ITALIAN BAROQUE - .Italian Baroque ITALIAN FRENCH SPANISH FLEMISH DUTCH Bernini, ... and the element

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  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    ITALIAN BAROQUE

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Patrons and their influence on artHow did royal patrons of the arts choose to have themselves portrayed in the art of the seventeenth century? Comparing the art of painters such as Riguard, Van Dyck, Rubens, and Velazquez will help students to visualize the changes that had occurred since the Renaissance. Regional differences should also be noted.

    Naturalism/verisimilitudeThe desire of seventeenth-century painters to achieve naturalism in their works marks a shift away from Classical ideals. The willingness of patrons to be portrayed, "warts and all" (p. 752), is a startling shift from the trends first seen in the art of the ancient Near East. Caravaggio takes this notion to an extreme, and was famously persecuted because of it.

    New patronsThe emergence of a middle-class art-buying public in Holland during this period is an extraordinary development. The Calvinistic mores of that culture need to be closely scrutinized to understand the laces in their portraits and the oysters in the still lifes of the period (p. 799).

    Shifting stylesThis chapter includes the Baroque and the Rococo art styles. The reasons, not fully understood, for this shift in taste and what it means visually, are of major importance. Unlike Mannerism, the Rococo style is mostly uniform, and quickly identified. Nonetheless, the chapter provides opportunities for students to practice connoisseurshipfor example, in a comparison of Watteau and Boucher.

    Concepts to know

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    ITALIAN

    FRENCH

    SPANISH

    FLEMISH

    DUTCH

    Bernini, Borromini, Caravaggio,Gentileschi

    Louis XIV, Poussin, Lorrain

    Philip IV, Velazquez

    Rubens, Van Dyck, Charles I

    Hals, Ruisdael, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Claesz

    People to know

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Goals of Art during the COUNTER-REFORMATION(The Empire Strikes Back)

    To deliberately evoke intense emotional responsefrom the viewer

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Goals of Art during the COUNTER-REFORMATION(The Empire Strikes Back)

    To deliberately evoke intense emotional responsefrom the viewer

    To create dramatically lit, often theatrical compositions

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Goals of Art during the COUNTER-REFORMATION(The Empire Strikes Back)

    To deliberately evoke intense emotional responsefrom the viewer

    To create dramatically lit, often theatrical compositions

    To use diverse media such as bronze and marble within a single artwork

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Goals of Art during the COUNTER-REFORMATION(The Empire Strikes Back)

    To deliberately evoke intense emotional responsefrom the viewer

    To create dramatically lit, often theatrical compositions

    To use diverse media such as bronze and marble within a single artwork

    To create work with spectacular technical virtuosity

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Gianlorenzo BERNINIHis works include:

    The colonnade of St. Peters Piazza

    The baldacchino on the St. Peters altar

    Vibrant marble sculpture of David

    Ecstasy of St. Theresa sculpture

    Bernini

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    Italian Baroque Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, St. Peters, Rome. 1623-1634.

    Long before the planning of the Piazza, Bernini had been at work decorating the interior of Saint Peters. His first commission, completed in 1624

    and 1633, called for the design and erection of the gigantic bronze baldacchino ( a canopy made of

    cloth or stone erected over an altar, shrine, or throne in a Christian church) above the main altar

    under the great dome. The canopy-like structure marks the tomb of Saint Peter. At almost one

    hundred feet high it serves as a focus of the churchs splendor.

    At the top of the columns four colossal angels stand guard at the upper corners of the canopy. Forming the canopys apex are four serpentine

    brackets that elevate the orb and the cross, symbols of the Churchs triumph since the time of Constantine. All over the baldacchino are letter B

    s representing the Barberini family (Pope that commissioned the work).

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, St. Peters, Rome. 1623-1634.

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, St. Peters, Rome. 1623-1634.

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Giovanni Panini, Interior of St. Peters, Rome, 1731.

