Philip II King of Spain (1556 – 1598). King of Europe??? Philip became king of Spain in 1556. Philip became king of Spain in 1556. Spanish possessions

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Philip II King of Spain (1556 1598) Slide 2 King of Europe??? Philip became king of Spain in 1556. Philip became king of Spain in 1556. Spanish possessions included Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples, Tunis, lands in the Americas, and a variety of Mediterranean islands. Spanish possessions included Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples, Tunis, lands in the Americas, and a variety of Mediterranean islands. 1580: Portugal is inherited by Philip. 1580: Portugal is inherited by Philip. Philip saw himself as an international figure. Philip saw himself as an international figure. Slide 3 Philip the Pius Philip saw himself as the leader of the international crusade to promote Catholicism and stomp out all non- Catholics (included Arabian Muslims, Protestants, Jews, even the Moriscos) Philip saw himself as the leader of the international crusade to promote Catholicism and stomp out all non- Catholics (included Arabian Muslims, Protestants, Jews, even the Moriscos) Slide 4 Philip the Careless Philip was so consumed with leading the international Catholic counteroffensive that the economic and material interests of Spanish society deteriorated during his reign. Philip was so consumed with leading the international Catholic counteroffensive that the economic and material interests of Spanish society deteriorated during his reign. Slide 5 Golden Age of Spain Despite huge military expenditures, Spanish power and culture flourished. Despite huge military expenditures, Spanish power and culture flourished. Undoubtedly the strongest navy until 1588 Undoubtedly the strongest navy until 1588 Spanish cultural renaissance led by Sp. Humanists Spanish cultural renaissance led by Sp. Humanists Cervantes Don Quixote Cervantes Don Quixote Lope de Vega 700 dramas Lope de Vega 700 dramas Lots of art El Greco, Murillo, Valazquez Lots of art El Greco, Murillo, Valazquez Slide 6 Escorial Philip built a new palace/monestary/mausoleum 30 miles from Madrid on a bleak arid plateau of central Castille -- Escorial. Philip built a new palace/monestary/mausoleum 30 miles from Madrid on a bleak arid plateau of central Castille -- Escorial. Built in honor of St. Lawrence, (won a battle against France on his feast day). Built in honor of St. Lawrence, (won a battle against France on his feast day). Shaped like a grill, since St. Lawrence was roasted alive (a martyr). Shaped like a grill, since St. Lawrence was roasted alive (a martyr). Filled with monks and family coffins Filled with monks and family coffins By 1600, 1/3 of the population of Spain was employed in service to the Catholic church. By 1600, 1/3 of the population of Spain was employed in service to the Catholic church. Slide 7 Escorial Slide 8 Escorial Basilica Slide 9 Slide 10 The Royal Apartment: Philips Bed Slide 11 Entrance to the Pantheon de los Reyes Slide 12 The Crypt of Kings Slide 13 Slide 14 Slide 15 Escorial Slide 16 Monestary of San Lorenzo El Escorial Slide 17 Stairway to private area of the monestary Slide 18 Apparent Successes of Philip II 1567: Duke of Alva sent to suppress religious /political dissidents in the Netherlands. 1567: Duke of Alva sent to suppress religious /political dissidents in the Netherlands. 1569: Revolt of the Mariscos in Spain put down. 1569: Revolt of the Mariscos in Spain put down. 1569: Philip supported a revolt of Catholics in N. England; Pope excommunicated Elizabeth I and absolved her subjects from obedience to her. 1569: Philip supported a revolt of Catholics in N. England; Pope excommunicated Elizabeth I and absolved her subjects from obedience to her. Slide 19 More Successes? 1571: Spain won the Battle of Lepanto 1571: Spain won the Battle of Lepanto 1572: Philip supported the St. Barts day massacre in France 1572: Philip supported the St. Barts day massacre in France Slide 20 Battle of Lepanto Slide 21 Revolt in the Netherlands Political, Religious, and Economic Political, Religious, and Economic 1566: 200 noblemen founded a league to check Spanish influence in Neth. 1566: 200 noblemen founded a league to check Spanish influence in Neth. Petitioned Philip to leave the Neth. out of its inquisition, but Philip refused Petitioned Philip to leave the Neth. out of its inquisition, but Philip refused In Response, a mass revolt of the lower classes broke out, razing 400 Catholic churches, etc. In Response, a mass revolt