,048

Total . . .. ■. . . 59,163or about 33 i miles.

In this calculation the interval of 6,201 yards between the Reserveand the Train, which might appear excessive, is occupied byCavalry for 1,381 yards of it3 length.

' Colonel Borbstcedt, in his account of the war of 1866, states that aPrussian Army Corps (42,512 men, 13,802 horses, 90 guns, 1,385 car- 'riages of different kinds) on the march takes up about 27 miles of roadway, 18 miles being occupied by the troops themselves, and 9 miles bythe train.

As regards rapidity of-movement, a few instances will suffice to showhow slow is the advance of any large body of men as compared with theordinary walking pace of an individual man. • In 1866, the Austrian8th Army Corps took 14 hours to march from Kasow to Nedelist, nearKoniggratz, a distance of about 12 English miles,- and the same Corps inretreat took 16 hours to march 1? miles, namely, from Zadweraitz toBoikowitz; in the latter case the road was through a very hilly country.On the day of the battle of-Sadowa every effort was made to hasten the

march of the Crown Prince of Prussia; the weather was bad, and the

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A. battalion of Infantry occupies 334 yards (400 paces) ofroadway.

A squadron of Cavalry in fours* occupies 56 yards (67 paces)of roadway, in sections 112 yards (135 paces), in half-sections 224yards (270 paces).

A battery of Horse Artillery in column of route occupies420 yards (500 paces) of roadway; a battery of Field Artillery(9-prs.) 470 yards (564 paces); an Artillery and Infantry ReserveAmmunition Column, 430 yards (516 paces; an Artillery ReserveAmmunition Column, 384 yards (460 paces.)

A company of Engineers occupies 42 yards (50 paces) oirroadway; a Pontoon Train, 619 yards (743 paces); a Telegraph

Troop, 408 yards (490 paces); an Equipment Troop, 225 yards270 paces).

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I V —CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR OF BRID GES, &c.

15. A period of two moves is considered sufficient time to levelthe sides of a ditch and to render the passage of troops practicable. The repair of bridges over ditches no t more than 12 feetwide takes 4 moves. The construction of a floating or trestle- bridge takes 15 moves for every 50 paces, if all the material isready at hand; if not, from 5 to, 10 moves longer. The construction of a pontoon bridge ■takes ■place at the rate of from 8 to12 moves for every 50 paces. If the bridges have to be con-

country hilly; the advanced guard of the 1st Division of the Guardmoving across country, marched from Daubrawitz to Jericek, a distanceof 6 miles, in hours. Of these troops a French Officer says— “ qu’ilsmarcbaient a “ une allure extraordinairement acceleiee.” The main

body of the Army of the Crown Prince marched considerably slower.The 1st Corps, which bivouacked on the night before the battle atChranstow, took,' according to Colonel Borbstaedt,. 9 hours to march8 miles, and the 2nd Division of the Guard, which bivouacked a tBettendorf, marched I l f miles in 10 hours. Colonel Keinlander, in his“ Vortrage iiber die Taktik,” estimates that 13 or 14 miles is an ordinaryday’s march for an Army Corps.

* Roads are rarely sufficiently broad to allow of Cavalry moving byfours, as a certain margin must always be allowed for the passage oforderlies, Staff Officers, &c. Colonel Lewal says that of 109 roads in

Germany— 5 are9 „

28 „ 9 )

7 „ 99

35 „ . . . •• «» 26 *25 »11 „ .................................................. 29-53 39

13 „ ........................................ 32-81 99

1 is ......................... . . . . 39-37 99

The front occupied by Cavalry in fours is, of course, 24 feet.

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structed under fire, from 4 to 6 moves more are required; if thefire is very heavy and is unanswered, Table A is used to decide

whether the construction of the bridge is possible or n o t; the party wishing to construct the bridge throw with — II, that isto say, the construction of the bridge is considered impossible or possible according as the face of the die corresponds with theenemy’s colour or with their own. In all these cases the Umpirewill often have to exercise his discretion as to what is to be permitted and what disallowed.

V.—METHOD OF CONDUCTING THE GAME.

16. If it is only intended to represent manoeuvres on a smallscale, 3 persons are sufficient to conduct the game, one to act asUmpire, and the other two to command the two opposing forces.In the case of manoeuvres on a large scale the Umpire should have theassistance of two subordinates; subordinate officers should also be attached to the officers in supreme command of the two opposingforces ; these latter confine themselves to giving general directionsas to the nature of the movements to be executed, the detail beingconducted by the subordinate officers.

The Umpire exercises a general supervision over the game; hemust on no account allow the game to be hurried, or movementsto be executed without the proper measurements being made,*he must see that the rules are correctly applied, and must decideany doubtful question which may arise to the best of his discretion ; during the progress of the game he is to point out andcriticise any dispositions which he considers faulty, and at the

conclusion of the game he is to decide which party has the advantage, and to make such general remarks on the .previous operationsas he may consider suitable.

Before the commencement of the game the Umpire impartsthe general nature of the operations to each of the officers commanding, together with the special object which each is to endeavourto attain.f

* I t cannot be too strongly impressed on all officers who take part in

this game tha t it must be played with due deliberation, and withouthurry or confusion, otherwise the amount of instruction to be derivedfrom it will be much diminished. I t is possible that at first,—that is tosay, until a certain number of officers have thoroughly mastered therules and qualified themselves to act as Umpires,—:the progress of thegame will be somewhat slow and ted ious; this is, to a great extent,unavoidable; in time, after a certain number of officers have made themselves thoroughly conversant with the rules, it will, without doubt, be

possible to carry on the game more rapidly.f See Appendix I.— It will generally be advisable to issue the

“ general” and “ special” ideas on the day before the game takes place;in order to give officers sufficient time to study the map carefully.' •

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The' General Id ea” should usually contain the strategical'conception on which the operations are based, together with thegeneral object which each side is to endeavour to attain ; the base

and principal line of operations on either side should be stated ;the “ General Id ea” is issued to both sides, and should not, ofcourse, contain any special information which in actual war would be in the possession of only one of the two opposing forces. The“ Special Idea ” should be the natural sequence of the “ GeneralId ea” ; the “ Special Id ea ” of one force will, of course, bedifferent to that of the other; each should contain—(1) thestrength and composition of the force; (2) the spot at which ithas arrived; (3) the date and hour; (4) the immediate objective point in view; (5) any information of the movements, strength,and disposition of the enemy which may be in the possession ofthe commander of the force; (6) the orders which the Umpirerequires should be communicated to him in writing. Although no'absolute rule need be laid out, it will generally be found desirableto fix some hour in the evening as the supposed time at which thetroops are handed over to the commanders of the opposing forces,and to require each to send in to the Umpire his dispositions forthat evening and his orders for the following morning.

