Research Methodology & Technical Writing.Presented By
Dr. K.T.Subhaschandra.Govt. R.C.Collge of Commerce Bangalore 560 001
MODULE 1. Meaning & Significance of Research in Management. Different Approaches to Research Scientific methods and non-scientific methods Types of Research: Historical Studies Case Studies Case Studies Survey & Experimental Studies
Criteria of Good Research The Manager and Researcher Relationship.
MODULE 1.Meaning and Definition of Research A search for knowledge/Movement from known to unknown or a voyage of Discovery because of inquisitiveness or sprit of inquiry or curiosity. A systematic search for an answer to a question or a solution to a problem is called research. Search for Facts/ Facts finding Answer to a questions and solutions to problems. It is purposive investigation or organised enquiry. Search for facts should be made by scientific method rather than by arbitrary method then only we can get verifiable and accurate facts. Research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.
Definition of Research1. A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge is called research- The Advanced Learners Dictionary. As per Pauline v. Young A social research is the systematic method of discovering new facts or verifying old facts, their sequences, inter-relationships, causal explanations and the natural laws which govern them. Black and champion, scientific research consists of obtaining information through empirical observation that can be used for the systematic development of logically related propositions attempting to establish causal relations among variables.
4. Clifford Woody defines research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggest solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis. Thus, Research is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of inquiry for finding solution to a problem is research.
Characteristics of Research Systematicphenomenon and critical investigation into a
Not a mere compilation, but purposive investigation Adopts scientific method It is objective and logical, Based on empirical evidence Desiredtowards finding answers to pertinent
questions, and solutions to problems
It develops generalization, principles or theories Test of criticism
Objectives of ResearchThe main aim of research is to find out the TRUTH which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, the various research objectives fall into the following broad groupings:
To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. They are termed as exploratory / formulative research studies. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual situation or a group. They are called descriptive research studies. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. They are called as diagnostic research studies. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variable. they are called hypothesis testing research studies.
Other objective or purpose of Research Research extends Knowledge by Research findings. It answers various types of questions: what, where, how and why or various phenomena and enlighten us. Research brings to light information that might never be discovered fully during the ordinary course of life. For Ex; marketing research could result in discovery of new uses for old product. It establishes generalisations and general laws and contributes to theory building in various fields of knowledge. It verifies and tests existing facts and theory / hypothesis and help improving our knowledge and ability to handle situation & events. It enable us to make reliable predictions of events yet to happen. Research aims to analyse inter-relationships between variables and to derive causal explanations;
Applied Research aims at finding solutions to problems Socioeconomic problems (e.g., social unrest, unemployment, poverty) health problems, human relations problems in organisations and so on. It also aims at developing new tools, concepts and theories for abetter study of unknown phenomena.
Research aids planning and thus contributes to national development. Analytical studies of internal and external environment of business and non-business organisations provides factual data for rational decision making formulation of strategies and polices. Studies of their operational problems contribute to an improvement in their performance.
Motivation in ResearchThe possible motives for doing research may be any one or more of the following: a) Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits; b) Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research; c) d) e) f) Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work; Desire to be of service to society; Desire to get respect. Others factors Viz., directives of government/government authorities, employment conditions, curiosity about new things, desire to understand causal relationships, social thinking and awakening and so on.
Research in Business or Business ResearchBusiness Research is a systematic enquiry that provides information to guide managerial decisions. The systematic and objective process of gathering, recording and analyzing data for aid in making business decisions. More specifically, Business Research is a processes of planning, acquiring, analysing and disseminating relevant data, information and insights to decision makers in ways that mobilise the organisation to take appropriate actions that, in turn, maximise business performance. Most of the Business Research are applied research assumes importance since it is problem-oriented and decision-oriented.
There are lots of research topics in business a few such topics are : Marketing policy:Pricing Advertising Service Channels of distribution Customer relation
Market Research1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Brand name generation and testing Test market Product testing of existing products Package design studies Competitive product studies Demand analysis market potential Sales potential and sales forecasts Competitive pricing analysis Plant/warehouse location studies Channel performance studies
3. Research for financial decisions Research on cost of capital and capital structure Research on risk-return-patterns of projects Research on working capital management Research on capital structure Research on employee motivation Research on training and development Research on leadership: traits, absenteeism and job satisfaction.
4. Research for personnel decisions
Factors stimulating our Interest in Studying Business Research Methods Explosive growth and influence of the Internet. Stakeholders demand to be included in company decision making process. Competition, both at Global and Domestic level is growing and often coming from unexpected sources. More Government Interventions. Manager to consider more variables in making decision so, increases managers need for better insight from such information The quality of Management theories & models to explain tactical & strategic results in HR, Marketing, Operations & finance is improving by providing managers with more Knowledge.