of the lower classes broke out, razing 400 Catholic churches, etc. Philip sent in the Inquisition under the Duke of Alva Philip sent in the Inquisition under the Duke of Alva Slide 22 Netherlands, cont. Will of Orange rallied the Dutch to fight Spain, and a small war broke out. Will of Orange rallied the Dutch to fight Spain, and a small war broke out. 1576: Prot. and Cath. joined to fight Philip 1576: Prot. and Cath. joined to fight Philip 1578: England openly supported Dutch 1578: England openly supported Dutch BUT----the Spanish bribed the S. territories and they joined Spain against the N. BUT----the Spanish bribed the S. territories and they joined Spain against the N. 1581: N. Dutch declared complete independence. 1581: N. Dutch declared complete independence. Fighting didnt completely end until 1609 Fighting didnt completely end until 1609 Slide 23 England Philip married Mary I to become King of England and helped bring the inquisition there. Philip married Mary I to become King of England and helped bring the inquisition there. After her death, he wanted to either marry or kill Elizabeth to remain king. After her death, he wanted to either marry or kill Elizabeth to remain king. Spain was involved in several plots to put Mary Stuart on the throne. Spain was involved in several plots to put Mary Stuart on the throne. Marys execution led to the attack of the Spanish Armada. Marys execution led to the attack of the Spanish Armada. Slide 24 Spanish Armada 1587: As the Sp. Armada was amassing in Cadiz harbor, Drake sailed in and burned the ships (Singeing the kings beard) 1587: As the Sp. Armada was amassing in Cadiz harbor, Drake sailed in and burned the ships (Singeing the kings beard) 1588: The new armada (130 ships) sailed carrying 30,000 men and 2,400 pieces of artillery. 1588: The new armada (130 ships) sailed carrying 30,000 men and 2,400 pieces of artillery. planned to sail to the Neth. and then cross the channel to defeat England. planned to sail to the Neth. and then cross the channel to defeat England. Slide 25 Spanish Armada Met by 200 English ships in the channel led by Drake and Lord Howard of Effingham. Met by 200 English ships in the channel led by Drake and Lord Howard of Effingham. Eng. Ships smaller, lighter, faster, and well-armed with guns. Eng. Ships smaller, lighter, faster, and well-armed with guns. Used fireships Used fireships Protestant wind blew the Spanish north around the tip of Scotland and N. Ireland, killing most of the crews. Protestant wind blew the Spanish north around the tip of Scotland and N. Ireland, killing most of the crews. Major setback from which Spain never really recovered. Major setback from which Spain never really recovered. Slide 26 Slide 27 Slide 28 Spanish Armada Slide 29 British Fleet Slide 30 Foreign Effects Spain loses maritime dominance Spain loses maritime dominance England gains control of the seas England gains control of the seas British East India Company founded--1600 British East India Company founded--1600 1609: Netherlands officially split 1609: Netherlands officially split N = United Provinces (Netherlands) N = United Provinces (Netherlands) S = Sp. Netherlands (Belgium) S = Sp. Netherlands (Belgium) 1602: Dutch East India Company founded 1602: Dutch East India Company founded 1607/1612: Settlements in Virginia & New Netherlands 1607/1612: Settlements in Virginia & New Netherlands Slide 31 Spanish Effects By 1600, monarchy living day to day, economically, always waiting for the next treasure from the Indies to make ends meet. By 1600, monarchy living day to day, economically, always waiting for the next treasure from the Indies to make ends meet. Production was down, and the econ. Was weakened by inflation, taxation, emigration, and depopulation Production was down, and the econ. Was weakened by inflation, taxation, emigration, and depopulation Ex. Seville: 16,000 looms in 1500; 400 in 1600 Ex. Seville: 16,000 looms in 1500; 400 in 1600 Slide 32 More Spanish Effects Too many crusades left Spain with lots of minor aristocrats and church personnel who were very haughty and didnt contribute much to the economy. Too many crusades left Spain with lots of minor aristocrats and church personnel who were very haughty and didnt contribute much to the economy. 1608 - 1610: 280,000 Moriscos expelled (best farmers and skilled artisans) 1608 - 1610: 280,000 Moriscos expelled (best farmers and skilled artisans) 1640: Portuguese independence 1640: Portuguese independence Hapsburg mental problems added to the difficulties Hapsburg mental problems added to the difficulties