President Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism

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President Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism. Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism. Frustration with the stalemate in Korea & the Red Scare led to a Republican presidential takeover in 1952 WW2 hero Dwight Eisenhower provided an antidote for “K 1 C 2 ” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of President Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism

President Eisenhowers Modern Republicanism

President Eisenhowers Modern Republicanism

Eisenhowers Modern RepublicanismFrustration with the stalemate in Korea & the Red Scare led to a Republican presidential takeover in 1952WW2 hero Dwight Eisenhower provided an antidote for K1C2VP Richard Nixon attacked communism & corruption Eisenhower vowed to go to Korea & personally end the warKorean WarGovt CorruptionCommunismOnce elected, Ike did go to Korea, overturned the U.N. battle plan, & threatened China with nuclear war to get an armistice signed in 1953

Eisenhowers Modern RepublicanismEisenhower labeled his politics Modern Republicanism:Ike believed in conservative govt spending & a balanced budget but he had no desire to end New Deal programsThe affluent, postwar good life at home was dependent upon a strong Cold War foreign policyIm conservative when it comes to money and liberal when it comes to human beingsEisenhowers Modern RepublicanismIn his 8 years as president, Ike had a modest domestic record:Instead of ending New Deal programs, Eisenhower added to social security & minimum wageUsed FDRs Federal Housing Admin to help finance building & purchasing of suburban homesCreated the Depts of Health, Education, & WelfareDuring the Eisenhower era, the U.S. economy avoided spiraling inflation & brought middle-class prosperity to more AmericansEisenhowers Modern Republicanismcreated the interstate highway system in 1956suburbs grow!Interstate Highway System:Highway Act of 1956 created 41,000 miles of divided highway to connect major U.S. citiesThese highways helped promote national defense, interstate trade, & vacation travel All funds were raised exclusively through gas, tire, & car taxes

The Republicans in PowerRegarding McCarthyism, Ike provided McCarthy just enough rope to hang himself in 1954In the televised Army hearings, the nation saw McCarthys style & fact-less attacksThe Senate censured McCarthy & his communist attacks quickly died I am not going to get into a [peeing] contest with a skunk

Have you no decency, Mr. McCarthy?

McCarthy, relatively unknown U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, made sensational accusations that U.S. State Dept. infested with Communists. McCarthyismmaking of public accusations of disloyalty without having evidence. Factors contributing to Rise of McCarthyism: fall of China to communists, Soviet development of atomic bomb, fears raised by Truman containment policy, two spy casesSoviet spies had infiltrated some areas of U.S. (Alger Hiss cases). Nixon investigated this case. Rosenberg case-they were executed for giving Soviets atomic bomb infonever great evidence against them.McCarthy attaced alleged Communists and sympathizers. Created a climate of paranoia. Millions of Americans forced to take loyalty oaths. Hollywood blacklist developeddenied them employment due to imagined or real political associations. 1954-he accuses Army of infiltration. Army-McCarthy hearingstest publics patience and show his ignorance. Senate condemned him for conduct unbecoming a member.Died of chronic alcoholism 3 years later.Postwar American Society Prosperity and Change in the 1950sThe Decade after World War II was characterized by the following:

Unprecedented prosperityA population explosion known on the baby boomRapid and extensive suburbanizationAn Affluent SocietyThe postwar boom was caused byA desire for consumer goods (suppressed in the 1930s & 40s) Govt spending during Cold WarBaby boom & movement to the suburbs increased the demand for consumer goodsBut, this affluence led to a shift from individualism to conformity The Marshall PlanThe Korean WarCars with automatic transmissionsFilter cigarettes TVsRefrigeratorsHi-fi record playersThe American economy grew from crippling depression to the highest standard of living in all of world history in just 1 generationTV in the 1950s$64,000 Question21 QuestionsBonanzaThe Untouchables I Love Lucy1950s TV networks

I Love Lucy

The Milton Berle ShowTV replaced radio & magazines as the primary conveyer of American consumer cultureBirthrate, 1940-1970

The late 1940s & 1950s experienced the baby boomLife in the SuburbsThe rapid growth of suburbs altered American life:Blue & white collar workers lived in the same neighborhoodsSuburbs depended upon cars, grocery stores, & shopping malls Suburbs allowed for the nuclear-family, not the extended familyWhite-flight to the suburbs left behind largely black urban coresA Suburban Case Study: Levittown, New York

Begin in 1947 with 4,000 rental homes to veterans

Grew to 17,000 sold homes in 1951

So many babies were born in Levittown that it was called Fertile Valley & the Rabbit Hutch