After each commander has carefully studied the General and

Special Idea which has been communicated to him, he sends thedispositions which he proposes to make in writing to the Umpire;he should state the manner in which he proposes to divide hisforce into advanced guard, main body, reserve, and, whSnnecessary, rear-guard; he should indicate the general line ofoutposts, and should name the detachment which is to furnishth em ; a diagram, showing the disposition of the camp or bivouac,should always accompany the statement which is sent in to theUmpire; it may conveniently be placed on the margin; lastly, thedivisional or brigade orders should be given; they should be

precisely similar both in form and substance to those which would be issued in the field, and are not to contain any points of detailon which it would be the province of subordinate officers to exercise their discretion; the,exact position to be occupied by theofficer in command should always be stated.

The Umpire then distributes to each officer in commandthe requisite number of metal blocks representing battalions,squadrons, batteries, &c., and occasionally receives from themsome further information as regards their intended dispositions.The officers in command then divide their forces into advancedguard, main body, reserve, &c., and communicate the special objectof the intended manoeuvres to their subordinates.

In order that the game may present as truthful a picture ofactual war as possible, it is very desirable that officers in command should only be allowed to see on the map so much of themovements of their opponents as would be. apparent to them inthe field; the movements of troops which would be hidden fromtheir view in time of war must, therefore, be hidden on the map,

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or, which is the better course, if the maps are in duplicate,each commander may be made to occupy a separate room, withseparate maps ; in this case it is the duty of the Umpire and hisassistants, who can, of course, move from room to room, to seethat any movements made in the presence of an enemy, and whichwould be visible to the latter, are faithfully represented by duplicate blocks of metal on the opponents map.

The Umpire decides as to what troops are supposed to bevisible to the enemy. In moving by day over an open, flat countrythe movements of all troops within 3,000 yards of the enemyare supposed to be visible; in enclosed, hilly, or wooded country,the Umpire must decide on the movements which are mutually

visible on either side.17. The game is played by moves, each of two minutes. Fromthe moment the game commences (that is, at the first move) alldirect personal communication between the officers commanding-in-chief and the commanders of divisions, brigades, &c., is to cease,except when the commander-in-chief and the subordinate officerto whom an order is to be communicated are actually present atthe same spot; the position of the commander-in-chief is indicated by an upright metal block. With this exception all ordersand questions must pass through the Umpire, who communicatesthem in due time (see par. 14) to the person for whom they areintended. The time which is required to carry out orders isestimated by the rules laid down in par. 14. Orderlies carryingmessages and individual officers may be allowed to move at therate of 800 or 900 paces in a move.

If a Field Telegraph is available, a short message is supposed totake 2 minutes (1 move) in transmission.

18. At the commencement of the game, the time is notedon Table C by means of pins in the manner already described(par. 13). The Umpire takes a note of the time at which reportsor orders are' despatched, of the number of the. move in whichany body of troops is beaten, and of the number of the movein which it will have rallied for defence, or will be capable ofagain assuming the offensive, as the case.may be, &c.

Every subordinate commander of troops must, in the firstinstance, carefully consider what he intends to do before he moves;he then informs the Umpire or his assistants of his intentions; theactual measurements are made by the latter, who also move the'

pieces; the players themselves are on no account to move the pieces; the formation in which any body of troops is to moveshould invariably be stated before moving.

All conversation is, as far as possible, to be avoided, as it tendsto lengthen the duration of the game unduly, renders it a matterof greater difficulty for the Umpire to perform his duties satisfactorily, and often serves to confuse the commanders.

So soon as the Umpire has given notice of the commencementof a new move, no further correction is to be allowed in the moveimmediately preceding.

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. 19. Whenever troops fire or are about to attack, notice must be given to the Umpire, who decides on the Index Number whichia to be used in the application of Table A, states, at the proper

time, the result which is given by the throw of the die, and marksthe loss incurred on Table C. If, in accordance with the ruleslaid down in par. 13, one side loses a company, a squadron, or adivision of Artillery, a block representing the body of troops lost,must be handed over to the Umpire. When large bodies of troopsare engaged, it is desirable that the Umpire should from time totime correct the number of men on the map, in order that notmore should appear than would actually be the case, allowing formen placed hors de combat.

When it becomes necessary to detach small bodies of men, theUmpire will, at the request of the commander of one or other ofthe opposing forces, furnish him with the requisite metal blocksin exchange for others; thus, one block representing a half battalionmay be exchanged for four blocks representing companies, andso on.

20. During an action, the following is the order of proceeding:—the moves are made first, the failure or success of an attack isnext decided, the losses are then reckoned and noted on Table C,and, if necessary, metal blocks proportionate to the loss incurred

are given up to the Umpire.If the Umpire is aided by an assistant, the latter makes thecalculations as regards losses.

The decision of the Umpire is, in all cases, final, neither mustany discussion be on any account allowed during the progress ofthe game, as to the correctness or otherwise of his decision,

21. When the opposing parties are at a considerable distancefrom each other, the Umpire can allow several moves to bemade at once, if he thinks it desirable to do so. This coursemay also be adopted in the case of engagements of minorimportance which will have but little influence on the generalcourse of events; in such cases the Umpire may allow severalmoves to be made at once, after which recourse is had to Table Ato decide on the result of the engagement.

VI.—RULES FOR TH E CONDUCT OF ENGAGEM ENTS

A. G e n e r a l R u l e s .

22. When troops are “ repulsed” or are “ defeated” or“ totally defeated,”* the blocks of metal which represent them are

* It will be borne in mind that the words “ repulse,” “ defeat,” and“ total defeat,” have special conventional meanings for the purposes ofthis game, and that each entails consequences peculiar to itself.

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turned upside down until such a time as they are considered fitto come into action again.

Troops which are merely repulsed are supposed to becapable of resistance after a lapse of 2 moves, and to be capableof again assuming the offensive after a lapse of 4 moves.

Defeated troops are supposed to be capable of offering resistance after a lapse of 4 moves, and to be capable of againassuming the offensive after a lapse of 8 moves.

Troops which are totally defeated are'supposed to be capable ofoffering resistance after a lapse of 8 moves, and to be capable ofagain assuming the offensive after a lapse of 16 moves.

If troops which have been repulsed are attacked during the first

2 moves in retreat by a force consisting of half their own strength,the chances of success are supposed to be equal, and 0 is the Index Number which must be employed in the application of Table A ;the same Index Number is used if defeated troops are attackedduring the first 4 moves in retreat by a force equal to one-eighthof their own strength, or if totally defeated troops are attacked inthe first 8 moves in retreat by a force equal to-one-eighth of theirown strength. I f troops which are merely repulsed reach ahedge or other obstacle which would enable them to rally duringthe first 2 moves in retreat, they may be allowed to do so*and toreceive an attack, but in applying Table A to decide on thesuccess or failure of the attack, the attacking troops obtain theadvantage of 5 Index Points; if the attack succeeds the defendersare to be considered as totally defeated, even if a face turnsup which corresponds with the letter D.

23. Fresh troops are such as have not been in action for at least10 moves. ,

24. In the application of Table A, troops which are slightlyshaken are considered as losing 1 Index Point during 3 successive moves. Troops which are much shaken are consideredas losing 2 Index Points. during the first 3 successive moves,and 1 Index Point during the 3 subsequent moves.

