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Teaching a foreign language through dialogs is the core ofsecond language teaching theory; it springs from the linguistictheory that language is basically a spoken phenomenon, not awritten one. Achieving fluency in hearing and speaking a newlanguage must pre4d reading and writing in the new language.
Dialogs are particularly effective in teaching language because,.they are not only purely oral and therefore primary exercises inlanguage learning; they are also immediately useful outside of clar;:sbecause they are colloquial; they can-be made so that they keepclass interested; and the structures in them can be easily adaptedfor use in other dialogs or as a base for habit- forming drills.
In these lessons you will confront a plethora- of dialogs. aroundwhich the lessons are built. Try to notice the failures and sue,-ceases of the dialogs you will be exposed-to, so that when .you areon your own learning Cebuano you will be able to construct good.dialogs with an informant and then learn them with his helps
Notice also the technique of lenrning lAth.dialogs. Whethertherit'is only one studedt or twenty, you can follow. similar steps... .
1.* The teacher. should present the dialog in a clear and in-teresting way. He should act it out or present it with visual aids,so that as you listen and watch you know who says what, to whom,about what, and when.
2. Lfter you have watched and listened to the dialog several.'times, say each line after the tacher first in groups, thenindividually. It doesn't matter if your understanding and pro-nunciation aren't perfect.
3. After you have repeated the whole dialog after your teaqherseveral times, have him take one part and you take the other firstin groups, then individually.
4. Then switch roles.
5. You should pretty well memorize the dialog so that thepatterns and intonations become a habit for you. act it out withas much true --to life reality as possible; or batter, exaggeratesso that meaning is associated with the words and sentences
Once you have memorized'a good dialog' you. will all of a suddendiscover. that you are fluent in certain situations, and can toolpeople into talking more Cebuano to you than-you undertstand. Thatis when you begin to learn; .if you keep your ears and brain and heart
.open the language and the culture will begin to make good sense.
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Every language has basic patternsr subject and predicateorder, clause order, word order' etc. Various Visayan structuresare presented in the dialogs. The drills following the dialogsgive practice on these structures and expand them.
Drills make your production of a pattern become a habit. First* the teacher models the pattern and you imitate it. In same drills,
the teacher firstgives a model then only a word, picture, or gesturecue: you reproduce the full pattern. -This is done as group, thenas individuals; If you need help the teacher will again model thepattern. You repeat after the teacher. After a pattern is fairlywell learned, you and the other students use it in context (suchas a dialog, a chain response drill, or free conversation).Don't feel limited by your lack of vocabulary. Use English words.
You should reapet. the drills until you cnn spy them withreasonable ease.
Since language is mainly a smiken phenomenon, not a.writtenone (especially in the Philippines) the dialogs and the drillswill be presented to you orally first. After you have worked withthem orally you 411 get copies of the lessons: they may be usedfor additional practice, review, and aids for those who also learnby reading.
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When you learn a foreign 'langanse-it is often dicTicult topronounce some of the sounds you hear. In fact, it is sometimeseven difficult to hear risht the sounds which assault your errs.
To help you hear, then distinluish sounds you hear, then makethe sounds yourself and .use them in your conversation, you can useminimal pairs. That is, you can orally study a pair of words,differ from ech other in only one sound, Cie sound which you hr..-:edifficulty hearing and saying.
For instance, if you are Filipino and cannat'say afoot.' becaUseyou can't hear ord say the II" sound you 'can study the words afootifand nputu in contrast. In a pair of words like this the difficultsound is isolated after a while, you learn to hear the. differencebetween words th once sounded tho same to you, then you learn tosay them.
Or, if you are American and cannot say ''natii because you can'thear and say the glottal stop, you cant study the words "nato andonan, in cw,rast.
In these lessons you will study five sounds which may bexlif"icult for Americans learning Visayah. They are 1) the ;lottalatop (2) the consonant "ng" (3) the consonants "p", Ilk" and "t",pronounced without a puff of air. As you learn these sounds cbservethe method of the pronunciation lessons, so that you will be ableto continue them with a teacher in the place where you're asligned.
