OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Cruz, Ferdinand Jr. Cruz, Ma. Belle Cruz, Mary Liza

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  • OCCUPATIONAL HEALTHCruz, Ferdinand Jr.Cruz, Ma. BelleCruz, Mary Liza

  • OCCUPATIONAL HEALTHa multidisciplinary activity aimed at:-the protection and promotion of health of workers-development and promotion of healthy and safe work, work environments and work organizations-enhancement of the physical, mental and social well being of workers and support for the development and maintenance of their working capacity

  • WORK ENVIRONMENTRecognition of health hazardsPotential health hazards:Air contaminantsChemical hazardsBiological hazardsPhysical hazardsErgonomic hazards


  • CHEMICAL HAZARDSHarmful chemical compounds in the form of solids, liquids, gases. Mists, dusts, fumes and vapours that exert toxic effects by inhalation, absorption, or ingestion.BIOLOGICAL HAZARDSExposures to bacteria, viruses, fungi and other living organisms that cause acute and chronic infections

  • PHYSICAL HAZARDSInclude:Excessive noiseVibrationIlluminationTemperatureIonizingNon-ionizing radiation

  • Occupational and Other work-related diseases

  • Occupational diseasesAdverse health conditions in the human being, the occurrence or severity of which is related to exposure to factors on the job or in the work environment.PhysicalChemicalBiologicalPsychosocial stressorsmechanical

  • Characteristics of occupational diseasesCthe clinical and pathological presentation is identical to that of non-occupational diseasesMay occur after the termination of exposureThe clinical manifestations are rleated to dose and timing of exposureOccupational factors can work in combination with non-occupational factors to produce disease

  • PreventionPrimary preventionAccomplised by reducing the risk of diseaseSecondary prevention (occupational disease surveilance)Identifying health problems as they become clinically apparent and intervention to limit the effects of the problemTertiary preventionMinimizing the adverse clinical effects of a disease or exposure

  • Physical hazardsThermal stressCold stressVascular injuryIncreased muscle tonehypothermiaHeat stressVasomotor controlEvaporative coolingHeat strokePreventionGradual exposure leading to acclimatizationEngineering control (proper insulation and ventilation)

  • NoiseCan lead to increased accident rates and lower productivityNoise induced hearing loss85 db for prolonged periodPreventiosDesign and maintenance of machinerySegregation of exposure

  • VibrationWhole vibrationsSegmental vibrations

    Poor or defective illuminationDepends on type of work and degree of precision requiredLeads to eye strain, fatigue and increased accident

  • RadiationNon-ionizingUVIRIonizingX-rayGamma rays

  • Chemical hazardsGas and vapoursAsphyxiantsNitrogen, methane, hydrogen, CO2, CO, HCN, H2SIrritant gasesSO2, NH3, formaldehyde, ozoneOrganometallic compoundsLead, mercury, manganeseAnaesthetic vapourspesticides

  • Biological hazardsOccupational infectionsOccupational TBBrucellosisCattle, sheep, pigsAnthraxViral hepatitis B and CAIDS

  • Work-related diseasesAlso occur in the general populationWorking conditions and exposures need not be risk factors in any one diseaseBehavioral and psychosomatic disorderHypertensionCoronary heart diseasePeptic ulcersChronic Nonspecific Respiratory DiseaseLicimotor disorders

  • Occupational safety and accident prevention

  • Education & TrainingThe aim of safety education is to do work in a safe way until it becomes a habita training programme is needed for new employees when new equipment or processes are introduced, when procedures have been revised or updated, when new information must be made available and when performance of employees needs to be improved

  • Education & TrainingRetraining is indicated in the ff:High accident or injury rateHigh labor turnoverExcessive waste and scrapCompany expansion (plants or equipment)

  • Evaluation of safety legislationOccupational laws, regulations, and codes of practiceNeeded for the workers safetyResponsibility of management and workersPersonal protection devicesSecond line of defenseMust be used when engineering controls cannot be used or are inadequateMasks, goggles, safety shoes, helmets, ear plugs/muffs, gloves, aprons

  • Control of electrical hazardsMany accidents are due to defective electrical apparatusAll switches must have approved voltage and amperage rating compatible with intended useCircuit breakers should be used when neededInspect and maintain all electrical equipment regularly

  • Control of fire hazards (principles of fire control) prevent ignitionStore chemicals and explosives properlyInstall and use fire alarmsProvide fire extinguishers (regularly inspected and maintained)Train every worker to use the available fire control equipmentInspect the workplace at regular intervals for fire risksConduct regular fire drillsCooperate with the local fire brigade

  • Purposes of occupational accident investigationUsed to prevent accidentsCan produce information that leads to countermeasures to prevent or reduce the number and severity of accidentsIncidents resulting in non-disabling injuries and near accidents should also be investigatedInvestigations must be fact finding, and not fault finding

  • Good day!


    Asbestos related mesothelioma

    Mercury can be toxic to the lungs if high concentrations are inhaled

    Asbestos exposure can increase risk of lung cancer up to 5-fold*By reducing magnitude of exposure by industrial hygiene and changes in production processSubstitution of a hazardous substance with a safer oneSpecial ventilation of equipment or processes that liberate airborne hazardsProtective equipmentsRotation of workers

    Measurement of blood lead levels

    MedicationsGoal is to limit symptoms, minimize injury and maximize functional capacity

    *Thermal stressProduced by metabolic processExchaged is influenced by air temperature, velocity, humidity and radiationCold stress when surrounding temperature falls, peripheral vasoconstriction occurs, vascular injuries, shivering and incresed muscle tone which may lead to hypothermia and organ death

    Heat stressVas control more blood pumped to the skin and less to visceral organsEvap cooling sweating leads to dehydrationHeat stroke failure of heat regulating centre leading to unconsciousness and death

    *WholeTractor workers, transport workersCause ailments related to congestion of pelvic and abdominal organs

    SegmentalPneumatic or electrical vibrating toolsVascular changes in the limbs

    *Cause asphyxia by replacing oxygenCO O2 inhalationH2S NitratesHCN amyl nitrate, Cobalt EDTA, hydorxocobalamin

    Irritant gasesIrritation or inflammatio of mucus membranes*Occupational hazardsWhen some aspect of the work causes ***********