Light Aircraft Design

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  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    New: Sport Pilot (LSA)

    The Light Aircraft Design Computer Program Package - based on MS-Excel-application !as no! extented !ith the ne! Sport Pilots "LSA# loadsmodule$ !hich includes compliance for the %Standard Specifiation for

    Design and Performance of a Light Sport Airplane ASTM & ''()-*(+ loadssection,

    Light Aircraft Design

    - Loads and Static Tests

    - Structure Calculations

    - Aerodynamic

    The Loads may be calculated according to the following regulations:

    UL Germany (LTFUL!

    FA" #$ % &LA


    Sport Pilots "LSA#***

  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    All 'rograms are S)*C)L modules some of them using S &isual+asic calculation modules in bac,ground-

    Summary descri'tions of the methods are included in the


    ost of the results are 'resented in gra'hic form-

    The /L 0erman1 "LT&-/L#$ Sport Pilots "LSA# and &A2'345LA includes thefollo!ing modules6

    o Data Sheet

    o .eight and +alance

    o Flight )n/elo'e

    o Design Cases

    o Landing Gear Loads

    o )ngine ount Loads

    o Control Surfaces and Flight Control Loads

    o Fuselage Load Distributions (calculated and tested!

    o .ing Load Distributions (calculated and tested!

    Prices6 7

    LTFUL : 0112

    LSA 3 S'ort 4ilots : 5112

    FA" #$%&LA: 6112

    S'ecial 7ffer: LTFUL 8 LSAS'ort 4ilots 8 FA" #$%&LA: 9112

  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    ;add su''lementary 96< ta=es (.St-!

    Supplementar1 the follo!ing modules ma1 be ordered6 7

    Flight Controls >inematics (62!

    4ro'eller Layout % Design (62!

    anoeu/re and Gust Flight Simulation (662!

    Structure Calculation: .ing Sections (metal and com'osite! (62!

    Landing Gear Strut- Calculation (662!

    Fuselage Design (662!

    ;add su''lementary 96< ta=es (.St-!

    Data Sheet

    All geometric and aerodynamic data of the aircraft are defined or calculated: meanaerodynamic chords? as'ect ratios? tail /olumes? lift cur/e slo'es? hinge lift and

    moment coefficients for control surfaces and tabs? neutral 'oint wing? tails andfuselage influence? 'ro'eller sli'stream effect-

  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    .eight and +alance

    Calculates the mass distribution of the aircraft? CG 'osition and inertial moments-

  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    Flight )n/elo'e

    Calculates the design s'eeds and the corres'onding load factors for manoeu/re andgusts-


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    Design Cases

    The critical design cases according to the LSA (S'ort 4ilots!? LTFUL (UltralightGermany! or FA" #$ are defined and the corres'onding forces on the wing? tail arecalculated-

  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    Landing Gear Loads

    The design cases and corres'onding forces on the main and nose gear arecalculated-

    )ngine ount Loads

    Forces and moments in the engine mount CG (including gyrosco'ic effects arecalculated!-

    Control Surfaces%Flight Control Loads

    The total critical loads and hinge moments (aileron? ele/ator? rudder? fla's! on the

    control surface of the aircraft are calculated-

    Fuselage Load Distributions (calculated and tested!

    The fuselage bending and shear force diagrams for the critical fuselage loading arecalculated-

    4osition for the 'oints where the fuselage will be loaded during the static test aredefined- The corres'onding test load diagrams are com'uted and com'ared with the

    calculated ones-

  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design



  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    .ing Load Distributions (calculated and tested!

    The wing aerodynamic load distribution for critical design cases is calcualted with thewell ,nown ultho' lifting line method-

    The effect of fla'%aileron is considered-

    The mass load distribution (structure? fuel? lum'ed masses li,e landing gear! due to

    /ertical and roll acceleration is considered-

    The total shear (T=?Ty?T@ ! and moment diagrams (bending=? torsion y and in'lane bending 3@! moments are calculated-

    The static test loading may be also defined and com'ared with the calcualted one-


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    Flight Controls >inematics ( 6 )U"!

    This 'rogram calculates the forces in a $D 'ush'ull control system for differentcontrol system deflections-

    Cross sections of the rods are defined-

    The safety factors for buc,ling are calculated-


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    4ro'eller Layout%Design (6 )U"!

    This module calculates the 'ro'eller cur/es using a /ery efficient energy method-

    The 'ro'eller 'lanform and torsion is defined as in'ut-

    Using the S7L&)"B o'timi@ation algorithm from S)*C)L some 'arameters maybe o'timi@ed (form? torsion! in order to get the best efficiency in a gi/en wor,ing'oint-

    +ending and torsion moments in 'ro'eller cross sections are calculated-


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    anoeu/re and Gust Flight Simulation (66 )U"!

    "egulations (FA"%A"%CS?&LA? LTFUL! 'ro/ide sim'lified formulas for gust- Theresulted forces and load factors are normally conser/ati/e-

    A more detailed calculation may be 'erformed by means of a flight simulation of thegust%manoeu/re in which the /ertical translation and 'itch rotation of the aircraft are

    considered- A differential euation system defines the A%C motion-

    +y means of this method a time history of all A%C 'arameters (angle of incidence?

  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    'itch rate? 'itch acceleration? A%C load factor? wing load? ET load! is calculated-


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    .ing Sections (metal and com'osite! (6 )U"!

    A library of com'osite material layers is defined including all material 'ro'erties-

    This library is used to define the layout of a wing cross section (ty'e and no- oflayers? layer direction!-

    The section bending and torsion moment are defined-

    The bending and shear stresses are calculated-

    Finaly the safety factors for each layer is defines (Tsai criteria!-


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    Landing Gear Strut- Calculation ( 66 )U"!

    This 'rogram simulates the landing of an elastic landing gear leaf (strut! by meansof an iterati/e method- Large geometrical deformations are considered- The forcedeformation diagram and the deflected form of the leaf are 'lotted-

    The form of the landing gear strut is defined: rectangular or round section- Thesafety factors for each cross sections are calculated (bending? torsion and total

    loading!- Ealf struts or cross one 'iece! struts may be calculated-

    The tire elastic characteristic is considered-


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    Fuselage Design (66 )U"!

  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    The main fuselage contour lines are defined: u''er and lower from the side /iew?line of ma=- width? 'osition of the ma=- width line-

    The cross sections of the fuselage are defined by means of conical cur/es (one cur/e

    for the u''er side and one for the lower side!- A conical coefficient defines the formof the cross section-

    A -D*FB file may be e='orted and read directly in CAD 'rograms in order to define a

    /ery smooth surface form of the fuselage-

    The whole 'rocedure may be done in less then one hour-


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    Coming Soon: Lifting Surface Aerodynamic Load Distribution (S)*C)L a''lication!

    Calculates the lift and induced drag distribution for com'le= aircraft $D configurationsli,e canard? winglets- Control surface deflections are included-

    The lifting surface theory is used to define the 'ressure distributions-

    Coming Soon: S'readsheets:

    .eight +alance

    &ertical Climbing S'eed

    4ro'eller 4erformance and oise easurements

    Standard Atmos'hera

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    4rograms written by 4CAero%Di'l- Ing- Calin Gologan- All rights reser/ed by 4C

    Aero%Di'l- Ing- Calin Gologan-

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  • 5/20/2018 Light Aircraft Design


    conseuences? which can result from the use of the 'rogram? adhesion-

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    mailto:[email protected]:[email protected]