Whether troops are to be considered as “ slightly shaken ” oras “ much shaken ” depends on the amount of fire to which theyhave been exposed, and will in most cases be decided by theUmpire. Troops which have been repulsed or defeated are to be considered as “ much shaken5’ during the period in which,according to par. 22, they are only capable of offering resistance

and not of re-assuming the offensive; during the 3 subsequentmoves they are to be considered as “ slightly shaken.”Infantry which has been engaged for a moderately long period

in a fight about a village, &c., is to be considered as “ slightlyshaken” ; if the combat has been obstinate, as “ much shaken.”

Cavalry is to be considered as “ slightly shaken,” if it moves fora considerable distance a t’ a rapid pace, and as ff much shaken/’if it has attacked several times.

25. If Infantry or Cavalry, which have just gained an advantage,are attacked in the first move after their victory by fresh troops,

c

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the Infantry forfeit. 1 Index Point, and the Cavalry 2 Index Points ,in the application of Table A.

26. Troops which are attacked by surprise forfeit 2 IndexPoints in the application of Table A, if in line or column, and 4 Index Points if in extended order.

27. If an attack be supported by a second line—which, in thecase of Infantry, must be not more than 300, in the case ofCavalry from 400 to 800 paces distant, and in either case halfas strong as the first—the first line can be “ repulsed” only.

B . — I n f a n t r y .

1 .— Infan try against Infantry.

28. Infantry in line when attacked by Infantry in columnobtains an advantage of 1 Index Point in the application of TableA. If, however, the decision arrived at is adverse to the forcein line, it is to be considered as “ totally defeated” even if there

be a second line in support.29. If a body of Infantry contemplates an advance against another

body of Infantry posted on flat open ground, then at 400 paces

distance the odds are even, at 300 paces they are 3: 2 against theassailant, and at 200 paces 2 :1 against h im .' The Index Numbersto be used .by the assailant are therefore 0 , - 1 and — II . Theassailant must throw at each distance; he may try his luck asecond time in the following move if unsuccessful on the firstoccasion, but if the die again turns up unfavourably he must giveup the attempt. If the attack is supported by a flank attack, theassailant gains ah Index Point.

The Umpire may vary the Index Number in the event of theground being of such a character as to favour one or other of thecontending forces.

If the Infantry be covered by artificial or natural protection,the rules laid down in paragraphs 48-54 for the attack on villagesmust be applied.

If the attack fails the troops which have been repulsed cannot be employed to attack again for 10 moves. If the attack isrenewed with successive bodies of fresh troops, an advantage of 1Index Point must be credited for each successive attack. In theevent of one side being totally defeated, the victor suffers a loss ofa third, in other cases of one-half, of the loss of the vanquishedside.

30. If two stationary forces of Infantry open fire on each otheron open ground, and the range is known to both parties, one sideor other must be made to retreat after the fire has continued during1 move if at a distance of from 100 to 200 paces, during 2moves if at 300 paces, during 3 moves if at 400 paces, during

- 4 moves if at from 500 to 600 paces. The question as to whichside is to retire is decided by Table A in the usual manner, the

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proper Index Number being chosen with reference to numericalstrength, position, &c.

If the range is not known on either side, or if it be only knownto one side, or if either or both sides are under cover, theUmpire decides on the moment at which application is to be madeto the Table with a view to causing one or other side to retreat.

In such cases the party to whom the decision is adverse issimply “ repulsed,” and is not to be considered as “ defeated ”in the sense in which the term is employed in the rules of thegame.

2. Infantry against Cavalry.31. Infantry are allowed to attack with the bayonet any force

of Cavalry which are considered as incapable of assuming theoffensive (see par. 22); in such cases the Infantry obtain an advantage of 2 Index Points in the application of Table A.

3.—Infantry against Artillery.32. If Artillery which is not covered by any natural or artificial

protection is attacked in front by Infantry advancing over open,even ground, the following Index Numbers are used in the application of Table A :—■

If the attack is made by skirmishers, and no less than 3companies attack one battery, 0 is the Index Number if at 600 paces; I, if at 400 paces; II, if at 200 paces. If a force ofnot less than half a battalion of Infantry in line, attacks a battery firing at known ranges, 0 is the Index Number if at fromI,000 to 600 paces; I, if at 300 paces; II , if at 200 paces. Inall the above cases the Infantry throw with a + sign.

If the attack be made by Infantry in quarter-column, 0 is theIndex Number at from 1,000 to 800 paces; I, at 600 paces;

I I , at 400 paces; II I , at 200 paces, the Artillery in each casethrowing with a- + sign.In all cases in which a front and flank attack are combined,

the Infantry gain an advantage of 1 Index Point in the applicationof Table A.

If the decision arrived at by reference to Table A is adverse tothe Artillery, after skirmishers have approached to within 400 paces,or Infantry in line have approached to within 300 paces, the gunsare to be considered as captured. Skirmishers, if their attackfails, are not to be allowed to attack a second time, but they maylie down on the g r o u n d without retreating. If the Table givesa decision adverse to Infantry advancing in column againstArtillery, the column must retire to a distance of 1,500 pacesfrom the battery, or until it can get under cover; the columnmay not advance to the attack of the gun3 a second time until a period of at least 15 moves has elapsed.

If the numerical strength of the Infantry be very preponderatingor if any other special circumstances tend to modify the scale ofchances, the Umpire can make such alterations in the foregoing

regulations aa he may think fit. C 2

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If a force of Infantry captures a battery, but is driven back immediately after the capture has been effected, the batteryloses 12 men, and, after a lapse of 4 moves, may manoeuvre orcome into action, but if the Infantry remains in possession of theguns during the space of one move, the battery may not manoeuvreor come into action until 8 moves have elapsed; for every additional period of one move that the Infantry remains in possessionof the guns, an additional 6 moves must be allowed. to elapse before the Artillery are to be considered as capable of taking partin the battle after the recapture has been effected. If the Infantryremains in possession of the guns for a longer period than 4 moves,the latter are to be considered as incapable of taking any further

part in the battle, even supposing them to be eventually recaptured.

Daring each of the first 4 moves in which the Infantry are in possession of the guns the loss of the Artillery is to be estimated at20 men per move.

If Infantry, either lying or standing under cover, open fire atknown ranges on Artillery in action, reference must be made toTable A after every 2 moves, to decide, in the first place,whether the guns can maintain their position in spite of losses,which are to be reckoned independently,—and, in the second place, if the Infantry are firing at close range, whether the gunsare to be allowed to limber up and retire or not. The Index Num

bers to be used in the application of Table A in order todecide whether the guns can maintain their position or not are,— I, if the Infantry is at a distance of from 500 to 600 paces;II , if at 400 paces; I II , if at 300 paces. The Index

Numbers which are to be used to decide whether the guns are to be allowed to retire, are—I, if the Infantry is at 400 paces; II,if at 300 paces. In all the above cases the Infantry throw witha + sign.