Availability of Greater Computing power & Speed and in turn it offers following advantage; Lower Cost of collection and processing of data. Better visualisation tools & High-speed downloads of images allow researchers to help people visualise complex concepts, which enriches measurement capabilities. Sophisticated techniques of quantitative analysis are emerging to take advantage of powerful computing capability. Data-warehousing & Data-mining help more integration of data. MIS, EIS, ERP, E-CRM, & Expert Systems facilitates more and faster access to information.
New perspectives Methodologies.
Approac es to esearcThere are two basic approaches viz.,A. Quantitative Approach: It involves the generation of datain quantitative form, which can be subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis in formal and rigid fashion. Types of Quantitative Approach:
1. Inferential Approach:This approach is to form a database from which to infer characteristics or relationships of population. Research usually means Survey Research where a sample of population is studied. It is studied (Questioned/observed) to determine its characteristics, and it is then inferred that the population has the same characteristics.
2. Experimental Approach:Characterized by much greater control over the research environment and in this case some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on other variables.
3. Simulation Approach:It involves the construction of an Artificial environment within which relevant information & data can be generated. This permits an observation of dynamic behaviour of a system (or its sub-system) under controlled conditions. The term Simulation in the context of business and social sciences applications refers to the operation of a numerical model that represents the structure & the structure of dynamic process., given the values of initial conditions, parameters & exogenous variables, a simulation is run to represent the behaviour of the process over time. Simulation approach can also be useful in building models for understanding future conditions.
B. Qualitative Approachy It is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions & beaviour. y It is function of researchs insights & impressions. y This approach to research generates results either in non quantitative form or in the form which are not subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis. y Generally, the techniques of focus group interviews, projective techniques and depth interviews are used in the methodology of research.
Scientific Method; Research is a scientific Endeavour it involves scientific method. It is a systematic step-by-step procedure following the logical processes of reasoning.
It is a means of gaining knowledge of the Universe. Science is independent of any particular subject matter. It is an objective, logical and systematic method of analysis of phenomena, devised to permit the accumulation of reliable knowledge. Reliance on evidence: Truth is established on the basis of evidences, conclusion is admitted only when it is based on evidence. Use of relevant concepts Commitment to objectivity. It is the hallmark of the scientific method. i.e., basing conclusion on facts. Ethical neutrality: It does not say that they are good or bad. Generalisation: Science aims generalisation of facts.
Basis of Scientific Methods:1.
2. 3. 4. 5.
Verifiability: The conclusions arrived at by a scientist should be verifiable. Logical reasoning process: It involves logical process reasoning. Reasoning process is used for drawing inference from the finding of a study or for arriving at conclusion. It is one of the method of logical reasoning process. It consists of studying several individual cases and drawing a generalisation. It involves observation and generalisation. Conclusions from Induction are tentative inferences and they are subject to further confirmation based on more evidences.
DEDUCTION METHOD:It is regarded as reasoning from the general to the particular This method establishes a logical relationships between a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion. Ex: all men are mortal, A is a man Conclusion is A is mortal
Requisites of a Scientific Method Careful and logical analysis of the problem. Definition of terms, concepts and statistical units and measures so that others can understand exactly and be able to repeat the analysis and test generalisation. Collection of data pertinent to the problem under study. Classification of data. Expression of variables in quantitative terms whenever possible Rigorous & exacting experimental or statistical procedure in summarising the data. Sound logical reasoning as to the testing of hypothesis & drawing generalisations. Statement s in unusable terms of the exact conclusion arrived from the finding. Specific & clear statement of generalisation to facilitate checking & testing by others. Complete elimination of personal equation. Complete & careful reporting of the research process.
Component of Scientific ApproachI.
Procedural Components:Define the problem/research topic Establish hypothesis as cause and effect or solution to a problem. Collect data. Analyse the data & test hypothesis. Draw inferences.
Scientific Attitude:Consistent thinking Objective, dispassionate & unbiased devotion to collection & treatment of fact. Overcoming personal preconception & value judgment Avoid personal & vested interest Avoid wishful thinking . Stubborn determination to analyse ones own system of thinking & taking nothing for granted without evidence, tests & proofs Faith in the universality of cause & effect Ardent curiosity & love of experimental enquiry Self Control Keeping an open-mind.
Research & Theory:Theory provides conceptual model for research, Research in turn contributes to theory. One of the myths about the theory is It is perceived as speculative or unsubstantiated or unrealistic or ivory tower ideas. Kerlinlger Fred.N defines theory as A set of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that are advanced to explain and predict phenomena/facts. A theory may not only explain or predict phenomena, but also specify causal relationships among variables or hypothesis. Example: the standard of living of a family is the function of its income, size and life style. Theories start out as ideas. It is the extent to which ideas conform to basic demands of proposition, formulation that determines whether or not they will assume the stature of theory. Theory and facts are interrelated. While a fact is an empirically verifiable observation and cannot produce a body of knowledge. A theory specifies the relationships between facts or order them in a meaningful way. When the related facts are gathered and studied , the development of science can take place.
Criteria of TheoryThey must be logically consistent. There must be no internal contradictions. They must be interrelated The statements must be exhaustive as to co...