Learning About Parts of Computer ADE100- Computer Literacy Lecture 02.

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<p>Computer Literacy</p> <p>Learning About Parts of ComputerADE100- Computer LiteracyLecture 02Knowledge testWhat is computer?Briefly explain role of Charles Babbage.What is the purpose of input devices?What is the role of Joystick &amp; OCR?Topics coveredInput devices (contd.)Interfacing with the computer using mouse &amp; keyboardOutput devicesStorage devices Understanding of Central Processing Unit (CPU)How do computers work?What is input? Any data or instructions used by a computerTypes of input:Data- text formInstructions- particular commandsVoice- audio signals through microphoneImage- inserting a picture</p> <p>The KeyboardHow keyboard works?Keyboard controller (a tiny chip) detects a key pressed and places a code into its memory called buffer (a temporary memory area).Controller sends a code to the CPUCode represents the key pressedController sends a signal to the operating systemOperating system respondsController repeats the letter if held</p> <p>5Teaching tipTable 5A.3 presents the ASCII code. An exercise that never fails to amuse students is to use the Alt and the number pad to enter letters into an application. As before, open MS Word. Have students hold down the Alt key and type an ASCII value into the number pad. Once they release the Alt, the letter appears. This is a useful skill when the keyboard breaks. Challenge the students to explore numbers above 128. Lecturer Sajid RiazChapter 3: Interacting with Your ComputerThe MouseCommon mouse actions are:Right click Left clickDrag &amp; dropMoveScroll Double click</p> <p>6Insider informationDouglas Englebart patented the first mouse in 1970 as the X-Y position indicator for a display system. The name mouse comes from the tail on the device. Lecturer Sajid RiazChapter 3: Interacting with Your ComputerThe MouseBenefitsPointer positioning is fastMenu interaction is easyUsers can draw electronicallyThe MouseMouse button configurationConfigured for a right-handed userCan be reconfiguredLeft mouse button is called a primary buttonExtra buttons are configurableProcedureGo to control panelDouble click mouse icon</p> <p>Ergonomics and Input DevicesErgonomicsStudy of human and tool interactionConcerned with physical interactionAttempts to improve safety and comfortErgonomics and Input DevicesRepetitive Strain/Stress Injury (RSI)Caused by continuous misuse of the bodyMany professionals suffer from RSICarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)Carpal tunnel is a passage in the wristHolds nerves and tendonsProlonged keyboarding swells tendons10Teaching tipHairstylists often suffer from carpal tunnel. Bicyclists can suffer from overuse injuries of the knee. </p> <p>Page 116 of the text has a diagram of the carpal tunnel. Lecturer Sajid RiazChapter 3: Interacting with Your ComputerCarpal Tunnel Syndrome</p> <p>11Ergonomics and Input DevicesOffice hardware suggestionsOffice chairs should haveAdjustable armrests and heightArmrestsLower back supportDesks should haveHave a keyboard trayKeep hands at keyboard heightPlace the monitor at eye level</p> <p>Ergonomics and Input DevicesTechniques to avoid RSISit up straightHave a padded wrist supportKeep your arms straightKeyboard properlyTake frequent breaks</p> <p>What is output?Processed data or informationTypes of outputTextGraphics like charts, graphs, picturesAudio &amp; videoOutput devicesMonitorsPrintersSpeakers Projectors </p> <p>Monitors Known as screens or display screensOutput referred to as soft copy Categorized by color outputMonochromeOne color with black backgroundGrayscaleVarying degrees of grayColorDisplay 4 to 16 million colors</p> <p>Measuring quality of monitorsResolutionRefers to sharpness &amp; clearness of imageMore no. of pixels means high resolutionE.g. 800x600 means 800 horizontal, 600 verticalDot pitchDistance between each pixel on screenIt also determines picture claritySmaller distance b/w pixels shows higher sharpness of image</p> <p>Measuring quality of monitorsRefresh rateNo. of times per second the electron gun scan every pixel on the screenMeasured in Hertz (Hz) or Cycles per secondPixels fade after some time so need to refreshNormally 75 times per second SizeMeasured diagonally in inchesDistance from corner