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H. Assler / J. Telgkamp Airbus ECNDT 2006 25 September 2006 Design of Aircraft Structures under Special Consideration of NDT 9 th European Conference on NDT Berlin (Germany), September 25 th – 29 th , 2006 ECNDT 2006 H. Assler Airbus - Hamburg Presented by J. Telgkamp

Design of Aircraft Structures under Special Consideration ... · Aircraft Performance Aircraft Market Aircraft Design - general Innovation in Aircraft Design Structure Inspection

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Page 1: Design of Aircraft Structures under Special Consideration ... · Aircraft Performance Aircraft Market Aircraft Design - general Innovation in Aircraft Design Structure Inspection

H. Assler / J. Telgkamp Airbus ECNDT 2006

25 September 2006

Design of Aircraft Structures under Special Consideration of NDT

9th European Conference on NDTBerlin (Germany), September 25th – 29th, 2006

ECNDT 2006

H. AsslerAirbus - Hamburg

Presented by J. Telgkamp

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Table of Contents

History of AviationAircraft Performance

Aircraft MarketAircraft Design

Innovation in Aircraft DesignStructure Inspection Program

NDI/NDT MethodsConclusions

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History of Aviation

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History of Aviation

1st engine driven flight: 12 seconds, 53 metersWilbur and Orville Wright (Dayton, Ohio)

December 17th, 1903, Kitty Hawk, North Carolina

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History of Aviation

1st save, repeatable gliding flights in history, 25 metersOtto Lilienthal

Summer 1891, Derwitz, Germany

„From jumping to flying“ marked the beginning of the era of human flight 115 years ago .

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Table of Contents

History of AviationAircraft Performance

Aircraft MarketAircraft Design

Innovation in Aircraft DesignStructure Inspection Program

NDI/NDT MethodsConclusions

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Aircraft Performance – Drivers / Features

moreinexpensive

moreenvironmental

friendly

fasterbigger

further

ChallengeDrivers use to be in contradiction to each other.

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Aircraft Performance – “further”Long Range Aircraft development vs. Time

Half earth circumferential

Longest distance between major destinations

Entry into Service

4000

6000

8000

10000

1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

Ran

ge (n

m)

B747-100

B747-200

B747 SP

B747-300

747-400ER

A340-200

A340-300A340-600

A340-500

777-200

777-200ER

777-300

777-300ER747-400

Range as design driver is reaching it’s natural limit.

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Aircraft Performance – „bigger“

79.8 m

73 m

A380 A320

7.14 m

8.56 m

A380

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Aircraft Performance – „lighter“

0,01

0,1

1

10

1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020

Year

Wei

ght

per

Load

and

Dis

tanc

e (r

elat

ed o

n cr

uisi

ng s

peed

)

Structural Efficiency is increasing permanently.

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Aircraft Performance – “environmental friendly”

A380 - the first long-haul aircraft with less than3 litres per pax/100km

fuel consumption(5000 nm sector, Typical International

Flight Profile, 555 pax)

Spec

. Pow

er k

W/k

g

1.0

0.1

0.01

Aircraft

Car

Stationary / Maritime

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Aircraft Performance – Sources for Innovations

AerodynamicsLift

Drag

Thrust

Weight

Structure(Materials, Technologies, Design)

Engine

Overall AircraftConfiguration

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Table of Contents

History of AviationAircraft Performance

Aircraft MarketAircraft Design

Innovation in Aircraft DesignStructure Inspection Program

NDI/NDT MethodsConclusions

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101 136 125 106

326460

556 476 529375 300 284

370

563

319 290327 196

554

789 568

656

391

602

251277

38

414

333

239

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Airbus Boeing

Aircraft Market – Orders (Gross)Status Dec./04

Aircraft Market is fluctuant.

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Aircraft Market – The Future looks bright ...

1970-1979 :11,0%

1980-1990 :5,8%

1991-1997 :5,8%

GulfcrisisCrisis in Asia

Oilcrisis

10 900 Aircraftsin 2000

17,328 Aircraftin 2023

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1970 1980 1990 2000 2013 2023

Shift of 3.3 years

9-11SARSIraq

Worldwide Annual Airtraffic(in trillion Passenger KM)

Until 2023: 5,3% growth p.a.

In spite of Crises: 5.3% Growth p.a.