If guns, which are not under cover, allow a force of Infantryto approach unobserved to within 200 paces of them, they aresupposed to lose so many horses and men during the movewhich immediately follows the commencement of firing on the part of the Infantry, that either a portion or the whole of theguns—according to the decision of the Umpire—must to be left onthe ground, and, after a lapse of 2 moves, are to be consideredas captured by the Infantry, without any loss having been incurred by the latter.

If guns wish to move up into action under a fire of Infantry

when the latter know the range, reference must be made to TableA, in order to decide on the possibility or otherwise of such amanoeuvre being executed. The Index Numbers to be used inesse are:— ; 0. If the Infantry are at 600 paces.

I . „ ,, 500 „III . )} )) 400 „

V. „ ,, 300 ,,The Artillery in each case throw with a — sign.. If the range

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is unknown to the Infantry, the guns may move up into actionwithout any reference being made to the Table.

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C.— C a v a l r y .

1.— Cavalry against Infantry.

33. Infantry in line or column which has not been exposed tofire obtains an advantage of four Index Points in the applicationof Table A, if attacked by Cavalry; if in rallying squares or“ slightly shaken,” the Infantry obtains an advantage of 2 IndexPoin ts; if “ much shaken,” the Cavalry obtains an advantage of 2Index Points. If Infantry, having repulsed an attack of Cavalry are,during the next move, attacked by “ fresh” Cavalry (see par. 23),the latter obtain an advantage of 1 Index Point.

A line of skirmishers, lying on the ground, are not supposed toincur any loss from an attack of Cavalry unless an actual melee ensues, in which case the skirmishers obtain an advantage of 1 Index Point.

The loss sustained by Cavalry in attacking Infantry can either be estimated by means of Table B, bearing in mind the proportionate amount of fire to which the former are exposed in any

particular case, or a loss of 15 men per squadron may beallowed if the Cavalry be victorious, and of 20 men per squadronif it be defeated, without reference to the Table.

If Cavalry attack Infantry successfully, the loss occasioned tothe latter, per battalion, by the arme blanche , is shown by thefigures in Table A, in the top row of each partition.

If the attack does not succeed, the Cavalry are to be consideredas merely repulsed, but if, in retreat, the force is pursued byhostile Cavalry during the entire space of 1 move, it is to beconsidered as “ defeated;” if it is pursued during the entire courseof 3 moves it is to be considered as “ totally defeated.”

If an attack of Cavalry on Infantry succeeds, the latter isinvariably to be considered as “ totally defeated ”, and for every , period of 1 move, during which the melee continues, the Cavalryincur a loss of 5 men per squadron, the Infantry a loss of one-fourth of their strength.

If Cavalry, whilst engaged hand-to-hand with Infantry, areattacked and repulsed by other Infantry, they are to be consideredas “ defeated ;” if attacked and repulsed by Cavalry, they are to beconsidered as “ totally defeated.5’

34. Every Cavalry attack (which must be in the proportion ofat least 1 squadron against a battalion) which the Infantry do notawait stationary is to be considered as successful. In the caseof engagements between smaller bodies of Infantry and Cavahy,the Umpire must decide the issue.

If Infantry which is threatened by Cavalry can, in the period

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allotted to 1 move, reach some adequate cover—which must not b'eat a greater distance than 400 paces—they may be allowed to runtowards it, but if, at the instant of commencing the retreat the

Cavalry are within GOO paces, the Infantry are to be consideredas ” totally defeatedand as having incurred a loss of 20 men forevery squadron which attacks.

35. If Cavalry charges Infantry in motion at a distance of notmore than 400 paces, the former is. always to obtain an advantageof 2 Index Points in the application of Table A.

Bridges or ditches which are held by skirmishers are to beconsidered as insurmountable obstacles for Cavalry if the groundin front of them is open for 50O paces or more; if not openfor so great a distance, the Index Number III is to be used in theapplication of Table A to decide the matter; the Cavalry throwwith a — sign. If a body of troops, in line or column, is postedin rear of a bridge, the Umpire must decide whether it would be possible for the Cavalry to force the passage or not. .

36. Application must be made to Table A to decide whetherCavalry may be allowed to remain in position in the presence ofskirmishers. The Index Numbers to be used, if the skirmishersknow the range, are II if at 600, III if at 500, and IV if at 400 paces; the Cavalry throw with a — sign. I t is considered

impossible for Cavalry to remain in position in the presenceof skirmishers at any distance less than 400 paces.Cavalry may always be allowed to ride by Infantry if posted at

a distance exceeding 600 paces; if Cavalry wishes to ride byInfantry posted nearer than 600 paces, Table A must be used todecide on the possibility or otherwise of the manoeuvre beingexecuted; the Index Numbers to be used, if the Infantry knowthe range, are :—at 600 paces—0, if the Cavalry rides by at a gallop,-I if at a tro t; at 500 paces—I if at a gallop, I I if at a tro t; at

400 paces—II if at a gallop, I II if a trot. In all these cases theCavalry throw with a — sign. Cavalry are never to be allowedto ride by Infantry posted at a less distance than 400 paces exceptin pursuit, and then only by the special permission of the Umpire.Cavalry are never to be allowed to ride by Infantry at a walkwhen the latter are posted at a less distance than 600 paces. Inall cases in which the possibility of Cavalry riding by Infantry isdecided in the affirmative, the losses which will be incurred indoing so are to be.reckoned independently.

2.— Cavalry against Cavalry.37. If the officer commanding a force of Cavalry resolves to

attack another force of the same arm, he must notify his intentionto the Umpire, who then communicates it to the other side, andrequests the officer commanding the force about to be attacked toinform him of his intentions, that is to say, whether he will retireor advance to a counter-attack, &c. If the attack does not take

place, the party which declines the engagement must be made toretreat. If the party threatened with attack resolves to accept

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battle, it is incumbent on each side that they should move forat least 300 paces in the direction in which each respectivelyinformed the Umpire that it was his intention to move, and untilthis is done it is not in the power of the commander on eitherside to retreat or otherwise to- alter his original order.

38. If a force of Cavalry, in attacking, has to leap any ditcheswhen within 400 paces of the enemy, *it forfeits 1 Index Pointin the application of Table A. Cavalry charging down a slope of10° forfeits 1 Index Point. To charge up or down a slope of15° or more is considered impossible.

One squadron attacking in flank is to be considered as producing as much effect as two squadrons attacking in front. If a

force of Cavalry, when in the act of making a flank movement isattacked by Cavalry, it is invariably to be considered as defeated.39. The result of an engagement between two forces of Cavalry .

is decided by means of Table A, the Index Number beingchosen with due regard to the relative numerical strength of theopposing forces, their condition, the nature of the ground whicheach has to pass over, &c. If the Index Number should chance to

be 0 or II, it is, in the first instance, necessary to cast the die inorder to determine whether the decision takes place during thesame move as that in which the charge is executed, or in the moveimmediately following it. With other Index Numbers if a blankturns up the decision is delayed to a subsequent move.

