PHOTOGRAPHY. All That You Need to Know - David Codina

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    Photography

    All that you need to know

    David Codina

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    Text copyright 2016 David Codina

    All Rights Reserved

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    Authors Note.

    In modern times, where everything seems to have room on the internet, can seem

    somewhat absurd to spend the least effort to acquire a book like you are reading in this

    moment. Surely, you have doubts about whether your decision was correct. It is our wish

    to congratulate you on this, and our duty to justify why.

    Beyond considerations of value of work, no longer contain a certain amount of

    subjectivity, the really important thing is time. Your time. That time you have NOT had to

    invest in the search among hundreds, perhaps thousands, of links within the Internet to

    find what you are really looking for.

    You have acquired this book with the intention to find specific information. Well, you gotthis information here: complete, rigorous,The entire compilation and research work and

    all tasks associated with the elimination of irrelevant issues have already been made for

    you.

    You have come here out of a motivation. And the answer to that reasoning will find it in

    the next pages. Where, I guarantee you will not regret.

    David Codina

    We do not lose our time; perhaps it had them more beautiful, but this is ours

    HJean Paul SartreH(1905-1980) Philosopher and French writer.

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    Foreword

    Today, photography has become an important component in the life of each one of us.

    With the development of new technologies is very common to have at hand a device

    capable of taking photographs. Small digital cameras and mobile phones allow us to

    immortalize all times relevant to our lives. In recent years, the photographic production

    has grown exponentially and today, there is no social or family event in which someone

    does not take a picture that almost certainly will subsequently appear in one of the many

    existing social networks.

    How many times has happened that this photo that seemed so fun is out of focus? Or the

    image of that journey that will never be repeated has not gone as we had hoped? It is for

    this reason that we ask: Given that photography has become a common occurrence in our

    lives. Why do not you know those little tricks that allow us to perform them optimally?

    This book aims to provide an overview of what is photography. Beyond listing the

    different components of a camera, it explains the reason of each of the functions contained

    on it. Regardless of the camera is being digital or traditional; we try to explain the

    different concepts related to taking photographs. Words such as shutter, horizon law,

    diaphragm or foreground will take a new meaning after reading these pages.

    Many of us, the day we purchased our new camera, we decided to choose the automatic

    mode of operation (configured by the manufacturer) and do not care anymore. However,

    with additional knowledge as those discussed here, we can greatly improve our pictures

    and get into a really fascinating world. Because the world of photography goes far beyond

    mere smile and pressing a button.

    We wish you the best of the photo sessions.

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    Table of content

    uthors Note.

    Foreword

    The camera

    The display

    Shutter

    Speed

    Photometer

    The sensor

    The Flash

    Camera Programs

    The Advanced

    Parameters

    The optical

    Diaphragm

    Lenses

    Aperture and depth of field

    Hyperfocal distance

    Exposure

    The contrast of scene

    Measurement

    Contrast scene

    Photographic Composition

    The focus

    Fill the frame

    Lines

    Play with the direction

    Repeated elements

    Colors

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    Groups of three

    The rule of thirds

    Negative zone

    Foreground and background

    FramingCurves

    Horizon Rule

    La law of the gaze

    To conclude .

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    The camera

    We will start, directly, to know a bit what we have at hand, namely the camera.

    Parts of the Camera

    The main parts of a camera are:

    The display

    Shutter

    The photometer

    Sensor

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    The display

    Can be defined as the optical system that allows us to framing shots, ie, decides who

    enters and who does not enter the scene into our photo. Compact cameras used to have

    that was called direct viewer, allowing the scene while shooting.

    The main disadvantage of this system was the parallax error, which occurred because the

    optical and the viewfinder were not in the same optical axis.

    Currently, most compact cameras ignore the viewfinder, and make the frame and direct

    view through the LCD. SLR cameras are named precisely because the so-called reflex

    viewfinder, which is a mirror placed at 45 degrees that projects its image to a pentaprism

    which allows us to see the image in perfect agreement that will appear in the photo.

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    Shutter

    The device allows us to control the time during which light reaches the film or sensor.

    There are 2 types, the central shutter, that is commonly found on the lenses and whose

    main characteristics are that it allows flash sync at any of their speeds, but usually these

    are limited to 1 / 500 s. (aperture blades radial). On the other hand, the most widespread,

    this is incorporated in all the SLR is the focal plane shutter that is located in front of the

    film or sensor, and consists of 2 curtains.

    With the shot, the first curtain opens allowing the passage of light over time that we have

    selected, the second curtain closes. The main disadvantage of this system is that your sync

    speed with flash is usually between 1 / 90 and 1 / 250, so if you shoot at higher speeds, the

    shadow of the second curtain is being shown in the foto. Going a step in the speed range,

    the time that light exposes the film or sensor is doubled.

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    Speed

    Scale

    B 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 3 2 1,5 1 0,7 /2 /3 /4 /6 /8 /10 /15 /20 /30 /45 /60

    90 /125/180 /250/350 /500/750 /1000/1500 /2000/3000 /4000/6000 /8000

    Appear in bold the whole steps, namely those that if we choose them, the light pass is at

    double or half the time and the others are intermediate steps.

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    Photometer

    The device for measuring the light in the scene. There are two

    types, hand-held light meters and the light meters built into

    cameras. The handheld photometers are more versatile. Through

    these devices the light can be measured in two ways, as incidentlight, or reflected.

    The light meters built into cameras, can only measure reflected light, although there are

    three metering modes, depending the part of the sensor that we give more importance, are

    the point mode, the center-weighted mode, and matrix. The first uses only the central part.

