2. The Judicial BranchQuestion #1-The Judicial Branch was establishedin which article of the Constitution? 3. Federalism once again Just like theres an executive branch in thenational government and in PA., and just liketheres Congress in Washington and theGeneral Assembly in (2)_____________there are also two court systems, one statesystem and the federal system. 4. PA. State Court System PAs court system is similar to the federalsystem in that the State Supreme Court sits atthe top. But the lower courts have differentnames and different jurisdiction. 5. One big difference In PA. judges run for election like politicianswhereas in the federal system the judges areselected by the president and then voted upor down by the U.S. (3)_____________. If theyare approved they get a lifetime term (unlessthey are impeached and convicted). 6. The Federal Court System Pyramid Power!-Thefederal and state courtsystems are like a pyramidwith a top downstructure. There are twotypes of federal courts-special or legislativecourts and constitutionalcourts. We will look at theconstitutional courts. 7. District Courts At the bottom of thepyramid are 91 districtcourts with 632 justices.They handle 80% of thefederal caseload. Theyhandle criminal and civilcases. PA has three districtcourts with the closest inPhiladelphia. 8. Circuit or Appeals Courts Above the district courtsare the appeals courts.They were created byCongress in 1891. Theyare the gatekeepers tothe Supreme Court. Thereare 12 Appellate Courts,they only hear a case onappeal from lower courts. 9. Federal Court System 10. The (4)____________ Court At the top of thepyramid is the(4)__________Court.It is the high court andhas nine justices. Justice Roberts sits inthe middle because heis the Chief Justice. 11. They meet in this building 12. Notice the Greco-Roman look The architecture is designed to emulate theRomans who were respected for their systemof laws. 13. The Supreme Court This building is in whatcity? (5) _____ How many justices areon the SupremeCourt? (6)_________ 14. Most cases are heard on appeal The Supreme Courttakes very few caseseach year, about 100out of 5,000-6,000petitions. This is ClarenceThomas. He does notsay much. 15. Why so few cases ask inquiringminds? They will only take a casethat is compelling and hasnot been sufficientlyaddressed by the lowercourts. Name one of thetwo lower federalcourts(7)_____________ This is Ruth BaderGinsberg. 16. Granting Cert The Supreme Courtwill hear a case if itgrants a writ ofcertiorari. That meansthat four of the ninejustices have agreedto hear the case. Justice Stephen Breyer 17. The Court Calendar The Supreme Courtrecesses for thesummer. Itreconvenes the firstMonday in October. Ithears cases three daysa week, 5 hours a day. Antonin Scalia goesduck hunting with theex-veep. Hes brave. 18. The hearing The petitioners lawyergets one half an hour asdoes the respondents.The justices willinterrupt for questions.In the spring they willrender their decision. Justice Sonia Sotomayorat her confirmationhearing. 19. Decisions are read first by themajority The court likes to have9-0 decisions becauseit means the case hasbeen clearly decided.A 5-4 opinion means itwas contentious. Theminority would be thedissenters. He is the3rd newest justice-Samuel Alito. 20. The ultimate power The Supreme Courtspower to declare a lawunconstitutional is notwritten anywhere in theconstitution. It cameabout as a result of an1803 case called Marburyv.(8)__________. John Roberts-the ChiefJustice appointed byGeorge Bush. 21. Other Cases The Supreme Courtwill also hear casesinvolving states suingstates, federal officialsand American citizenssuing foreign nations. This is the newestjustice, Elena Kagan.She was appointed byPresident Obama. 22. The Conference Between hearing the case and rendering theiropinion the justices consider their decision.They and their clerks research and the justiceslobby one another. They meet weekly toconsider the cases presented that week.Sometimes they can dispose of a case quickly(9-0) or sometimes things get heated (5-4). 23. The highest court in the land On the top floor of thecourt is a basketballcourt. The youngerclerks play here. 24. Question #9 True or false-The power to declare federal andstate laws unconstitutional is written in Article3. 25. Question 10 Yes or No-Does each state have their owncourt system separate from the nationalsystem? 26. Question #11 How many justices of the federal SupremeCourt have to agree to hear a case ? 27. Question #12 Once on the federal bench how long a termdoes a justice get? A. lifetime B. faces election every ten years C. unlimited terms D. Is popularly elected the first time, thenfaces retention every four years 28. 13-In what building does the Supreme Court meet?BA 29. 14-Who below is not a justice of theSupreme Court?ABBB 30. Question 15 15. In the case Tinker v. DesMoines PublicSchools (1969) which party is the petitioner?