Cavalry which is “ totally defeated ” must retire at a gallop, and,for the first two moves after its defeat, straight to the rear; it isnot be allowed to halt until it either reaches its supports or untilit has quitted the immediate battle-field. Cavalry which is“ defeated,” or merely “ repulsed ” must also retire at a gallop,and, during a period of 1 move immediately following its repulse,must move straight to the rear. After retiring for a period

of 1 move in this direction, the officer commanding may adopt hisown pace, and may change direction in whatever manner he thinksfit. If Cavalry which has been “ totally defeated ” is pursued byother Cavalry, it is to be considered as totally routed and dispersed.I f Cavalry which has been “ defeated ” is pursued, by other Cavalry,it is to be considered as “ totally defeated” after the pursuit has lastedduring a period of 2 moves. If Cavalry, which has been merely“ repulsed ” is pursued by other Cavalry, it is to be consideredas “ defeated” after the pursuit has lasted during a periodof 2 moves. During the first four moves in pursuit, the forcewhich is pursued is always to be supposed to gain 100 paces on its pursuers.

If beaten Cavalry encounter any considerable obstacle (amongstwhich is included a rise in the ground of 20° and upwards) duringits first move in retreat, it loses half its strength, and after alapse of 3 moves, is to be removed from the map and entirelydisappear from the game. If it encounters any such obstacleduring its second move in retreat, the losses which it experienced, in the attack are to be doubled.

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The loss per squadron in each move, which is incurred in anymelee prior to the result of the engagement being decided, is givenn the lower of the three lines in each partition of Table A.

The party which is victorious incurs a loss half as great as thatof the beaten party, in those cases in which the latter is “ defeated ”or repulsed” ; if the beaten party be “ totally defeated” thevictors only incur a loss one-third as great as that of the beaten party.

.For each move during which the pursuit continues, the beaten party lose as many men as they originally lost in each move duringwhich the mUlSe lasted; the pursuers in each move lose one-sixthas many men as the pursued. If a second line is in support, beatenCavalry are never to be considered as more than “ repulsed they

may be allowed to rally behind their second line.Squadrons acting singly may be allowed to retreat over bridges, &c., but in doing so, they incur a loss double as greatas that which they experienced originally in the attack.

' As regards the attack of victorious Cavalry by fresh troops,—see par. 25.

3 .— Cavalry against Artillery.

40. Cavalry, which makes a front attack on Artillery in action,forfeits 4 Index Points in the application of Table A.

Guns in action in the open, if attacked by Cavalry in flank,are always to be considered as captured if the Cavalry approachesunobserved to within charging distance. If the guns are underany natural or artificial cover, and are attacked in flank by Cavalry,they are to be considered as captured if their position is attacked

by other troops in front simultaneously with the Cavalry attack inflank.

Artillery in motion, when overtaken by Cavalry, is always to

be considered as captured.If a force of Cavalry wishes to ride by guns in action at adistance of from 400 to 700 paces, application must be made toTable A to decide on the possibility or otherwise of the execution ofthe manoeuvre, the Index Number J I being employed; the Cavalrythrow with a —sign. Cavalry are not to be allowed to pass within400 paces of guns in action except when in pursuit, and thenonly by special permission of the Umpire. In all cases in whichCavalry ride by Artillery in action within range of the guns, thelosses incurred by the former are to be calculated.

41. As regards the re-capture of guns after they have beencaptured by Cavalry, &c., the rules laid down in par. 32 for theconduct of Infantry in such cases apply also to Cavalry.

. 4 .— Cavalry fighting on Foot.

42. In exceptional cases Light Cavalry may be employed toact on foot for the occupation of defiles, &c. The Umpire must

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decide arbitrarily whether, in any particular case, such a course ofaction is to be permitted or not.

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’ D . — A r t i l l e r y .

43. I t is supposed that all those who take part in the game areacquainted with the circumstances which render it desirable toemploy common shell, shrapnel, or case,—with the conditionswhich render any particular kind of fire productive of greateror less results, and with the other general principles involved in

the application of Artillery.* The proportionate losses caused by

* It would be quite impossible within the limits of an ordinary noteto enter at length into the subject of the most suitable method of employing artillery in the field, more especially since the tactics of FieldArtillery have recently undergone, and are still undergoing, great andimportant changes. The following extracts from Colonel Owen’sModern Artillery may, .however, give some of the general principleswhich are generally received on the subject:—

“ The objects of Artillery in the field are— “ (1.) To prepare the way for the action of other arms by creating

“ disorder and confusion in the enemy’s ranks, dismounting“ his guns, destroying slight obstacles, or rendering, cover“ untenable.

“ (2.) To support troops of other arms in their movements, by pre-“ ceding an attack, forming a rallying point in case of repulse,“ checking advancing columns of the enemy, harassing a“ threatening foe, covering a retreat, or defending the key“ of an important position.

“ (3.) To decide an action by the concentration of a number of“ batteries on an important point.”

“ In choosing a position upon the field for Artillery, the following“ principles should be borne in mind, viz., that the guns should comfnand“ not only the approaches to the weakest points of the position, but also,“ if practicable, the whole of the ground within range j tha t they should“ not inconvenience the manoeuvres of the troops they support; and that“ they should be as far removed as circumstances will permit out of range“ of any place which might afford a shelter for the enemy's Infantry, and“ from whence the lattsr could harass the gunners. If this, however,“ be impracticable, one or more guns must be told off to keep down the“ enemy's fire.

“ The fire of guns should always be concentrated or converging when“ practicable.

“ In taking up a position with Field Artillery j t is very necessary to“ consider the formation of the ground and nature of the soil, not only of“ the part of the field the battery is to occupy, but also of tha t surrounding“ it. For precision in firing, the ground on which the guns are posted“ should be tolerably level, and shoul.I not have too great a command over“ the space which the enemy must cross over to the attack, as a plunging

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the fire of guns at different ranges are given in Table B, Ap pendix IV (see par. 12).

44. I f a force of Artillery wishes to come up into action in the presence of other guns in action within a range of 1,500 yards,application must be made to Table A to decide on the possibilityor otherwise of the execution of the manoeuvre. I f the enemy’sArtillery know the range, the following Index Numbers are to beemployed by the Artillery desirous of moving up :—

From 1,200 to 1,500 yards, 01,000 » 1,200 I

a 800 !> 1,000 I I)) 600 » 800 )) h i

99400

}>600 ,IV

300 )! 400 yIf the enemy’s Artillery are not acquainted with the range, the

other side may move its guns up into action in the presenceof hostile fire without any reference being made to the Table.If the ranges are known to the one side, and the decision arrivedat by reference to Table A is in favour of the possibility of theother side bringing its guns into action in spite of the fire ofits adversary, the loss which it will incur in doing so must be

calculated independently.Guns are never to be allowed to move up in action in the presence of hostile Artillery in action at a less range than 300yards.

