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Supporting the Academic Supporting the Academic and Social Integration and Social Integration of of Transfer Students Transfer Students Institute for the Study Institute for the Study of Transfer Students (ISTS) of Transfer Students (ISTS) January 24, 2007 January 24, 2007 Thomas Brown Thomas Brown [email protected] [email protected] www.tbrownassociates.com www.tbrownassociates.com

Everybody’s talking about transfer students…

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Supporting the Academic and Social Integration of Transfer Students Institute for the Study of Transfer Students (ISTS) January 24, 2007 Thomas Brown [email protected] www.tbrownassociates.com. Everybody’s talking about transfer students…. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Everybody’s talking about transfer students…

Supporting the Academic and Supporting the Academic and Social Integration of Social Integration of

Transfer StudentsTransfer Students

Institute for the Study Institute for the Study of Transfer Students (ISTS)of Transfer Students (ISTS)

January 24, 2007January 24, 2007

Thomas BrownThomas [email protected]@tbrownassociates.comwww.tbrownassociates.comwww.tbrownassociates.com

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Everybody’s talking about Everybody’s talking about transfer students…transfer students…

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Transfer Success in MissouriTransfer Success in Missouri

Transfer students are the majority of Transfer students are the majority of entering students at two urban entering students at two urban campuses…it is imperative to study campuses…it is imperative to study the success of these students. the success of these students.

University of Missouri reportUniversity of Missouri report, , 20042004

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Indicators of Success in WashingtonIndicators of Success in Washington

Two indicators focus specifically on Two indicators focus specifically on outcomes for Washington community outcomes for Washington community college students who transfer….college students who transfer….

Promoting Student Success Through Promoting Student Success Through Greater AccountabilityGreater Accountability

Washington H.E. Coordinating BoardWashington H.E. Coordinating BoardApril 2005April 2005

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Minnesota State Colleges and Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MNSCU)Universities (MNSCU)

Board policies for student success Board policies for student success include transfer and graduation. include transfer and graduation. Definitions of success include students Definitions of success include students who transfer….who transfer….

MNSCU Student Success Measures Project MNSCU Student Success Measures Project

May 16, 2007 May 16, 2007

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Student Success in ConnecticutStudent Success in Connecticut

Successful transfer is one measure of Successful transfer is one measure of success…success…

Student Success in Connecticut CollegesStudent Success in Connecticut CollegesSeptember 2007September 2007

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In California…In California…

Student success should be measured Student success should be measured through outcomes, including:through outcomes, including:

Time to degreeTime to degreeGraduation ratesGraduation ratesFour year degrees conferred on Four year degrees conferred on transfer students. transfer students.

How Are California Public Colleges Doing?How Are California Public Colleges Doing?

July 2007July 2007

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Today’s Session…Today’s Session…Who are transfer students? Why do Who are transfer students? Why do

students transfer?students transfer?What are their strengths?What are their strengths?What challenges do transfer students What challenges do transfer students

encounter as they encounter as they move in, move move in, move through and move onthrough and move on from higher from higher education?education?

What individual and institutional What individual and institutional initiatives can enhance their learning, initiatives can enhance their learning, development, and persistence?development, and persistence?

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Obstacles to successful transferObstacles to successful transfer

Negative attitudes and low expectationsNegative attitudes and low expectationsLack of adequate information about the Lack of adequate information about the social and academic climate of the new social and academic climate of the new institutioninstitutionCourse transferability issuesCourse transferability issuesProblems with registration, orientation, Problems with registration, orientation, academic advising, housing, etc.academic advising, housing, etc.Student expectations based on positive Student expectations based on positive prior institutional experiences.prior institutional experiences.

““Strategies for Successful Transfer Orientation”Strategies for Successful Transfer Orientation”

Ward-Roof & Cawthorn, 2004Ward-Roof & Cawthorn, 2004

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Keys to transfer successKeys to transfer success

Faculty/staff supportFaculty/staff supportPersonal motivation/self disciplinePersonal motivation/self disciplineSupportive environmentSupportive environmentPeer supportPeer supportCourses completed/availability of Courses completed/availability of needed coursesneeded courses

Heidi KippenhamHeidi KippenhamU of North DakotaU of North DakotaAACRAO Conference 2007AACRAO Conference 2007

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Keys to transfer successKeys to transfer success

Professional developmentProfessional developmentMany key competencies are developed Many key competencies are developed afterafter educators arrive on campus. educators arrive on campus. Therefore, colleges must assume the Therefore, colleges must assume the responsibility for teaching and developing responsibility for teaching and developing their own educators to enhance student their own educators to enhance student learning inside and outside the classroom learning inside and outside the classroom by providing professional development by providing professional development programs.programs.

