Particles, Atoms, and Molecules

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Particles, Atoms, and Molecules. By: Broccan. The stages of My Power point. These are the steps in which I will introduce you to: Quarks Gluons Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons Atoms Atomic structure Isotopes Ionic Bonds Covalent bonds How we get energy by burning molecules - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Particles, Atoms, and MoleculesBy: BroccanThe stages of My Power pointThese are the steps in which I will introduce you to:QuarksGluonsProtons, Electrons, and NeutronsAtomsAtomic structureIsotopesIonic BondsCovalent bondsHow we get energy by burning moleculesHow matter and energy relate to biology

QuarksQuarks are the basic building blocks of matterThere are three types of families of quarksThe first family consists of ups and down quarks which forms protons and neutronsThe second family consists of strange and charm quarks which are used in high energiesThe third family consists of top and bottom quarks which are only used in very high energies

.Particle data (Quarks)NameSymbolMassChargeSpinUpu3 MeV+2/31/2Downd6 MeV-1/31/2Charmc1300 MeV+2/31/2Stranges100 MeV-1/31/2Topt175000 MeV+2/31/2Bottomb4300 MeV-1/31/2.GluonsGluons are particles that hold together Quarks

SymbolMassHalf-lifeChargeSping0stable1ProtonsProtons contain two up quarks and one down quark Gluons are used to bind the quarks togetherProtons carry a positive electrical charge

SymbolMassHalf-lifeChargeSpinQuark Contentp938.3 MeV>1032years+11/2uud

ElectronsElectrons carry a negative electrical chargeAs of know, electrons are individual and contain no quarks or gluons

SymbolMassHalf-lifeChargeSpine-0.511 MeVstable-11/2

NeutronsNeutrons carry no electrical chargeNeutrons contain one up quark and two down quarksGluons are used to bind the quarks together

SymbolMassHalf-lifeChargeSpinQuark Contentn939.6 MeVin nuclei: stable01/2uddAtomsAtoms are basic building blocks for ordinary matterAtoms join together to form moleculesAtoms are made up of protons, electrons and neutronsEach atoms will have the same amount of protons to electrons Most neutrons have at least the same number as protons and electrons

Atomic StructureAccording to the bohr atomic theory, a basic unit of an element is an atomProtons, neutrons, and electrons circulate around the nucleusAtomic mass= Number of protons and number of neutrons Mass of proportion= Mass of neutron

IsotopesIsotopes are atoms with a neutron number different from the majorityIsotopes will have a different atomic mass from the majority of atoms of that elementThe nuclei are less stable than normalThe nuclei rapidly change to a more stable form and release energy

Ionic BondsAn ionic bond is formed when one atom gives or accepts one or more of its valence electrons to another atomUnder here is a Sodium Ionic bond

Covalent BondsA covalent bond is formed when two non-metal atoms share valence electronsWhen electrons are shared between to metallic bonds than a metallic bond is formedCovalent bonds involve complete sharing at electrons and occurs mostly between atoms that have partially filled outer shells.If the atoms are similar in negativity, than the electrons will be sharedBurning MoleculesBy raising the temperture of a molecule, we speed up how fast it movesThe faster it moves the stronger the reactionAn example of the everyday burning molecules is nitrogen and oxygenEach bond has two electronsWhen a smash happens, an atom gets one electron

How does Biology relate to Matter and Energy?With Animals and plants, we all have cells that make up who we are. Inside a cell we have Protrons, neutrons, and electrons. These are like steps. First comes Matter and Energy, then comes cell, then DNA, and etc.

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