45. In every action of Artillery against Artillery at ranges of1,500 yards and under, reference must be made, after a certaininterval, to Table A to decide on which force of Artillery isto fall back; the Index Number which is to be employed indeciding the question must, as usual, be determined withreference to relative numerical strength, position, &c. Theinterval after which reference must be made to the Tablevaries according to the range; if the range is known, referencemust be made to the Table—if at 400 yards, after 2 moves; ifat 600 yards, after 3 moves; if at 1,200 yards, after 4 moves.The mutual losses occasioned by the fire of the guns on either sidemust also be reckoned.

46. Artillery which, according to pars. 44 and 45, has been beaten, must retreat, and may not be brought into actionagain for an interval varying from 5 to 15 moves, according to

the loss sustained.

“ fire is little destructive, A gently falling slope of not more than 1 in“ 15 is to be preferred; the fire of artillery produces the most effective“ results on a slope of about I in 100. Batteries should not be placed on“ stonyground, as the enemy’s shot makes the stones flyin all directions,“ often causing considerable damage ; marshy ground in front of a battery

is good, should the latter not be likely to advance, as the shot will either“ penetrate or ricochet but little from it.”

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If, however, the commander of the force to which, by theapplication of the rules laid down in par. 45, the decision of TableA has been adverse, is still unwilling to retreat, notwithstandinghis partial defeat, the guns may be allowed to continue in action for afurther period of from 2 to 4 moves, the exact period being decided by the Umpire. Reference must then be again made to the Table,in the application of which the Artillery which preferred tocontinue in action rather than retreat, forfeits 2 Index Pointsjand, should the decision be again adverse, must be forced toretreat, and cannot be again brought into action for a periodvarying from 10 to 30 moves according to the loss which has beensustained.

Enfilade fire is always to be considered as twice as effective asdirect fire.

* „ E .— A t t a c k a n d D e f e n c e o f V i l l a g e s , D e f i l e s ,F o r t i f i e d P o s i t i o n s , &c.

47. In considering the defence of villages, woods, &c., it is

supposed that, generally speaking, 1 company in extended order issufficient to occupy a front of from 250 to 200 paces; if, however,the position is to be strongly occupied a battalion must be devotedto every 600 paces of front.

48. Before the attack is undertaken the possibility or otherwiseof the advance of the assailants must be decided by the rules laiddown in par. 29.

49. An attack may be made either in extended order (i.e., by; kirmishers), in line or in column. If the attack be made in extendedorder the assailants forfeit 2 Index Points in the application ofTable A, when the advance to the attack has been preceded bythe fire of skirmishers during a period of 5 moves; if the advanceto the attack has been preceded by the fire of skirmishers forany period less than that extending over 5 moves, the assailantsforfeit 4 Index Points.

Every attack in line or column on villages, woods, defiles, &c.,should be preceded by the fire of skirmishers or of Artillery for a

period of at least 10 moves, after which, if the attack is made at once,the assailants forfeit 2 Index Points in the application of Table A.

For every subsequent period of 5 moves, during which the fire of theInfantry or Artillery lasts previous to the advance of the attacking column, the assailants gain an advantage of 1 Index Point.If a case should arise in which a line or column advancesto the attack without any period of preparatory Infantry orArtillery fire, or if such fire has not been maintained for a period'of at least 5 moves immediately preceding the attack, the assailantsforfeit 4 Index Points.

Before the proper Index Number is applied to decide on thesuccess or failure of a bayonet attack, reference must be. made to

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Table A to decide whether the result would be determined in•the course of the particular move in question or whether it would be delayed to a subsequent move*; for this purpose the Index Number 0 is used.

In the case of a bayonet attack the losses incurred aresupposed to continue in the proportions laid down in theupper lateral column of each partition in Table A, during eachmove throughout which the hand-to-hand combat lasts.

50. If, immediately after the repulse of an attack, the assailantsattack again with fresh troops, they obtain an advantage of 1 IndexPoint in the application of Table A, and an additional Point forevery subsequent attack made immediately after a repulse, but the

same troops, having been once repulsed, cannot be again employedin the attack until at least 10 moves have elapsed.51. If the outskirts of a village are strong by nature, or

if the village is surrounded by walls which have not undergoneany previous special preparation for defence, the assailants, providedthey have complied with the rules laid down in par. 49 asregards the period during which the fire preparatory to theattack must last, forfeit 3 Index Points in the application ofTable A. If the walls have previously undergone any special

preparation for defence the village cannot be taken without the aidof Artillery.

'52. If there exists any natural or artificial trench within thevillage, which would form a second line of defence, the defendersmay be allowed to rally there, and the attack of the assailants onthis inner defence must be preceded by a period of at least 5 movesof firing.

53. If, after the outskirts of a village have been carried, the sup ports on either side engage, the result of the engagement must bedecided by reference to Table A, the proper Index Number beingchosen, bearing in mind the relative numerical strength of theopposing forces, their position, &c. The only exception to thisrule is the case in which the streets of a village form a defile; theregulations for the application of the Table in such a case aregiven in par. 54.

54. The rules which have been laid down for the attack of avillage hold good for the attack on a defile, with this exception, that,in the event of an engagement between the supports, the numericalsuperiority of the supports on either side is not to be taken into

account unless the one support is at leasttwice

as numerous as theother; in this latter case the Index Number to be employed in theapplication of the Table is I I ; the less numerous body throwwith a — sign; in all other cases the Index Number to beemployed is 0.

* This rule doos not, of course, come into operation until the attackingforce has approached to within the distance which could be traversed inone move.

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29.

As regards the length of time which a fire must be keptup preparatory to the attack on a wood or on a defile, the samerules hold good as have been laid down for the attack of avillage.55. In the case of an attack on heights, if the slope of theground be not greater than 5° it need not be taken into account;for every subsequent rise of 5° the assailants forfeit 1 IndexPoint in the application of Table A.

If any special defensive preparations have been made, the ruleslaid down for the attack on a village hold good for the attack onheights; if no special defensive preparations have been made therules laid down in pars. 28 and 29 obtain.

F. — D e b o u c h i n g f r o m a D e f i l e .*

56. As regards the debouching of a force of all arms in the presence of an enemy, the Umpire must decide whether it maylie allowed to take place in the presence of Infantry posted at 300 paces or less from the mouth of the defile, or in the presence ofArtillery if at 600 paces or less. In other cases application must be made to Table A. The proper Index Numbers to be used are,if in the presence of Infantry who know the range,—at 400 paces,I I I ; at 500 paces, I ; at 600 paces, 0 ; if in the presence ofArtillery in action, who know the range:—

At from 700 to 800 paces for Artillery debouching, V.99 99 99 99 Cavalry IV.

J) 99 99 99 Infantry III.« 900 „ 1,200 99 Artillery III.99 99 99 99 Cavalry II. j ) 99 99 99 Infantry I.

1 , 2 0 0 „ 1,600 99 Artillery II.99 9 t 99 99 Cavalry I.99 99 99 99 Infantry 0 .

99 1,600 „ 2,000 99 Artillery 0 .

99 99 99 5J Cavalry 0 .

In all the above cases the troops, whose object it is to debouchfrom the defile, throw with a — sign.