to cornerDifferent sizes like 14, 15, 17, 21, 22 inches.Types of monitorsCathode-ray tube monitors or CRTsFlat-panelLiquid crystal display (LCD)Portable and thinner than CRTsOther monitorsE-booksData projectorsHigh-definition television (HDTV)</p> <p>PrintersTranslates information that has been processed by the system unitOutput referred to as hard copyFeaturesResolutionColor capabilitySpeedMemory</p> <p>More on printersInk-jet printerUse ink/cartridgeBoth black &amp; color Laser printerPersonal laser printersShared laser printers Other printersDot-matrixPlottersPhoto printers</p> <p>Audio output devicesTranslates audio information into sounds that people can understandSound cardBetween CPU &amp; speakersConverts digital signals to analogCommon devicesSpeakersHeadphones</p> <p>Data projectorsProject image onto wall or screenLCD projectorsMost common type of projectorSmall LCD screenVery bright lightRequire a darkened roomDigital Light ProjectorsA series of mirrors control the displayMay be used in a lighted room</p> <p>Combined I/O devicesFax machinesMultifunction devicesDigital cameraInternet telephonesTerminalsKeyboard and monitor </p> <p>Storage devicesStore data when computer is ON/OFFTwo processesWriting dataReading dataPrimary storage devicesRAM &amp; ROMPermanent storage devicesMagnetic storage devicesOptical storage devicesMobile storage devicesPrimary storageRAMRandom Access MemoryStores open programs and dataSmall chips on the motherboardMore memory makes a computer faster512MB, 1GB up to 4GBROMRead Only MemoryROM-BIOS</p> <p>Computer RAM and CPU- Right click My Computer- Select properties from menu</p> <p>26Secondary storage devicesStores data when computer is OFFThree typesMagnetic storage devicesHard disk drives, floppy disks,Optical storage devicesCD, DVDMobile storage devicesOnline storageFlash memoryMemory cardsMagnetic storageData organizationDisks must be formatted before useFormat draws tracks on the diskTracks is divided into sectorsAmount of data a drive can read</p> <p>Magnetic storageHard disk driveSecondary storage device in a computer2 or more aluminum plattersEach platter has 2 sidesSpin between 5,400 to 15,000 RPMData found in 9.5ms or lessDrive capacity greater than 40 GB</p> <p>30Optical storage devicesCD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory)Read using a laserLands, binary 1, reflect dataPits, binary 0, scatter dataCD speed is based on theOriginal CD read 150 KbpsA 10 X will read 1,500 KbpsStandard CD holds 650 MBCD-R (Compact Disk Recordable)Write data onceCD-R/W (Compact Disk Rewriteable)Write data multi timesCombo drive (CD R/W, DVD-R)</p> <p>Optical storageDVD- (Digital Versatile Disk)Digital Video DiskUse both sides of the diskCapacities can reach 18 GBDVD players can read CDsDVD-RDVD recordable onceDVD-R/WDVD Rewriteable multi timesSuper drive- (CD R/W +DVD R/W)</p> <p>Mobile storage devicesOnline storageDropbox, Google driveFlash memoryFound in cameras and USB drivesCombination of RAM and ROMLong term updateable storageSmart cardsCredit cards with a chipChip stores dataEventually may be used for cashHotels use for electronic keys</p> <p>CPU- Central Processing UnitThe CPUBrain of the computerComponents of CPUControl unitControls resources in computerActs like Traffic PolicemanArithmetic logic unitSimple math operationsRegisters</p> <p>Working of CPUMachine cyclesSteps by CPU to process dataInstruction cycleCPU gets the instructionExecution cycleCPU performs the instructionBillions of cycles per secondMultitasking allows multiple instructions</p> <p>Information Processing CycleFour steps followed to process dataInputProcessingOutputStorage</p> <p>Activity-20 minutes Practice the use of mouse by selecting different icons on your desktop or in My computer.Briefly talk about different parts of a real keyboard.Detach and attach different input and output devices of your computer.Install a typing tutor on your computer from a CD/DVD/internet. Practice first lesson for 15 minutes.</p> <p>Further readingIntroduction to Computers by Peter Norton, 7th edition.1B- Looking inside the computer system2A- using the keyboard &amp; mouse3A- Video &amp; sound3B- Printing4A- Transforming data into information5A- types of storage devicesThanksEnd of Lecture 0239Allah Hafiz40</p>


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