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Table of Contents

History of AviationAircraft Performance

Aircraft MarketAircraft Design - general

Innovation in Aircraft DesignStructure Inspection Program

NDI/NDT MethodsConclusions

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Aircarft Design – General Aspects

A typical short-range jet aircraft is designed to make approx. 50 000 flights, which corresponds with approx. 200 000 miles only on ground (taxiing, etc.).Please compare to conventional car, e.g. 100 000 miles.

Airframe Structures have to fulfil extreme Requirements during a very long Product Life.

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Aircraft Design – General Aspects

Aircraft Design is a multidisciplinary Challenge.

The Aircraft Design is influenced by a Variety of Factors: • Airworthiness Regulations• Environmental Considerations• General Aircraft Requirements (Mission Profile,

Maintenance, DOCs, etc.)• Specific Requirements for Structural Details• Available Materials and Technologies• Manufacturing Capacities and Capabilities• NDI / NDT Capabilities• Design Costs

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Aircraft Design – Material Selection

• Lower Stiffness• Higher Density

(compared to CFRP)• Less industrialized process

(compared to CFRP)

• Improved Fatigue• Better Tailoring• Higher Fire Resistance• Less Corrosion

(compared to Al-alloys)

Fiber MetalLaminates

• Impact Behaviour• No „Plasticity“• Reparability• Recycling

• Fatigue Behaviour• Low Density• No corrosion• Best suited for Smart

Structures

Composites(CFRP)

• High Density• Fatigue Behaviour• Corrosion Behaviour• High Costs of new Alloys

• Standardisation• Reparability• Static Behaviour• Improvement Potential

Metals(Al-Alloys)

DrawbacksStrengths

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Aircraft Design – Material Selection

Al 2524

Al 6013 Al 7475

GLARESkin

Material

An iterative Optimisation leads to best Match of Material Characteristics and Design Criteria.

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Aircraft Design – Material Breakdown for A380-800

22 % Organic MaterialsCFRP, GFRP, QFRP

61% Aluminium Alloys

10% Titanium& Steels Alloys

3 % GLARE

2% SurfaceProtections

2% Miscellaneous

(Engine and Landing Gear not included)

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Aircraft Design – Composites Introduction on Airbus

Airbus will continue to select the material technology that is best suited to its products and most beneficial for its customers

Com

posi

te S

truc

tura

l Wei

ght[

%]

A300A310-200

A320

A340-300A340-600

A380

A400M

A350

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

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Aircraft Design – Composite Materials on A380-800

Horizontal Tail Plane

Floor Beams Upper Deck

RearPressure Bulkhead

Outer FlapsVertical Tail Plane

J-Nose

Center Wing BoxSection 19Wing Ribs

Section 19.1

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Table of Contents

History of AviationAircraft Performance

Aircraft MarketAircraft Design - specific

Innovation in Aircraft DesignStructure Inspection Program

NDI/NDT MethodsConclusions

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Aircraft Design – tskin due to internal Pressure

0 ft

40000 ft

7000 ft(cabin pressure) tskin = (∆p * R) / σcircumf

∆p = 594 hPaR = 3 mσcircumf = 100 MPa (cyclic)

tskin ≈ 1.8 mm

R

∆p

→ ∆pσcircumf

Internal PressureA350

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??????σlong < / = / > σcircumf

R

∆p

σcircumf

Internal Pressure

∆pσlong

Aircraft Design – Skin Stresses

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Internal Pressure

??????σlong < / = / > σcircumf

Aircraft Design – Skin Stresses

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Aircraft Design – Skin Stresses

σlong = ½ ⋅ σcircumf

Internal Pressure

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σlong = ½ ⋅ σcircumf

R

∆p

Internal Pressure

∆pσlong

Aircraft Design – Skin Stresses

σcircumf

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Aircraft Design – Skin Stresses

Rσcircumf

Internal Pressure + Weight

∆p

gravity σlong

lift

σlong

σlong, upper skin >> σlong, lower skin

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Aircraft Design – Typical Flight Profile

Sources for Loads on Structure are various and time-dependent.