If, during the movement, the enemy’s Infantry or Artillery are,to a certain extent, held in check by the fire of other portions ofthe force debouching from the defile, or if the range is unknown

* The remaining paragraphs contain rules which are difficult ofapplication and are bf no great importance; the cases with which they dealmay advantageously be decided by the Umpire according to the best ofhis judgment..

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30

to the enemy’s Artillery, or if the enemy has posted a force ofCavalry within 400 paces of the mouth of the defile, and the otherside endeavour to debouch a force of Cavalry and Artillery,unsupported by Infantry, the Umpire must decide on the courseto be pursued. If a force of Cavalry be posted within from 400to 800 paces of the mouth of the defile, and the other sideendeavour to debouch a force of Cavalry and Artillery unsupported

by Infantry, application must be made to Table A to decidewhether the movement can be executed or no t; the proper Index

Number in this case is I I ; the force wishing to debouch from thedefile throws with a — sign.

G . — B u r n i n g o f B u i l d i n g s a n d V i l l a g e s .

57. After 2 guns have fired at wooden buildings for a periodof 4 moves, the Index Number —I, in Table A, is employed bythe Artillery to determine whether the buildings may be supposedto be set on fire or not; if they win, the buildings are supposedto burn; if not, the guns continue to fire, for another move, after

which the Index Number 0 is employed in deciding the question;if they win, the buildings are supposed to burn; if not, the gunscontinue to fire for a sixth move, after which the Index Number+ 1 is employed to decide the question; if the Artillery have notwon at the end of the 6th move, the Index Number +11 isused, after the termination of the 7th move, to decide the question,and so on until in the 10th move the Index Number + V isreached; if, in the 10th move, the Artillery do not win, thethrow must be repeated in each subsequent move until such timeas they do, when they are supposed to have succeeded in settingfire to the buildings.

After 2 moves have elapsed from the time of setting fire to the buildings, reference must be made to the Table to decide whetherthe fire has spread or not, the same Index Number being used asthat whose application resulted in the success of the Artillery insetting fire to the buildings originally. If the Table gives adecision adverse to the spreading of the fire, in the next move theIndex Number +1 must be employed to decide the question;if the decision is still adverse to the spreading of the fire, after

2 further moves the question must be again tested, +11 beingthe Index Number employed on this occasion, and so on, theIndex Number being increased by 1 Index Point after every 2moves until such a time as a decision is arrived at favourable tothe conclusion that the fire has spread. When 3 moves haveelapsed from the time that this result is obtained, application mustagain be made to the Table to decide whether or not the fire has been extinguished; for this purpose the Index Number 0 is em ployed; if the Artillery win after 5 moves have elapsed, the

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troops occupying the buildings or village must abandon them aridno troops are to be allowed to march through the village; if theArtillery lose, the process of deciding by means of the Tablewhether the buildings or village have been again set on fire must be repeated.

If 4 guns are brought into action the same method isadopted as laid down for the action of 2 guns, but the Index

Number used in the first instance is 0 ; if 6 guns are employedthe Index Number to be used in the first instance is + I>and to on.

If the houses are of stone or brickwork, and are strong andwell built, the periods for the successive applications to the Table

are doubled.

H . — D e s t r u c t i o n o f B r i d g e s , B a r r i c a d e s , & c .

58. The destruction of bridges, barricades, &c., by Artilleryfire is decided by reference to Table A, after the fire has continuedduring a period of from 2 to 8 moves, the time varying accordingto the strength and size of the object against which the fire isdirected, the number of guns brought into action, &c. The Index

Number to be employed on these occasions is 0.If the object against which the fire is directed is visible, and

the Artillery win, it is supposed to be destroyed; if they losethe guns fire during 2 subsequent moves, after which thedie is again cast; if they lose again, the guns fire during 2subsequent moves, when the die is again cast, the Index Numberremaining the same throughout; if they again lose, it is supposedthat the destruction of the object cannot take place during thenext .15 moves; at the end of that period the same process is

again adopted for deciding whether the object has been destroyedor not.If the object is not visible from the position occupied by the

guns, but its position and distance are known, the same rules areapplied as have been laid down with regard to the destruction ofvisible objects, with the exception that, if the Artillery lose twicerunning, the destruction of the object in question is supposed to be impossible during the next 20 moves, after which the processof deciding by means of the Table may be recommenced. In allthese cases the Umpire must decide whether the destruction of theobject by the fire of Artillery is possible or not.

If the distance from the guns of the object to be destroyedis unknown to the Artillery, the Umpire is to be guided by therules laid down in par. 12.

The Umpire must decide with reference to the success or failureof any attempt to burn, blow up, or otherwise destroy a bridge,

barricade, &c., and also as regards the time which would be required in carrying out any such undertaking.

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VII.—PRISONERS.

59. Any body of troops, whose retreat in every direction is cutoff, is supposed to be taken prisoner, if it consists of less than one-third the strength of the force by which it is surrounded. I f itconsist of more than one-third as many men as the force bywhich , it is surrounded, application must be made to Table A todecide the question; the Index Number used is I I ; if theylose the detachment must lay down its arms; if they winthey must be attacked, and the issue decided according torelative strength, &c., by the application of the rules already prescribed.

60. Every body of prisoners must be escorted by a guard atleast one-tenth as numerous as the prisoners themselves. If theescort is attacked by any party one-half as strong as itself the

prisoners are to be released. In exceptional cases, the Umpiremust decide on what course is to be pursued.

V III.—N IG H T ATTACKS.

61. When a night attack takes place the Umpire must decideat what a distance troops are to be considered as visible to eachother, and what blocks representing troops are, therefore, t o ' be placed on the map, so that the opponents are made aware of the presence of the forces which these blocks represent. Firing atlong ranges is not supposed to produce any result; the maximumranges at which fire is supposed to be productive of result is300 paces for Infantry, 600 paces for Artillery, and, whatever

be the range, the losses incurred are to be estimated at only halfof what would be incurred by day. The effect of the fire of guns,however, which have been laid in the direction of defiles, &c., bydaylight is not supposed to undergo any diminution.

All troops which are defeated in a night attack are to be considered as “ totally defeated.”

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33

\ a { E N D I X I .

I t will, pe rhapvt^ a s tw f iK to give an example of the instructions' which are issued previous to the game, A game based on the following“ Ideas ” was recently played at the United Service Institution :—

General Idea .Two armies have invaded Bohemia, one by the road Liebau-

Trau tenau ; the other by the road Zittau-Reichenberg-Tiirnau-Gitschin. The defenders have been defeated on both lines, and arefalling back, apparently with the object of concentrating behind the Elbe.The invading armies wish to effect the ir junction.

Special Idea fo r Invading Force (Blue).