Southdale Shopping Center, Minnesota the 1st enclosed, air-conditioned shopping mallAreas of Greatest GrowthThe rapid growth of suburbs (due to Ikes Interstate Highways (Federal Highway Act of 1956) led toIncreased church membership; Religious preference became the primary identifying feature of the suburbs Public schools grew & a college education was a goal for middle class childrenThe Music of the 1950s The music of the early 50s was dominated by doo-wopBut, rock n roll quickly struck a chord with young listeners:Black artists: Ray Charles, Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, & Little RichardWhite artists: Jerry Lee Lewis, Roy Orbison, Buddy Holly, & Elvis Presley

Critics of the Consumer SocietySome criticized suburban culture:William Whytes Organized Man & David Riesmans Lonely Crowd criticized American conformity to social pressuresJack Kerouac & the Beats (Beatniks) emerged as a new counter-culture by refusing to conform to 1950s culture Gave rise to counter-culture reactionaries of 1960sInspired by Zen Buddhist state of inner grace called beatitudeMore Social Critics and Non-ConformistsSloan Wilson-The Man in the Gray Flannel SuitJohn Kenneth Galbraith-The Affluent SocietyKerouac, in his book On the Road, spoke of alienation and disillusionment with conformity and materialism (as did writers of the 1920s Lost Generation)Find imagesBeat Artists (Beatniks)

City Lights in San Francisco was a hotbed for Beat artists

Cultural RebelsCultural Rebels included Rock and Roll, move stars such as James Dean and Marlon Brando, and artists such as Jackson Pollack (Abstract Expressionism)

Essential Question:How do the domestic & foreign policies of Truman & Eisenhower compare?

Eisenhower Wages the Cold WarEisenhower & the Cold WarIke was unusually well-prepared to be a Cold War presidentIkes foreign policy goals were to:Take a strong stand against Communism by using massive retaliation with nuclear weapons & covert CIA operationsTo reduce defense spending & relax Cold War tensions

Pragmatic & well organizedWW2 military experience in Europe & AsiaChose hard-liner John Foster Dulles to be Sec of StateExcellent diplomat & politician Massive RetaliationEisenhower wanted more bang for the buck:Nuclear weapons & long-range delivery missiles were cheaper than conventional armed forcesMassive retaliation strategy made using nuclear weapons unlikelyBut massive retaliation offered no intermediate course of action if diplomacy failed Massive retaliation meant targeting civilian targets rather than military onesIke relied heavily on brinksmanship in which he used veiled threats of nuclear war to accomplish his goals(targeting civilian targets rather than military one)Massive RetaliationIn 1954, Eisenhower used a hard-line approach to stop Chinese expansion in Asia:Chinese attempts to take over islands near Taiwan led Eisenhower to threaten nuclear war if China did not stopEisenhower hoped this pressure would drive a wedge between the USSR & communist China Chinese did not know if Ike was bluffing so China backed off this territorial expansionand the refusal of the USSR to aid China added a rift between Russia & China by the end of the 1950sMassive RetaliationIn 1956, Egyptian leader Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal:England & France invaded Egypt to take back the canal but the USSR opposed this interventionEisenhower did not want the USSR to attack so he threatened them with nuclear warEngland, France, & the USSR left Egypt & the U.S. became the leader in Middle EastIf those fellows start something, we may have to hit emand, if necessary, with everything in the bucketEisenhower DoctrineThe Suez Crisis revealed the vulnerability of the Middle East to Communism & Ike responded:In 1957, the Eisenhower Doctrine recommended U.S. armed force to protect the Middle East from Communist aggression In 1957, Ike sent the military to Lebanon to halt Communism & install a pro-Western govt Like the Monroe Doctrine in Latin America, the United States emerged as a police power in a new part of the worldCovert ActionsIkes administration used covert CIA acts to expand U.S. control:In 1953, the CIA overthrew Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran in favor of a U.S.-friendly shahIn 1954, the CIA overthrew a leftist regime in Guatemala In 1959, the CIA took a hard-line against new Cuban dictator Fidel Castro after his coupThese interventions led to anti-American hostilities in the Middle East & Latin AmericaThe end justifies the meansThe Effects of SputnikThe space race intensified the Cold War between USA & USSRIn 1957, the launch of the Soviet satellite Sputnik led to fears that the USSR was leading the race to create intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs)The U.S. sped up it plans to build ICBMs & IRBM submarines (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles & Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles)Khrushchev used Sputnik to put the U.S. on the defensive: We will bury you. Your grandchildren will live under Communism.U-2 IncidentThe Soviets shot down an Americ