Creating and Editing Workplanes
Workplanes are user-defined datums. They can be positioned and aligned as required to simplify model creation.
The main Workplane button is located in the Main toolbar. When selected, it displays the following buttons in the workplane toolbar to the left of the graphics window.
2. Wireframe Modelling
PowerSHAPE can generate points, lines, arcs, and curves in 2D and 3D space, which are collectively known as Wireframes. These wireframes have several functions, which include being the basic framework for several types of surfaces and solids, and as the drawing entities in Delcam Draft. Wireframes can be exported in a variety of file formats for use in other software products.
The buttons for generating Wireframe objects are located within the main toolbar.
3. Select Line from the Object meu.
4. Select Arc from the Object menu.
5. Select Curve from the Object menu.
6. Wireframe Lines and Arcs Exercise
The following exercise demonstrates basic Wireframe modelling by recreating the2D profile shown below. Lines and Arcs will be used to complete the design.
This example demonstrates the use of arcs to create the lever design shown below.
7. Composite CurvesFrom the Curve toolbar, select Composite curve.The Create Composite Curve toolbar appears.
8. General Edits exampleAt the top of the left toolbar are two fixed buttons; the second button includes access to the General Edits toolbar. The buttons on this toolbar allow for standard editing functions that apply to all object types.
9. Surface Modelling
What is a Surface?
PowerSHAPE can quickly create a range of simple surfaces defined by a few basic parameters. These are Primitives; they include seven standard shapes, extruded surfaces and surfaces of revolution. Using primitive surfaces, only the basic dimensional parameters can be modified with the original defined shape being fixed. Other types of surfaces used in
Primitive - Plane, Block, Sphere, Cylinder, Cone, Torus. Helix.
Extruded surfaces (from pre-defined wireframe).
Surfaces of revolution (from pre-defined wireframe).
The Primitive Cone Surface is shown selected with the Cone editing dialog displayed.
10. Standard Primitive Surfaces
There are seven standard primitive surfaces in PowerSHAPE: Plane, Block, Sphere, Cylinder, Cone and Torus and Helix. Primitive surfaces are generated with minimal data input and can be an ideal starting point for many applications. Primitives are coloured blue or gold in the toolbar to distinguish them from other surface creation options.
11. Surfaces of Revolution Example
A surface of revolution is created by rotating single geometry or a composite curve around a specified Principal Axis.
1 Open New Model and create a Workplane at 0 on the XY face.
Select all the wireframe and recreate a surface of revolution.
12. Surface bottle
Using the information provided, create the surface bottle shown.
13. Power Surfaces from Wireframe
Several of the PowerSHAPE surface creation options have been included into the Smart Surfacer. If you select wireframe before opening the wizard then the most likely surfacing method is selected ready to be previewed and/or applied. If an alternative, valid surfacing method is required, you can toggle to it by opening the list of options and clicking on the downward pointing chevron.
Automatic Surfacing options covered in this section are:
Example 1: Example 2:
14. Drive-curve Surface
A drive-curve surface consists of a spine curve along which section curves, are aligned perpendicular, relative to the spine points. Below is a drive-curve surface using a two sections running along the whole length of the drive-curve. The minimum requirement is one sectional wireframe, positioned anywhere along the single Drive-curve.Example 1 :
Example 2 :
15. Surface Filleting
As with Solids, Surface filleting is mainly used to create a smooth join between two or more surfaces.
A fillet surface is the developed outside contour of a ball if rolled between two or more surfaces. PowerSHAPE can create both fixed and variable radius fillets between surfaces. Where the ball makes contact defines the outer edges of the fillet to where, by default the original surfaces are trimmed back to the fillet edge. It is also possible to create a fillet between a composite curve and a selection ofsurfaces.
PowerSHAPE creates concave fillets running from the outside (user-defined colour side) or convex fillets from the inside (red side) of the host surfaces. The concave filleting direction for each surface is marked by an arrow which, if clicked, reverses the surface causing a concave fillet to run from the other side. Otherwise, the convex option is applied.
16. Variable Radius Fillets
Variable radius fillets can be created along the fillet track using the mouse to identify key points or by applying specialist options to position the fillet arcs either by parametric, relative or absolute values.
17. Surface Editing
Editing a surface using the toolbar
When you create or select a power surface, the Surface Editing toolbar will be displayed and the options that are appropriate for your surface are made available.
Use the following table to identify the buttons on the toolbar.,
18. Surface Trim Region Editing
A trim boundary on a surface defines the trim region of a surface.
Trim boundaries are created automatically when:
creating fillet surfaces.
creating draft surfaces.
limiting surfaces using Limit Selection and Limit Point.
A trim boundary consists of parameter curves (pcurves) and ultimately parameter points (ppoints) joined together to form a closed region of a surface.
PowerSHAPE provides powerful tools to help you define and edit your trim region accurately.
19. Parameter Curves (Pcurves) and Points (Ppoints)
Parameter Curves (pcurves) are made up of linear spans that run between Parameter Points (ppoints). As moves between ppoints are linear, any curvature is controlled by the proximity of adjacent ppoints within the tolerance setting.
Surface Edits toolbar.
The Previous Surface editing Toolbar is now replaced with two toolbars to edit the associated boundary or Pcurve on the selected surface.
Selecting Boundary mode displays the following trim boundary options.
Selecting Pcurve mode displays the Pcurve edit options.
20. Solid ModellingIntroduction
Solid modelling applies a different approach to the creation of a CAD model compared to surface modelling studided later in the course. The main difference is that a surface model is formed by a hollow, zero thickness skin, whereas a solid model is a mass of material. The main advantages of using solid modelling are the model creation speed, parametric qualities and the history tree. The user can use the history tree to reposition or edit operations performed earlier, resulting in the automatic update of other affected items. PowerSHAPE is unique in the ability to convert solids to surfaces and surfaces to solids, depending on which approach is most suitable. Open surfaces can be converted to a solid, an extremely useful capability which is not available with dedicated solid- modelling packages.
Within the Main toolbar there are two buttons for creating and Editing Solids.
When Solid options is selected, it displays the following buttons in the toolbar to the left of the graphics window.
21. Solid PrimitivesIn addition to the primitive solids which are generated from wireframe items (e.g. Extrude, Rotate), the toolbar contains six pre-defined shapes.
22. Solid FeaturesWhen Solid Features is selected, it displays the following buttons in the toolbar to the left of the graphics window.
23. Boolean OperationsBoolean operations define the relationship between entities. As a solid is built up, additional solids and surfaces can be absorbed into it. This behaviour is illustrated below using the three Boolean operations available from the solid features toolbar.
Observe the two primitive shapes below. With transparent shading applied, the yellow cylinder can be seen fully intersecting the blue sphere.
In this case the Sphere is the primary solid and the cylinder is selected only.
Add solid combine subtract