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Gianlorenzo Bernini, David,Galleria Borghese, Rome, 1623.

    Berninis sculpture is expansive and dramatic, and the element of time usually plays an important role in it. This marble statue aims at catching the figures split-second action and differs markedly from the restful figures of David portrayed by Donatello and Michelangelo.

    The figures legs are widely and firmly planted, beginning the violent, pivoting motion that will launch the stone from his sling. If the action had been a moment before, his body would have been in a completely different position. Bernini selected the most dramatic of an implied sequence of poses, so observers have to think simultaneously of the continuum and of this tiny fraction of it.

    This is not the kind of sculpture that can be inscribed in a cylinder or confined in a niche; its indicated action demands space around it.

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Donatello(Early Italian Renaissance)

    Michelangelo(High Italian Renaissance)

    Bernini(Italian Baroque)

    Comparing Davids.

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    Italian Baroque Church of the Santa Maria della Vittoria (Cornaro Chapel)

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Gianlorenzo BerniniEcstasy of Saint Theresa,

    Bernini Cornaro Chapel, Rome Italy, 1645-1652

    Saint Theresa was a nun of the Spanish Counter-Reformation. Her conversion

    occurred after the death of her father, when she fell into a series of trances, saw visions, and heard voices. Feeling a persistent pain,

    she attributed to the fire tipped arrow of Divine love that an angel had thrust repeatedly into

    her heart.

    In her writings, Saint Theresa described this experience as making her swoon in delightful

    anguish. The whole chapel became a theater for the production of this mystical drama.

    Bernini depicted the saint in ecstasy, unmistakably a mingling of spiritual and

    physical passion, swooning back on a cloud while the smiling angel aims his arrow.

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Theresa, Cornaro Chapel, 1645-1652

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    Italian Baroque

    Aerial view of St. Peters in Rome

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    Italian Baroque

    View of the Square from St. Peters Dome

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    Italian Baroque

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    Italian Baroque Carlo Maderno, Santa Susanna Rome, Italy 1597-1603.

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    BAROQUE Santa Susanna MANNERISM il Gesu

    Comparing buildings

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    Italian Baroque Restoring Saint Peters, Vatican City, Rome, Italy

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    Italian Baroque

    Francesco Borromini, facade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane,Rome, Italy, 1665-1676.

    The church was designed by the architect Francesco Borromini and it was his first independent commission. Designed as part of a small monastery for a community of Spanish monks, it is an iconic masterpiece of Baroque architecture. Built to fit in a cramped and difficult site, the church has an unusual and somewhat irregular floor plan in the shape of a Greek cross defined by convex curves. The facade is similarly undulating in plan, and this effect was subsequently adopted by other Baroque architects in their church designs. The unifying design feature in the interior is the use of the triangle, a motif for the Trinity.

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    The interior of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane is not only an ingenious response to an awkward site but also a provocative variation on the theme of the centrally planned church.

    In the plan, San Carlo looks like a hybrid of a greek cross and an oval, with a long axis between entrance and apse. The side walls move in an undulating flow that reverses the faades motion.

    Vigorously projecting columns define space into which they protrude just as much as they do the walls attached to them. This molded interior space is capped by a deeply coffered oval dome that seems to float on the light entering through windows hidden in its base.

    Francesco Borromini, facade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane,Rome, Italy, 1665-1676.

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Francesco Borromini, interior of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1665-1676.

  • ITALIAN BAROQUE

    Italian Baroque

    Michelangelo Merisi (Caravaggio), Conversion of Saint Paul , 1601.

    Caravaggio painted Conversion of Saint Paul for the Cerasi Chapel in the Roman church of

    Santa Maria del Popolo. It illustrates the conversion of the Pharisee Saul to Christianity,

    when he became the disciple Paul.

    The saint-to-be appears amid his conversion, flat on his back with his arms thrown up. In the background, an old hostler seems preoccupied

    with caring for the horse. At first inspection, little here suggests the moment