Brown & Ward, 2007Brown & Ward, 2007

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Group introductionsGroup introductions

NameNameInstitution/OrganizationInstitution/OrganizationYour title/positionYour title/positionYour role, responsibilities, relationship to Your role, responsibilities, relationship to transfer students and issues.transfer students and issues.What is one successful aspect of your What is one successful aspect of your efforts to support transfer students?efforts to support transfer students?What challenge, issue, or question do What challenge, issue, or question do you hope to have addressed today?you hope to have addressed today?

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Who are transfer students?Who are transfer students?

Institutions must clearly and Institutions must clearly and accurately define their transfer accurately define their transfer populations when attempting to populations when attempting to develop or modify programs develop or modify programs and services for transfer and services for transfer students.students.

Kerr, King, & Grites, 2004Kerr, King, & Grites, 2004

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They are traditional aged and senior They are traditional aged and senior citizens. They are overachievers and citizens. They are overachievers and underachievers. They are international underachievers. They are international students; moms with young children; students; moms with young children; they are students with disabilities; they they are students with disabilities; they are displaced homemakers; first are displaced homemakers; first generation students and students in generation students and students in recovery needing a nurturing recovery needing a nurturing atmosphere….atmosphere….

Bernice Dunn, 2004Bernice Dunn, 2004

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Treating everyone the Treating everyone the same may be same may be equalequal treatment, but it treatment, but it may not be equitablemay not be equitable treatment.treatment.

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A Principle: A Principle:

Human beings seek to Human beings seek to economize on the energy economize on the energy required to make required to make distinctions.distinctions.

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Example: Example:

Most houseplants die Most houseplants die because we treat them all because we treat them all the same.the same.

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Multiple issues…Multiple issues…Transfer studentsTransfer studentsFirst-generation First-generation Adult and re-entry studentsAdult and re-entry studentsStudents of color/multicultural/internationalStudents of color/multicultural/internationalStudent with disabilitiesStudent with disabilitiesStudent-athletesStudent-athletesUndecided studentsUndecided studentsFirst-year students (at their new institution….)First-year students (at their new institution….)LGBT StudentsLGBT StudentsUnderprepared StudentsUnderprepared StudentsOthers??Others??

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Transfer in US Higher EdTransfer in US Higher Ed1/3 of all students will transfer at 1/3 of all students will transfer at

least once.least once.43% of two-year students will 43% of two-year students will

transfer at least once.transfer at least once.20% of students will attend three or 20% of students will attend three or

more institutions.more institutions.

Wellman, 2002; Ewell, Schild, & Paulson, 2003Wellman, 2002; Ewell, Schild, & Paulson, 2003

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Who are Transfer students?Who are Transfer students?

Vertical transfersVertical transfers: 2 to 4 year campuses: 2 to 4 year campuses

Horizontal transfersHorizontal transfers: 2 to 2 year campus : 2 to 2 year campus

4 to 4 year campus4 to 4 year campus

Reverse transfersReverse transfers: : 4 year to 2 year4 year to 2 year

Swirling transfersSwirling transfers: transferring multiple : transferring multiple times to various institutional typestimes to various institutional types

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SwirlingSwirling

Taking advantage of the varied Taking advantage of the varied

educational opportunities and educational opportunities and

experiences available in the experiences available in the

diverse US higher education diverse US higher education

system.system.

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Others??Others??

Who are transfer students on your Who are transfer students on your campus, in your state, campus, in your state, system/district, etc.?system/district, etc.?

What do you know?What do you know? What more do you need to know?What more do you need to know?

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Why do students transfer?Why do students transfer?Poor institutional fitPoor institutional fit

New or changed personal, educational, or New or changed personal, educational, or career goalscareer goals

Social environment incongruentSocial environment incongruentwith students expectations, abilitieswith students expectations, abilitiescomfort level, academic performance or comfort level, academic performance or skills level.skills level.

““Advising Students in Advising Students in Transition”Transition”

Peggy King, 2000Peggy King, 2000

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Only 43% of transfers to Only 43% of transfers to 4-year institutions are from 4-year institutions are from 2-year institutions.2-year institutions.

Wellman (2002)Wellman (2002)

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Why do students transfer?Why do students transfer?

Two-year to four-yearTwo-year to four-yearFinancial considerationsFinancial considerationsAdmissions requirementsAdmissions requirementsAvailability of developmental Availability of developmental

courseworkcourseworkGeographic proximityGeographic proximity

King, 2000King, 2000

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Two-year to four-year transferTwo-year to four-year transfer

The two year college is perhaps the The two year college is perhaps the most effective democratizing agent most effective democratizing agent in higher education.in higher education.

Knoell & Medsker, 1965Knoell & Medsker, 1965

Community colleges make winners Community colleges make winners out of ordinary people….out of ordinary people….