InternalPressure

+Weight

+Aerodynamic

Loads+

ManoeuvreLoads

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Design - Design dominating Loads

All dimensioning design criteria have to be met in all parts of structure with all load cases

Bending

Bending andTorsion

Impact

Shear(transverse shear and torsion)

Longit. Compression (bending)Corrosion ResistanceHigh Local LoadsHoop Tension

Impact

Impact

Impact

ShearStress

Longit. Tension(bending)

Upper skin:Compression

Lower skin:Tension

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Typical Fuselage Structure

Butt Joint

Aircraft

Structural Detail Fuselage Panel

Fuselage Section

Stringer

LapJoint

Skin

Clip

Frame

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Table of Contents

History of AviationAircraft Performance

Aircraft MarketAircraft Design

Innovation in Aircraft DesignStructure Inspection Program

NDI/NDT MethodsConclusions

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Innovation in Aircraft Design – Intelligent Airframe

The Airbus Intelligent Airframe

Material andTechnologies

selection

TayloredDesign

SmartStructures

=> A multi-disciplinary approach is needed!

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Example 1: Innovation in materials / technologies

Composites

Fairings

BulkheadKeel beam

Floor panels

Al-Li

LBWExtrusions

Metal

GLARE®,LBW,EBW, Ti-Leg.

Fuselage

1970 1980 1990 2000 20202010

Rear FuselageCenter wing box

AdaptiveStructures,

SHM

FSW, Al-Sc

Al adv.casting Advanced

FMLControlsurfaces

VTP, HTP Flaps,

Wing

AL-Li

Metal and CFRP solutions keep challenging each other

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Example 2: Bionic Design Optimization

A380 wing – leading edge ribBionic Design Optimization – Example from CRC Ottobrunn

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Example 2: Bionic Design Optimization

A380 wing – leading edge rib

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Example 2: Bionic Design Optimization

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Example 3: GLARE (Semi-finished Product)

Fibre Metal Laminate (hybrid material)• Al-Foils (t=0.3-0.5mm)• Glass Fibre / Adhesive Layer (t=0.125mm)

GLARE® features (compared to monolithic Al):• High Damage Tolerance (crack propagation)• Improved Impact Resistance• Improved Fire and Corrosion Resistance• Low (-10%) Specific Weight (high Weight Efficiency)• Orthotropy (tailored mechanical Properties) • BUT high Price, low Stiffness and difficult to form

GLARE reduces Inspection Effort (Downtime) significantly. → Customer’s Satisfaction

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Example 3: GLARE Application on A380-800

• Skin Panel (GLARE 3/4/6, 470m²)• Butt Strap (GLARE 2)• HTP and VTP Leading Edge

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Example 3: GLARE Quality Control

Application of NDT for semi-finished Products:Ultrasonic C-Scan Inspection with pulsing Water and acoustic Sensing checks the Porosity of the GLARE-Panel for any Voids in the Bonds (Squirter Ultrasonic Method).

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Example 4: Welding - LBW

AIRBUS-G• A318 1 panel• A380 8 panel(CO2-Laser, Working Area 6m×3m)

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Example 4: Welding - LBW Online Quality Control

Photo SpectrometicDetermination of Si in plasmaEddy Current Testing

Optical Profile Measurement

TactileSensor

Laser Beam

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Example 4: Welding - FSW

Friction Stir Welding (FSW)Technology to join skin (fuselage) or spar (wing) sections.

Sealing

Bonding

Doubler

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Example 4: Welding - Examples for FSW-Defects

Root Flaw

Lack ofPenetration

Tunnel

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Example 4: Welding - NDT for FSW

NDT is applied in Manufacturing of FSW Joints for

• Process Supervision (online Methods)Process Data, Temperature, Surface Shape and Deformation

• Quality Assurance (offline Methods)Ultrasonic testing, Eddy Current Arrays, X-Ray, Lock-in Thermography and Pulse Thermography

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Example 5: Composite Manufacturing

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Example 5: Composite Manufacturing

Examples of flaws to be detected in composite structures:

Delaminations

Layer Porosity

Porosity

Inclusion

Unbond

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Example 6: SHM - Structural Health Monitoring

Evaluation

Pain Indication: The Brain checks the Intensity of the Pain and judges when to go to the Doctor.

Damage Indication: The SHM System checks the Structure and evaluates the follow up Actions for Maintenance.

