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BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences Funded under contract: DE-AC02-98CH10886 How Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team

NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

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Page 1: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATESU.S. Department of Energy

Office of Basic Energy Sciences

Funded under contract: DE-AC02-98CH10886

How Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science?

Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy SmithNSLS Infrared

and the NSLS-II design team

Page 2: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Synchrotron Infrared Source Qualities

• High brightness– ~ 3 orders of magnitude higher than conventional “white” IR

spectroscopy sources.– Needed for throughput limited spectroscopy (microspectroscopy)

• Broad spectral coverage– everything from visible down to microwaves, though weaker at

long wavelengths.– Compatible with high-performance FTIR spectrometry.

• Pulsed output– 10s of picoseconds out to nanoseconds– Time-resolved spectroscopy / dynamics

Page 3: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

High Brightness Enables Throughput Limited Techniques

Microscopy atdiffraction-limit

Spectroscopy of materialsunder extreme conditions:

• diamond anvil cells• complex cryostats & magnets

Very high (spectral) resolution(requires small collimating aperture)

r = f (2δν/ν)1/2 = 2 mmfor f = 20 cm, δν = 0.001 and ν = 20 cm-1

Restrictive angle of incidence• Grazing incidence• Attenuated total refl. (ATR)• Ellipsometry

Page 4: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Worldwide Synchrotron Radiation Facilities for Infrared

NSLSBNL

ALSLBL

CAMDLSU

SRCUW

SRSDaresbury

CLSUSask

UVSORIMS

SPring-8

MAXLund

SoleilLURE

ESRF

SRRC

SSLS

(Australian)Monash

SLSPSI

BESSY II

ANKAFZK

DAΦNE

Elettra

HSLS

Page 5: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Synchrotron Infrared Brightness

If electron energy issufficiently high (> 100 MeV)then IR brightness dependsonly on:

- beam current

- source size/emittance

- extraction aperture

10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104

0.1

1

10

Spe

ctra

l dis

tribu

tion

(dP

/dω)

Photon Energy [eV]

10-1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

THz

( ) 31

~ ωρ

2 GeV

25 MeV

0.2 GeV

~ 2 meter bend

Page 6: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

TSGM: 180-1200eV (1995)

TSGM: 7-288eV (1999)

SGM: 15-1200eV (1996)

TSGM: 100-900eV (1999)

NIM: 3-30eV (1998)

White

White

125µeV-600meV (1997)

A: 2.5meV-3.1eV (1999)B: 48-840meV (1998)

1.2-480meV (1987)

A: 2.5meV-2eV (1999)B: 2.5meV-2eV (1998)

NSLS VUV800 MeV

1000 mA at injection

SGM: 8-250eV (1996)

Recently Upgraded VUV/IR Beamlines

Page 7: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

IR Performance of VUV Ring: 90x90mr Extraction

1 10 100 100010-9

10-6

10-3

100

B

right

ness

[W/c

m-1/(c

m2 -r

ad2 )]

Frequency [cm-1]

Ideal 700mA VUV-IR 700mA

10000 1000 100 10

Wavelength [µm]

Page 8: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Infrared Performance: NSLS VUV Ring

2 4 6 8 100.1

1

10

100

NSLS U12IR"single beam"

intensity

synchrotron HiP Hg Arc

Sig

nal I

nten

sity

Frequency [cm-1]

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 350.994

0.996

0.998

1.000

1.002

1.004

1.006

Rat

io (1

00%

line

)

Frequency [cm-1]

100 1000

1

10

100

Relative SignalU10A Synch/Globar1 mm diam. aperture, f/4

Rat

io

Frequency [cm-1]

0 100 200 300 400 5000.95

1.00

1.05

BB (1200K globar) Synchrotron U10A

100% line comparison1 mm specimen aperture

Rat

io

Frequency [cm-1]

Page 9: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Pulses for Time-Resolved Spectroscopy

• Synchronized M-L laser(<10 ps pulses)& VUV ring pulses(down to 300 ps).

• Need shortersynchrotron pulses(down to 100 fs, butany gain is useful)

140 160 180 200 220-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

Det

ecto

r si

gnal

Time [ns]

laser synchrotron

4 ns

Page 10: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Existing IR Programs/Activities• Biological and Life Sciences

– vibrational microscopy/imaging of proteins and cell structures– bone mineralization osteoporosis/osteoarthritis– chemistry of diseased tissues at the cellular level

• Environmental and Space Sciences– vibrational microspectroscopy of soils and interplanetary particles

• Corrosion and Catalysis– grazing incidence spectroscopy of molecular layers on metal surfaces

• Geosciences– spectroscopy and microscopy of molecular solids and minerals at extreme

pressures and temperatures.• Materials

– infrared conductivity of complex metal oxides.– dynamics (time-resolved) in superconductors and nanomaterials.– spectroscopy of spins and magnetic resonances in ordered solids.

