Molecules and Compounds. Atoms Molecules Cells.

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    17-Jan-2018

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Atoms

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Molecules and Compounds Atoms Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ System Organism Organization Atoms Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organism Atoms, Molecules, Compounds Atom small unit that makes up all living and non living things Molecule More than one atom (can be the same) Compound More than on atom (different atoms) Molecules That Make Up Cells 1. Water Water is one of the most important molecules in your body. Water makes up about 2/3 of your body and plays many important roles in cells. Molecules That Make Up Cells Because of the way the hydrogen and oxygen come together to make water, the molecule has a charge. When something has a charge, it is called polar. Water Is polar. Anything that is polar will dissolve in water. Anything non polar will not dissolve in water Things that dissolve in water are called hydrophilic. Things that do not dissolve in water (repel water) are called hydrophobic. Molecules That Make Up Cells 2. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are molecules made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sugars and starches are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates store energy. Molecules That Make Up Cells 3. Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are very long molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorous. Nucleic Acids store important information for the cell. 2 main kinds:DNA and RNA DNA directs cell activities. RNA is the directions to make proteins Molecules That Make Up Cells 4. Lipids Lipids are made of carbon hydrogen and oxygen. Fats, oils and waxes are all lipids, and they do not mix with water. Your cells use lipids to make membranes and store e energy. Molecules That Make Up Cells 5. Proteins Proteins are one of the most important molecules in your cells. They aid in cell structure, form different cell parts, and perform many important functions for the cell. Molecules That Make Up Cells 5. Proteins Proteins are made of long chains of carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen. Because of the complex way these chains fold up, a protein may have one part that dissolves in water, while another part of the same protein does not dissolve. The Food You Eat Think of the food as the building blocks. Each molecule of food is broken down by the digestive system and later re-arranged by each cell to build stuff your cells need. The carbohydrates you eat are broken down to simple sugars. Those simple sugars are sent through the blood stream to all the cells. The mitochondria of the cells change the sugar into ATP so that the body can use it. The Mitochondria Make the Energy The Proteins you eat are broken down to amino acids. Those amino acids are sent through the blood stream to all the cells. The ribosomes of the cells make new proteins from the amino acids in the food you ate. The Ribosomes Make the Protein The lipids you eat can be used to make the phospholipids in the cell membrane. The Lipids Make Up the Cell Membrane

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