Leslie Koltai, 1993Leslie Koltai, 1993

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Community colleges are on the Community colleges are on the front lines of American higher front lines of American higher education in providing education in providing increased opportunities for increased opportunities for students who otherwise would students who otherwise would be denied access….be denied access….

““Advising Multicultural Populations for Advising Multicultural Populations for Achievement and Success.”Achievement and Success.”Tom Brown & Mario Rivas, 1993Tom Brown & Mario Rivas, 1993New Directions for Community CollegesNew Directions for Community Colleges

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Two-year to four-year transferTwo-year to four-year transfer45% of all US undergraduates are 45% of all US undergraduates are

enrolled in community colleges.enrolled in community colleges.

47% of all students of color enter higher 47% of all students of color enter higher education through two-year colleges.education through two-year colleges.

52% of community college students are 52% of community college students are first generation.first generation.

57% of community college students are 57% of community college students are women.women.

CCSSE 2005CCSSE 2005

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Over the years, research Over the years, research has consistently shown that has consistently shown that students, when they students, when they transfer, perform as well as transfer, perform as well as student who initially enroll student who initially enroll at four-year colleges….at four-year colleges….

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Transfer students tend to be one Transfer students tend to be one of the best retention risks in of the best retention risks in higher education today. These higher education today. These students have one or two years students have one or two years of college experience, are more of college experience, are more mature, and often have mature, and often have determined an educational determined an educational objective….objective….

Michael McCauley, 2000Michael McCauley, 2000

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We must know the We must know the characteristics of the characteristics of the successful transfer students successful transfer students at our institutions so we can at our institutions so we can identify the services needed identify the services needed for other transfer students to for other transfer students to succeed.succeed.

Tartar & Miller, 1995Tartar & Miller, 1995

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A challenge…A challenge…

Many community college Many community college transfer students struggle transfer students struggle against the perception that against the perception that they cannot succeed at four-they cannot succeed at four-year institutions….year institutions….

Jack Kent Cooke FoundationJack Kent Cooke Foundation

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What misconceptions about transfer What misconceptions about transfer students serve as obstacles to their students serve as obstacles to their successful academic and social successful academic and social integration?integration?

What are some myths about transfer What are some myths about transfer students on your campus?students on your campus?

How might these be challenged or How might these be challenged or changed?changed?

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What are some of the strengths What are some of the strengths of transfer students?of transfer students?

How do transfer students How do transfer students contribute to institutional contribute to institutional mission, the learning mission, the learning community, peer groups, etc.?community, peer groups, etc.?

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A high percentage of A high percentage of students in two year students in two year colleges indicate their plans colleges indicate their plans to transfer; however, too few to transfer; however, too few students achieve their goal.students achieve their goal.

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Why students leave college:Why students leave college:

Psychological factorsPsychological factorsEnvironmental factorsEnvironmental factorsSocietal factorsSocietal factors

Institutional factorsInstitutional factorsWhat about us? What about us?

What about me?What about me?

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Institutions are far more likely Institutions are far more likely to attribute attrition to student to attribute attrition to student characteristics than to characteristics than to institutional characteristics.institutional characteristics.

What Works In Student Retention, 2004What Works In Student Retention, 2004

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We build beautiful campusesWe build beautiful campuses,,

We hire distinguished faculty,We hire distinguished faculty,

We develop a challenging We develop a challenging curriculum…curriculum…

then the “wrong” students show up!then the “wrong” students show up!Dr. Betty Siegel, President Emerita Dr. Betty Siegel, President Emerita

Kennesaw State UniversityKennesaw State University

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What happens to students What happens to students afterafter they enroll frequently they enroll frequently has a more powerful impact has a more powerful impact on whether they persist or on whether they persist or leave.leave.

Vincent Tinto, 1993Vincent Tinto, 1993

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Talking About LeavingTalking About Leaving

Students with 650+ Math SATsStudents with 650+ Math SATs

40% leave engineering40% leave engineering50% leave biological sciences50% leave biological sciences60% leave mathematics60% leave mathematics

Why undergraduates leave the sciencesWhy undergraduates leave the sciences E. Seymour & N. Hewitt, 1997E. Seymour & N. Hewitt, 1997

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Why do students leave college?Why do students leave college?

IncongruenceIncongruence

What they encounter is not What they encounter is not what they expected….what they expected….

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Why do students leave college?Why do students leave college?

IsolationIsolation

Inability to connect with Inability to connect with significant members of the significant members of the campus community….campus community….

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What do students say?What do students say?They feel anxious about They feel anxious about transferring credits.transferring credits.Policies, procedures, and Policies, procedures, and expectations are complex and expectations are complex and confusing.confusing.They feel lost and experience They feel lost and experience difficulties getting connected to their difficulties getting connected to their new communities.new communities.