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Example 6: SHM - Technologies for SHM

Promising Technologies under Investigation at AIRBUS

• Acousto Ultrasonic Patches

• Comparative Vacuum Method (CVM)

• Optical Fibers, specially: Fiber Bragg Gratings

• Acoustic Emission (AE)

• Embedded Eddy Current Sensors

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Example 6: SHM - Potential SHM-Applications

SHM-Application

Maintenance Design

Reduction ofInspection

Early CrackDetection

Crack Monitoring

CorrosionMonitoring

Life Extension

ImprovedStructuralEfficiency

WeightSaving

- Restricted Access- Difficult NDT- Variable Load

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Example 6: SHM - benefits

Benefits from Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)

• Short-term Benefits from Monitoring of Hot-Spot Areas and Monitoring of Cracks on Aircraft Structure.

• Long-term Benefits from Weight Saving and Design Optimisation. Example: Challenge of metallic or CFRP Design Criteria by a different dimensioning Philosophy.

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Example 6: SHM - Challenge Design Criteria

Examples:

• Metallic structures:Challenge damage tolerant dimensioning of metallic structure using SHM by assuming less stringent damage assumptions without affecting safety.

• Composite structures:Challenge allowables, which are nowadays penalized by stringent damage assumptions.

In both cases, the benefit will be weight saving!

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Table of Contents

History of AviationAircraft Performance

Aircraft MarketAircraft Design

Innovation in Aircraft DesignStructure Inspection Program

NDI/NDT MethodsConclusions

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Structure Inspection Program

• Safety and Airworthiness have to be ensured throughout the complete Aircraft’s Lifetime.

• Any initial Manufacturing Damage as well as any Service-induced Damage may not affect the safe Operation of the Aircraft.

• To achieve this Goal, a Structure Inspection Program is developed.

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Structure Inspection Program

Material Data and Geometry Fatigue loads (spectrum)Static loads (limit load)

Determination of• Fatigue Life• Crack Growth• Residual Strength

Damage Tolerance Analysis

Damage Detectability(influenced by NDT)

Structural Inspection Program• Inspection Threshold• Inspection Interval• Inspection Method

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Example for Damage Tolerance Analysis

1. Definition of Limits for Crack Length2. Calculation of Flights ∆N as a Function of Crack Length a.3. Calculation of Interval as a Function of ∆N and Scatter Factor j.

Life Time ∆N is controlled by adet (high sensitivity), which depends on the Inspection Method / Inspection Level.

Residual Strength (Limit Load)

Operational Load

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Structure Inspection Program - Inspection Levels

Typically, there are three Inspection Levels:• General Visual Inspection (GVI)

A visual Examination, performed in frame of the zonal Inspection Program

• Detailed Visual Inspection (DET)An intensive visual Examination of a specified Detail or Assembly searching for Evidence of Irregularity.

• Special Detailed Inspection (SDET)An intensive Examination of a specific Location similar to the detailed Inspection but requiring special Techniques, mostly NDT.

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Example for SDET - Eddy Current Inspection

• Component to be inspected

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Example for SDET - Eddy Current Inspection

• Area to be inspected

• Description of possible Damages

Frame Frame

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Table of Contents

History of AviationAircraft Performance

Aircraft MarketAircraft Design

Innovation in Aircraft DesignStructure Inspection Program

NDI/NDT MethodsConclusions

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NDI/NDT Methods applied at AIRBUS

• Visual Inspection

NDT Methods being looked at as “State of the Art”are mainly:

• X-Ray

• Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

• Eddy Current Testing (ET)

• Resonance Frequency Method(mainly for Metal Bonding and Composite Structures)

• Thermography

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NDI/NDT Methods with Future Potential

Methods, which AIRBUS is also looking at are mainly:

• Shearography / Mobile Shearography

• Eddy Current Arrays

• Ultrasonic Phased Arrays

• Laser Ultrasonic

• Air Coupled Ultrasound

• Lock-In Thermography, Pulse Thermography /Ultrasonic Excited Thermography

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Table of Contents

History of AviationAircraft Performance

Aircraft MarketAircraft Design

Innovation in Aircraft DesignStructure Inspection Program

NDI/NDT MethodsConclusions

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Conclusions

• NDT plays key role in safe operation and especially in damage tolerant design of aircraft structures.

• Furthermore NDT is “enabler” for reliable introduction of new materials, technologies and design concepts.

• The future high performance and “intelligent” airframe structure is

optimized in design to take full advantage of new materials and technologiesself-monitoring / reactingadaptable to changing Requirements.

• Our today’s challenges are mainly toinnovate quicklyimplement immediatelyimplement in a sustainable way

Daedalus and Icarusescaping from Crete

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Thanks for your attention!

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