Learning objects: achievements and challenges Tom Boyle CETL for Reusable Learning Objects London Metropolitan University Simposio OD@06, Oviedo, 26.09.2006.

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<ul><li><p>Learning objects: achievements and challengesTom BoyleCETL for Reusable Learning ObjectsLondon Metropolitan UniversitySimposio OD@06, Oviedo, 26.09.2006 </p></li><li><p>The term Learning Object has become the Holy Grail of content creation and aggregation in the computer-mediated learning field.Polsani (2003)</p></li><li><p>The use of learning objects promises toincrease the effectiveness oflearning Duval et al 2003</p></li><li><p>Themes of talkLearning objects: main achievements to date Significant challenges What do we mean by learning objects? Better models of composition and decomposition Linking learning objects and learning designsQuestions explored within a three dimensional model of the learning object spaceWork of the CETL for Reusable Learning ObjectsConclusions</p></li><li><p>Learning Object achievementsMajor achievements in international specifications and standardsIMS Content PackagingIEEE LOMSCORMRepositories built on these standardsUniversal impact of conceptMany fine examples of learning objects</p></li><li><p>Packaging and metadataManifestMetadataOrganizationsResourcesPhysical files/contentIMS Package file ManifestContent</p></li><li><p>Objects versus learningLearning objects as knowledge objectspackaged describedstored retrievedBased on international specifications and standardsMuch less emphasis on learning and the design of effective learning objectsCETL for Reusable Learning Objects places a strong emphasis on design for effective learning</p></li><li><p>CETL for Reusable Learning ObjectsStarted in April 2005 with 3.3 million funding from HEFCE for the period 2005-2010Partners: London Metropolitan University, University of Cambridge, University of NottinghamDesign and develop reusable learning objects (RLOs) with a strong pedagogical focusUse and evaluate these RLOs with substantial student cohorts Extensive staff development and dissemination programme</p></li><li><p>Some questionsWhat are learning objects?How do bigger and smaller learning objects fit together?What is the relationship between learning objects and learning designs?What is the model for reuse is it based on content or content + pedagogical design? </p></li><li><p>The term learning objects has been used with multiple meanings. We need to clarify the different meanings used and how they might relate to each other.</p></li><li><p>Learning objects as granular"Learning Objects are a new way of thinking about learning content. Traditionally, content comes in a several hour chunk. Learning Objects are much smaller units of learning, typically ranging from 2 minutes to 15 minutes." (Wisconsin Online Resource Center) "[A Learning Object] is defined as the smallest independent structural experience that contains an objective, a learning activity and an assessment." (L'Allier 1997) </p></li><li><p>Learning objects as anything?a learning object is defined as any entity that may be used for learning, education or training. IEEE LOM</p><p>A Learning Object is an independent and self-standing unit of learning content that is predisposed to reuse in multiple instructional contexts. (Polsani 2003)</p></li><li><p>Mapping the learning object spaceThe Learning Object Cube - LOC</p></li><li><p>Exploring the LOC spaceDef: a learning object as any entity that may be used in learning . IEEE LOM</p></li><li><p>Learning objects as basic unitsthe smallest independent structural experience- the minimum meaningful pedagogical unit</p></li><li><p>Definitions sound as if they are focused on the bottom left quadrant, but in practice are applied almost all the way along the aggregation dimensionComplex or higher order learning objects</p></li><li><p>Aggregation models of compositionAggregationaggregation of assets into learning objectsaggregation of smaller ones learning objects to form bigger onesindependent reuse of componentscomposition and decompositionLego brick scenarioBut this has little to do with how learning objects are actually classified and usedThere is no adequate pedagogical model. The aggregation model totally avoids the key issues of the nature of the learning objects (at each) level and how they fit together</p></li><li><p>A micro-context for learningReusable pedagogical patternsExtract the reusable learning design the pedagogical pattern and make it reusable</p></li><li><p>Generative learning objects (GLOs)The basis for reuse is the pedagogical pattern rather than content of the learning objectA richer basis for reuse and repurposingThis gives a tremendous increase in productivityAllows local tutors to repurpose learning objects to meet their local needs and preferences</p></li><li><p>Some examples of learning objects</p></li><li><p>EASA learning objectsWinner of European Academic Software Award 2004</p></li><li><p>Engage students with familiar every day examples</p></li><li><p>Graphic examples</p></li><li><p>Active student learning</p></li><li><p>Reference for a book</p></li><li><p>Acids and Alkalis</p></li><li><p>Mobile multimedia learning objects</p></li><li><p>Linking learning objects and learning designs -Generative learning Objects (GLOs)</p></li><li><p> GLOs separate design patternfrom Concrete learning object</p><p>How to elucidate and articulate these patterns?andHow to make the result usable by tutors?Challenges </p></li><li><p>GLO Authoring Tool</p></li><li><p>Conclusions: productive questionsWhat are base learning objects?How do we create higher order learning objects from these base objects?How do we extract and make available reusable learning designs at this level?How do we involve tutors as re-users of content? or (also) as adapters of reusable pedagogical patterns?</p><p>We are not exactly sure what the concept is but it has had a near universal impactA learning object is the minimum, meaningful pedagogical unit required to achieve a learning goal or objectiveLended learnmingLanguage scenario</p></li></ul>