Lecture 16. Train-The-Trainer Maximize Learning Train-The-Trainer.

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Lecture 16the institute for employment studiesMaximize Learning


the institute for employment studiesAt the conclusion of this unit, the participants will be able to:Describe the ways in which people learnExplain how to create a positive learning environmentDemonstrate how to maximize learning in a given scenario Unit ObjectivesState why trainers need to evaluateList formal and informal ways of evaluatingProvide some guidelines for asking and answering questionsProvide some guidelines for giving feedbackUnit Objectives (contd.)Exercise: Positive Learning ExperiencesExerciseWhen you get a new gadget, how do you learn how to use it? What Do You Think?Learning StylesThree primary learning stylesAuditoryVisualTactile or kinestheticCombination

7Auditory LearnersLearn through listeningLecturesDiscussionsTalking things through Listening to what others have to sayWritten information has little meaningPrefer to read text aloudLike to use tape recorder8Learn through seeing:Pictures DemonstrationsDiagramsIllustrated text booksPowerPoint slidesVideosFlipchartsHandoutsVisual LearnersInstructors body language and facial expressions help them understandSit at front of roomRemember by seeingLike to take detailed notes to absorb informationVisual Learners (contd.)Learn by doing, moving, touchingHands-on activitiesFind it hard to sit still for very long Want to actively explore physical world around themTactile LearnersGood instruction should combine auditory, visual, and tactileRetention increases dramatically when learning involves more senses and is more active

Learning Styles and Teaching Hear itSee itSay itDo it Teach others

To Retain Learning

Instructors have a preferred learning style that may affect how they like to teachInstructors need to incorporate elements that are less comfortable CERT Basic Training Instructor Guide includes elements for all learning stylesAddressing all learning styles will help increase learners retentionLearning Styles and InstructorsThree factors to accommodate:PhysicalEmotionalIntellectual

Create Positive Learning Environment

What is a physically comfortable learning environment? What Do You Think?What is a physically comfortable learning environment? Room not too hot or too coldPeople can see and hear instructorLighting and amplification for people with reduced vision and hearingDont have to sit too long; take regular breaksExpectations account for reduced flexibility, reaction times, time of dayPhysical FactorsTo be treated like adults (peers)To direct their own learning whenever possible (self-motivated)To know they are doing it right or at least that they are trying hardTo feel accepted as they areTo see a reason for the training

Emotional FactorsHow could instructors respond to these emotional needs?

What Do You Think?How could instructors respond to these emotional needs? Be a learning resourceExplain benefits; then let participants discover benefits themselvesRespect themTeach to their levelDont embarrass themProvide reinforcement and peer feedback Make learning non-threateningMake learning realistic and problem-centeredProvide Emotional FactorsTo share their experiencesTo connect new information to what they already knowTo be involved in the learningTo learn the way they like to learnIntellectual FactorsHow could instructors respond to these intellectual needs? What Do You Think?How could instructors respond to these intellectual needs? Use learners experiences to introduce conceptsBuild bridges between old and new information Make learning activeUse variety of methods to reach all the learning stylesProvide Intellectual FactorsReview the list generated in the first question of the unit and choose:P for Physical FactorsE for Emotional FactorsI for Intellectual FactorsDifferentiate FactorsMotivationEspecially at beginning of trainingWhats in it for me (WIIFM)ReinforcementFrequently and positivelyRepetitionAt least 3 times for learning retentionTechniques to Maximize LearningMotivation is critical, especially at beginning of training Adults need to know how it will benefit them To motivate, instructors need to:Establish rapport Create open, friendly training atmosphereKeep stress lowChallenge but dont frustrate participantsMotivationInstructors need to encourage and reinforce throughout trainingReward good behavior positively and frequentlyReinforcementPeople need to hear something at least three times#1: Explain#2: Demonstrate #3: Have learners practiceFor optimal learning, have learners also practice while explaining what they are doingRepetitionExercise: Power OutageExerciseWhat is your job as a trainer? What Do You Think?What is your job as a trainer? To transfer knowledgeEffective instructors use variety of training methodsInteractive lectureDemonstrationsRoleplaysExercisesYour Job as TrainerWhy do we use a variety of methods? What Do You Think?Why do we use a variety of methods? To appeal to all learning stylesAuditoryVisualTactile Training MethodsEffective instructors assess learning to see that:The learners have understood whats been saidThe learners got it Assess LearningWhy Evaluate?ContentDid learners get it?Adult learner needsPhysicalEmotional Intellectual

35How can instructors find out if people have learned? What Do You Think?How can instructors find out if people have learned?Instructors can find out if people have learned by:Asking questionsListening to questionsTestingObserving hands-on exercisesObserving body language How To Assess LearningTypes of EvaluationFormalTestsPerformance demonstrationsInformalWatching body languageQuestionsObservation of hands-on activities38What Do You Think?What are some other reasons for asking questions? 39Why We Ask QuestionsWhat are some other reasons for asking questions? Ask questions to:Get people involved/interestedStimulate discussionChannel thinking40Kinds of Questions to AskOpen and closedTo different audiencesDirect question to one person Direct question to whole group Ask rhetorical questionRecall and apply41What Do You Think?What is the difference between an open question and a closed question? 42Closed QuestionsWhat is the difference between an open question and a closed question? Closed questions:Answered by yes or no, true or false, or limited responseUsed to:Test knowledgeReceive quick answersMaintain control of classEnd topic before a breakForce a choice between correct and incorrect response43Open QuestionsWhat is the difference between an open question and a closed question? Open questions:Start with what, why, how, or describeAsk respondents to think and reflect Typically require a longer answerOften not one correct answerUsed to:Generate discussionFind out how class is feelingGet people to open upGet class to think44To Different AudiencesInstructor can direct a question to different audiencesTo one personTo the whole group Rhetorical questions45Recall and ApplyThere are two kinds of evaluation questions:Recall question: Learners repeat what they learnedApply question: Learners think about what they learned and apply it to new situation46How to Ask a QuestionBe brief, clear, friendly To group:AskPlant CallTo individual:CallAskPlant47How to Answer a QuestionYou can ask someone else to answer questionRepeat question before answering itParaphrase any lengthy questions Acknowledge questions that you cannot answer; get back to group as soon as possible48Too Many QuestionsIf one learner asks too many questions, you can:Encourage others by recognizing their questions first As a last resort, take the individual aside49What Do You Think? What are some opportunities for giving feedback in CERT Basic Training? 50Feedback OpportunitiesWhat are some opportunities for giving feedback in CERT Basic Training? During hands-on activities and skills trainingTell how well CERT requirements are metCorrect attirePPECERT kitsDuring class discussion 51Give FeedbackWhen to give feedback:To correct informationFor behavior that can be changed To acknowledge correct answers or performance of a techniqueHow to give feedbackCompliment whenever possible, even when feedback is correctiveBe specificDescribe what needs to be corrected Describe how it needs to be corrected52What Do You Think?What if you ask a question and someone gives you a wrong answer? What would you do?53ExerciseExercise: Develop What If Questions54This unit has examined:How people learn Three learning styles: auditory, visual, and tactileBest teaching approach combines all three: hear it, see it, do it, teach it (say and do it)How to create positive learning environment Address physical, emotional, and intellectual needsTechniques that maximize learningMotivationReinforcementRepetition (at least 3 times)Unit SummaryWhy instructors need to evaluateFormal and informal ways to evaluateGuidelines for asking and answering questionsGuidelines for when and how to give feedbackUnit Summary (contd.)