Page 11: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Infrared Considerations for NSLS-II

• Existing NSLS & VUV/IR Ring– high current (high brightness), ~ 1 ns duration pulses– ~ 25 years old (increasing maintenance for linac, booster, RF systems)– ring chamber and magnets remain reliable

• NSLS-II: New Ultra-Bright Storage Ring for X-rays– 500 ma (top-off)– new injector– 500 MHz

• at least 10X shorter bunches– but large aperture ports could be problematic

• estimate 20 mrad from geometric considerations.

Page 12: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

1 10 100 1000

10-9

10-6

10-3

100

Brig

htne

ss [W

/cm

-1/(c

m2 -r

ad2 )]

Frequency [cm-1]

Ideal 700mA VUV-IR 700mA NSLS-II 500mA

Infrared on the NSLS-II Main Ring?

10 100 10000.0

0.5

1.0NSLS-II / VUV-IR

Rel

ativ

e B

right

ness

Frequency [cm-1]

Page 13: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Plan: Relocate VUV/IR to NSLS-II: Infrared Ring

• Maintain investment in ring chamber, magnets andbeamline front-ends

• NSLS-II -> new injector (Linac)– Top-off injection for IR too

• can tolerate modes with shorter lifetimes– brighter mid-IR beam– higher average current (1 A)– short bunch lattice

• New RF– 500 MHz to match NSLS-II systems

• intrinsically shorter bunches (10s of picoseconds)• possible coherent mode?

Page 14: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

The NSLS-II Project

Page 15: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

NSLS-II Infrared Ring

Option 1:200 MeV linac + BoosterInject IR ring at 200 MeV

Option 2:3 GeV linacInject IR Ring at up to 800 MeV

Page 16: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Infrared Brightness Comparison

1 10 100 100010-9

10-6

10-3

100

B

right

ness

[W/c

m-1/(c

m2 -r

ad2 )]

Frequency [cm-1]

VUV t/o 1000mA VUV-IR 700mA NSLS-II 500mA

10000 1000 100 10

Wavelength [µm]

Page 17: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

SGM: 8-250eV (1996)

NIM: 3-30eV (1998)

White

White

1.2-480meV (1987)

A: 2.5meV-2eV (1999)B: 2.5meV-2eV (1998)

NSLS VUV800 MeV

1000 mA atinjection

A: 2.5meV-3.1eV (1999)B: 48-840meV (1998) 125µeV-600meV (1997)

Possible Infrared Beam Ports

Chamber modificationfor a U16IR Far-IR port(magnetospectroscopy)

Chamber modificationfor a U7/8 extendedsource (imaging arraymicroscopy)

Page 18: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Two 25 mrad by 100 mrad ports

Extended Source for Small Array FTIR Microspectrometer

• Rapid scan FTIR with 16 element array detector

• Full spectral range MCT

25µm

25µm

Detector schematic

Perkin-Elmer “Spotlight”IR microscope with linear detector array

Page 19: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Rough / Strawman Elevation Drawings

Linac below grade to use earth shielding

Main NSLS-II RingMain NSLS-II Ring(cross section)(cross section)

Infrared RingInfrared Ring

Page 20: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Rough Infrared Ring and Beamline Strawman / Schematic

• Infrared beamlines extract light from ring (below grade)

• Endstations on upper level (stable concrete support)

• Most of ring covered (additional useful floor space, walkways)

Page 21: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Other Possibilities: Coherent Emission

• Abo-Bakr et al demonstrate stable coherent emission from BESSY II (PRL March 2003)

• Berkeley Lab proposal for CIRCE (storage ring primarily for coherent far-IR)

Incoherent@ 1000 ma

Page 22: NSLS Infrared - Brookhaven National LaboratoryHow Will NSLS-II Serve Infrared Science? Larry Carr, Lisa Miller, Randy Smith NSLS Infrared and the NSLS-II design team. BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE

BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES

National Synchrotron Light Source U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Basic Energy Sciences

Summary & Questions

Current plans call for relocating NSLS VUV/IR Ring to NSLS-II• Space for additional ports and beamline endstations

– Let’s make sure it’s all stable!• beamline hutches for environment stability?

– extended source based on 200 mrad horizontal (two U10 or U2 ports)?New Imaging Capability

• Top-off mode for higher current and higher brightness– how often?, how stable?

• 500 MHz RF– shorter bunches … modes for very short?– coherent emission?

• At least 200 MeV– adequate for IR and Visible, but may need more to avoid excessive topping-off– higher energy -> undulators could serve as tunable pump for time-resolved