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Notice that a complete lesson consists of four parts:
The teacher presents pictures of the pairs to youand identifies each one with a word or a sentence.You only listen, you don't say anything.
a. The teacher says two words of a pair. Sometimeshe will say the same word. Sometimes he will saythe pair. You indicate whether they are differentor the same.
b. Then you identify a word with its meaning. Theteacher holds the two pictures and says one word.You indicate which picture the word.belongs to.
c, The teacher then says word (from the minimalpair list. (from'column I and column II). Youindicate whether the word belongs in column Ior column II.
* During the recognition stage you still don'trepeat the words. , You listen and signal yourrecognition by-yes-no answers, gestures, or sighssuch as raising one hand or two hands, standingor sitting, etc.
3. production (this comes only, after successful completionof recognition)
- You finally get to say the difficult sound' in wordsand santances. You identify pictures by sayingthe word repeating after the teacher. Work tomaster the sound.
4. enrichment .
The teacher present& rime9, riddles, games, complexsentences, dialogsvild songs which use the difficultsound. This increases your habitual use of thecorrect sound,,
.-You and your teachers quit as soon as you get tired.Study minimal pairs with your teacher for only afew minutes ata time.
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717,.0 ,- i.e. 1
(Visayan - Cebuano)
Situation: Si Betty ug si Lite Situation: Betty and Lita meet in
nagkitaf as plass. Nagdala si tlie plaza.. Lita is carrying a
Lita ug basket. Nazdala si . basket. Betty is carrying a
Betty ug sulat. letter,
Betty: Asa man ka, Lite?
Litz's. Se Mkarkado. Ikaw?
Betty: 'Ss poet office.
Where are you going, Lite?
To the market. (How about) you?
To the post office.
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DRILLS FOR DIALOG,
I. Pattern: Asa man ka? Sa
A. Response drill: Students give short, answers, using Englishwords for destinations.
TeacherAsa man kaAsa man-ka?Asa.man ka?Asa man ka?
Student(s)Sa library,Sa post office.Sa swimming pool,
B. Chain response drill: students ask and answer each other, usingEnglish words for destinations.
Student . StudentAsa man kar7 Sa dormitory.,Asa man ,ka? Sa night club.Asa man ka? Sa municipal building.
C. Introduction of new vocabulary: important places.in a town orpoblacion. The tencher introduces the placeswith pictures and shows a typical town layouton a map..
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D. Students say new words as they see pictures.
E, Students say new words as teacher. points to places on the map.
F. Relponoe drill:
Tea herAsa man a,Asa man ka?Asa man ka?
students give short answers cried by teacher'spointing.
(Points by 4tudentgarket Sa merkado.
. Church Sa simbahan..CoOkpit Ss bulangan.etc.
G. Response drill: .everybody asks one student where he is going;single student answers, either cued or at will.Students
Asa man ka, Joan?Asa man ka, Bill?
Student.Sa klinika.'Se eskuwelahan.
H.-,Short dialog exchange; either cued or free.
let StudentAsa man ka?Ass .man katAsa man ka?
2nd 44dent lltauchgSa eskuwelahan, Ikaw? , StipIasa.Sa pantalan. Ikaw? Sa merkado.
I. Minor Dialog: to memorize.
Situation: Si. Ben uc. RaulNagkita' as dalan. Nagdala'sila ug sunoy.
Ben: Asa man ka?Raul: Sa bulangan, Ikaw,
asa man?Ben: Sa bulangan nab.
po m a 1m I I re r is wo
Situation: Ben and Raul meeteach other'in the street, Theyare carrying roosters.
'Awe are you coing?To the cock pit. Where are izt-
going?To the cock pit too.
J. Conversion drill: students transform sentence; cue Omen byteacher.
Teac =rAsa man aAsa man ka?
udentsaw, asa man? .
Ikaw, asa man?
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K. Response drill: response
1st StudentIkaw, asa man?Ikaw, asa man?
L. Response drill:
1st StudentTE7 iiigrir7ca