    The center-weighted mode, the central part, but takes into account the immediate area, andthe matrix mode the entire sensor array, and also by the internal software of the camera

    makes some corrections as the scene that is measured.

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    The sensor

    Is the device responsible for recording the scene, ie, the charge to produce the file. An

    important parameter is the number of megapixels you have, you tend to believe that a

    greater number of megapixels, better quality, but this is not really so, it must also consider

    the size of the sensor. Where the number of megapixels is equal, the larger sensor will

    produce higher quality images. This is because when the photocells are closer between

    them, the noise is greater and the image becomes somewhat degraded image. There are

    several types of sensor:

    The CCD

    The Super CCD

    CMOS

    The Foveon

    Today the most widespread is the CMOS because its consumption is lower. Its present in

    Nikon, Canon and Pentax. The CCD currently almost is not used in photography, but it

    was the first to be mounted on a camera.

    The Super CCD is used by Fuji SLR cameras, and finally

    the Foveon, whose peculiarity is that it is structured inthree layers such as film, which is present in Sigma

    cameras.

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    The Flash

    All flash are basically composed by a torch and a generator.

    Torch: Is the flash tube, which is based on a xenon gas discharge. The flash has the

    following characteristics:

    It has a color temperature of 5600 K, ie, white light.

    It produces a hard and directional light.

    He has high energy efficiency, ie, produces little heat, and has a long useful life.

    Generator: Is the electronic circuitry that fed to the torch. One major component is thecapacitor, whose mission is to accumulate energy to release it almost instantly in the

    shooting. At the time of shooting, the capacitor discharges all their energy in a fraction of

    a second going to the xenon lamp and becomes a flash without any delay. A concept that

    should be taken into account when working with flash, regardless that if comes built into

    the camera or is independent, is the inverse square law, which states: The area

    illuminated by a point source of light, is four times greater every time you double the

    distance, or it is the same, the same area receive four times less light each time it is

    placed at twice the distance from the source.

    This law reminds us that like any other device, the flash device also has its limitations, and

    we must know to use it properly. The flash power is expressed through what is called

    Guide Number, which is usually provided by the manufacturer in the manual, but is

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    usually somewhat below the technical specifications. For example, a flash with a guide

    number 32 is more powerful than one with guide number 22.

    An important specification you need to know is the speed of synchronization that allows

    the camera, as they work at higher speeds would result in the emergence of the shadow of

    the shutter curtains cutting the picture. The flash can work in different ways:

    Manual: The user has to adjust into the lens, the aperture indicated by the flash either

    through the LCD screen in the most current models, or through a table in the older

    models depending the focus distance.

    Automatic A: In this mode the user has to indicate to flash the ISO sensibility and

    aperture you are using and it decides when he has to cut the flare using a sensor on the

    same flash.

    TTL. Its name comes from the acronym of the expression Through The Lens, and in

    this mode, the flash uses the information that facilitates the cameras light meter, so itis more accurate the two previous modes, as it takes into account other information

    such as the focal length that is being used, the presence of filters, etc. It is the most

    easy and practical way to use the external flash.

    The flashes built into the cameras, both compact and SLR have the same components and

    work exactly like the external, but its power is much less and therefore also its usefulness

    is limited. Basically they should be used to fill in shadows, or illuminate a nearby object in

    low light conditions, for example, indoors. No one should think of them as a light sourceitself but rather as a light of support. Moreover, in most cameras is possible to regulate the

    power of flash, and it would be advisable, especially when used as fill flash mitigate this a

    bit.

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    Camera Programs

    Automatics: They work quite well in most situations, however do not leave, or leave very

    little choice to the photographer. Are based on standardized patterns that are programmed

    into the camera software. The most common are:

    Portrait

    Landscape

    Nocturne

    Macro

    Auto

    We do not entertain to explain these modes. Its name suggests their utility.

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    The Advanced

    P: This program gives the full control to the camera. It is designed to aim and shoot.

    AV: The photographer sets the aperture and the camera decides the shutter speed. This

    mode is more practical when trying to control depth of field, for example, when

    shooting landscapes or when you are taking pictures of approximation. TV: In this mode you choose the shutter speed and the camera chooses the aperture. It

    is useful when you want to fix a movement, for example, in photography or sports

    action.

    M: In this way the total control of the shooting conditions belongs to the photographer.

    The cameras light meter measures light from the scene and indicated on the display if

    the shutter speed and aperture you have chosen will produce a proper exposure, but we

    are able to ignore or not.

    A dep: Its a way that taking into account all points of autofocus that are available into

    the camera and the light conditions that exist at the scene, decide the parameters that

    will be used to achieve the greatest depth of field.

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    Parameters

    It is important to know before taking a picture how are configured the different camera

    modes. Basically we need to know in which metering mode (point mode, center-weighted

    or matrix) we have our camera, in which autofocus mode (it is best to fit the center of the

    viewfinder or LCD, and then recompose your picture to our choice). We must also adjust

    the ISO (remember that the more sensitive the sensor generates more noise, resulting in a

    blurred image in general) depending on the lighting conditions before we shoot. With this

    in mind we can start worrying only in the photography composition and other aesthetic

    considerations.

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    The optical

    Lets talk a little bit about lenses and their importance in obtaining the final image as well

    as some technical aspects to consider. An important concept to know is referred to when

    talking about focal length. The distance or focal length of a lens is the distance between

    the optical center of the lens and the focus (or focal point) which collects the image (in

    digital cameras, the sensor). So when we say we have a perspective of 100, 50, 24 mm

    were talking about the focal length.

    Once understood what is the focal length, the following is to explain that there are, based

    on this concept, two types of...

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