The Commander of the Right Army, whose head-quarters are atGitschin, sends forward a division constituted as follows:— 7 Battalions of Infantry (800 men each),8 Squadrons of Cavalry (150 men each),3 Batteries (18 guns) Light Field Artillery,1 Battery (6 guns) Horse Artillery,2 Companies Engineers (125 men each),1 Pontoon Train,

Total . . 8,000 men.These arrive at Horitz on the evening of June 1st. The Commander

has received orders to advance early on the 2nd, to seize the bridges at •Koniginhof and Schurz without delay, and, if possible to push forwardto Rettendorf and Gradlitz. At 5 a .m . on June 2nd he receives a telegraphic communication from the Commander of the advanced guard ofthe Left Army to the effect that he is in possession ofTrautenau, withhis outposts at Neu-Rognitz, but tha t he is in the presence of asuperior force, and does not anticipate that he will be able to attack till mid-day.

He knows that a hostile force of about 8,000 men is between Horitzand Koniginhof.

Special Idea fo r Defending Force (Red).The Commander of the Defending Army, feeling himself unable to

prevent the junction of the two invading armies, is concentrating behindthe Elbe between Josephstadt and Koniggratz, with the ultimate intention of retiring behind the Adler and giving battle in a position betweenHohenbruck and Koniggratz. He wishes to delay the junction as longas possible, and, with this object, leaves a force of 16,000 men a t Koniginhof. Of these, 9,000 are detached to guard the Trautenau road, andon the evening of June 1st are in position near Burgersdorf; the Com

mander of this force reports at 6 a .m . that the enemy are not in force in

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34

his immediate presence, and that he anticipates being able to maintainhis position for 6 hours. The remainder are stationed in advance ofKoniginhof on the Miletin road with outposts reaching as far as Trotin ;this force is constituted as follows

7 Battalions of Infantry (800 men each),4 Squadrons of Cavalry (150 men each),3 Batteries Light Field Artillery (18 guns),2 Companies Engineers (125 men each),

Total . . 7,000 men.

The Commander'of this force knows that a force of from 7,000 to10,000 men are advancing from Gitschin to Horitz, and were within 3miles of Horitz at 5 o’clock on the evening of the 1st.

Each Commander was directed to give his dispositions for the evening of the 1st and his orders for the next day in writing to the Umpireabout 24 hours before the game was actually played.

The combination which was thus supposed to exist was somewhatdifficult, and called for the display of considerable tactical skill on the

part of those engaged, who, in this particular case, were officers of experience. It would be well, however, as a general rule, to adopt a simplercombination,—at all events to commence with,—and to manipulate asmaller force, say 2,000 or 3,000 men on each side. Even after a closeand attentive study of the rules, any officer who acts as Umpire or

Assistant Umpire will find that without a good deal of practice it isdifficult to apply them satisfactorily. Officers are, therefore, stronglyrecommended to begin with combinations of the simplest description.

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85

A P P E N D I X I I .

OF THE PRINCIPAL RULES.

1. The decision oTihcUmpiro is in all cases final (par. 20).2. No discussion is allowed during the game; all conversation is, as

far as possible, to be avoided (pars. 18 and 20).3. The Umpire decides on what troops would be seen by the enemy

(par 16).4. No verbal communication is allowed between the Commander-in-Chief and his subordinates; all orders must be sent by orderlies, and are

not to be communicated to the officers to whom they are directed untilthe proper time (according to the rules laid down in par. 14) haselapsed. The only exception to this rule is the case in which the Com-mander-in-Chief and his subordinates are simultaneously present at thesame spot. When a field telegraph is available, a short message takesone move in transmission (par. 17).

5. The Umpire will, at the request of the commander of one of theopposing forces, give blocks representing small bodies of men (e.g., com

panies, half batteries, patrols, &c.) in exchange for those representinglarger bodies {e.g., half-battalions, batteries, squadrons, &c.)The order of procedure is (par. 20)—

1. The Umpire states the number of moves to be made.2. Each Commander in succession states what movements ne

wishes to make; the forces are then moved by the Umpireor his assistants (par. 18).

3. The Umpire decides on the success or failure of an attack, &c., by means of Table A. . ,

4. The losses are reckoned and noted on Table C, and, if necessary,metal blocks proportionate to the losses are given back to theUmpire.-

So soon as the Umpire has given notice of the commencement of anew move, no further correction is to be made in the move immediately preceding.

6. Notice must always be given to the Umpire when firing commences, or when an attack or charge of Cavalry is about to take place(par. 37).

d 2

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3(5

Rate o f Marching (par. 14).

Paces in Proportion of Movesa Move. Allowed.

200 — „ (step-out) .. 250 Umpire decides.

350 3 in 8. Each separatemove to be succeeded by one at 200 paces.

„ advancing firing from a standing position 100 — » „ » . a V'flg position

50wherever coyer can be obtained . . . . —— Infantry marching through a wood.. 100 — Cavalry and Horse Artillery at a wait 200 —

„ „ alternately trottingand waiting .............. 400 — Cavalry and Horse Artillery at a trot 600 5 in 10.

„ „ at a gallop 900 2 in 10.Field Artillery at a wait .. 200 —

„ alternately trotting and waiting .. 400 8 in 10.„ at a trot .. .. .. .. 600 2 in 10.„ at a gallop (in exceptional cases

1 in 10.only) ............................................................. 800900

In the case of long marches Cavalry and Horse Artillery may move

at the rate of 400 paces per move for 40 moves, to be followed by 20moves at the rate of 200 paces per move.If the roads are bad, the country hilly, the night dark, or any other

special circumstances exist, which would influence the rate of marching,the Umpire can introduce any modifications in the above rules which hemay consider desirable.

Space occupied, by Columns on the March (par, 14).

A Battalion of Infantry.. .. ..Half a Battalion of InfantryA Company of Infantry . .A Squadron of Cavalry in fours ..........................

„ „ in sections . . .,„ „ in half sections . . ..

A Battery of Horse Artillery in column of route ..>» Pield „ » • •

An Artillery and Infantry Reserve Ammunition Column incolumn of route .. .. . . . , , .. .

An Artillery Beservo Ammunition Column in column oi

route .. ., ' . . . . . . . . . ,A Company of Engineers , , ..........................One-third Pontoon Train .. .. ..Half Telegraph T ro op ........................ . . . . .One-third Equipment Troop .. .. .. .,

400200

5067

135270500564

516

4605024824590

N o te . —The distances given above suppose the regulated intervals to be preserved.It 'will generally be necessary to add to these figures in order to allow for the unavoidable extension of the columns on the march. The proportionate distance to beallowed on this account varies according to circumstances, and must be decided ineach case fcy the Umpire. An allowance of one-third the regulated length of thecolumn is generally considered the minimum amount of extension.

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Construction and Repair o f Bridges (par. 15).

Moves.

To level the sides of a ditch and render the passageof troops practicable 2

Repair of bridge not more than 12 feet wide 4Construction of a floating or trestle-bridge if all

the material be at hand. For every 50 paces . . i sConstruction of a floating or trestle bridge if the

material is not at hand 20 to 25Pontoon Bridge. For every 50 paces 8 to 12All bridges constructed under fire .. .. 4 to 6

(additional)„ „ very heavy fire,Table A decides.

Capable of Can assumeResistance. Offensive.

After 2 moves .. After 4 moves.„ defeated » 4 n

a 8 „ .. » 16 „

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