Kippenham, 2007Kippenham, 2007

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Ann Lynch’sAnn Lynch’s

Moving inMoving in, , moving throughmoving through, , and and moving onmoving on provides a provides a conceptual framework for conceptual framework for organizing academic advising organizing academic advising and other support services.and other support services.

Arthur Chickering, 1994Arthur Chickering, 1994

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Model for transfer studentsModel for transfer students

Pre-transfer:Pre-transfer: moving inmoving in

Transfer:Transfer: moving throughmoving through

Post-transfer:Post-transfer: moving onmoving on

Gernand, 1992Gernand, 1992

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Pre-transfer issuesPre-transfer issuesRaise awareness of transfer issuesRaise awareness of transfer issuesLocate relevant transfer resourcesLocate relevant transfer resourcesPrepare for transfer, including enhancing Prepare for transfer, including enhancing positive social, academic, and personal positive social, academic, and personal skills.skills.Assess options re: majors, careers, etc.Assess options re: majors, careers, etc.Understand articulation processesUnderstand articulation processesManage personal, social, financial issuesManage personal, social, financial issues

Steele & McDonald, 2000Steele & McDonald, 2000

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Academic Advising Articulation Academic Advising Articulation Task ForceTask Force

University of Arizona, Arizona University of Arizona, Arizona State University and community State University and community collegescolleges

Members: Faculty, advisors, Members: Faculty, advisors, administrators, and transfer administrators, and transfer student ombudspersons (TSO)student ombudspersons (TSO)

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Effective articulationEffective articulationOffers consistency in the treatment of Offers consistency in the treatment of transfer students.transfer students.Faculty should have major involvement Faculty should have major involvement and responsibility for creating agreements.and responsibility for creating agreements.Transfer students should have equal Transfer students should have equal access to programs at receiving institutions.access to programs at receiving institutions.Simplify, simplify,simplify processes.Simplify, simplify,simplify processes.Should enable students to progress.Should enable students to progress.Not “one size fits all”.Not “one size fits all”.

Sullivan, Dyer, Franklin 2004Sullivan, Dyer, Franklin 2004

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Transfer issuesTransfer issues

Ensure that beliefs about transfer Ensure that beliefs about transfer are based on factare based on factCooperation between institutions is Cooperation between institutions is important.important.Managing “transfer shock”Managing “transfer shock”

Steele & McDonald, 2000Steele & McDonald, 2000

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Obstacles to successful transferObstacles to successful transfer•Transfer students often have a false sense Transfer students often have a false sense of security viz. their understanding of the of security viz. their understanding of the higher education environment, and they higher education environment, and they miss orientation programs they may feel miss orientation programs they may feel are going to be redundant or unnecessary.are going to be redundant or unnecessary.

•Transfer students often have pre-Transfer students often have pre-conceived ideas about their new conceived ideas about their new institution.institution.

Strategies for Successful Transfer Strategies for Successful Transfer OrientationOrientation

Ward-Roof & Cawthorn, 2004Ward-Roof & Cawthorn, 2004

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Transfer ShockTransfer Shock

The tendency for a student’s The tendency for a student’s GPA to drop in the first GPA to drop in the first semester after transfer to a semester after transfer to a new institution.new institution.

Bird, 1956; Cedja, 1994; Cantrell, 1996Bird, 1956; Cedja, 1994; Cantrell, 1996

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Transfers often think that what Transfers often think that what they did at their previous they did at their previous school will be all they have to school will be all they have to do to be successful here….do to be successful here….

Karen Watson, Academic AdvisorKaren Watson, Academic AdvisorVirginia TechVirginia Tech

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Transfer success solutionsTransfer success solutions

1. Acknowledge differences 1. Acknowledge differences between institutions.between institutions.2. Recognize losses incurred 2. Recognize losses incurred during transfer.during transfer.3. Understand new expectations.3. Understand new expectations.4. Learning new rules, policies.4. Learning new rules, policies.Bingham-Newman & Hopkins, 2004Bingham-Newman & Hopkins, 2004

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We need to get students to We need to get students to understand that they may understand that they may need to sharpen their study need to sharpen their study skills and apply them in a skills and apply them in a different way to understand different way to understand transfer shock and how they transfer shock and how they can avoid it.can avoid it.

Karen WatsonKaren Watson

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What are some differences What are some differences between two-year and four-year between two-year and four-year campuses that could undermine campuses that could undermine transfer student success?transfer student success?

Personal, social, culturalPersonal, social, culturalAcademic, career, or other?Academic, career, or other?

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How could adverse effects of How could adverse effects of difference be mediated? difference be mediated?

How might institutions How might institutions act affirmativelyact affirmatively to to bridge gaps between student bridge gaps between student expectations and their expectations and their experiences?experiences?

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Programmatic InitiativesProgrammatic Initiatives1.1. Articulation agreements-institution and Articulation agreements-institution and

departments/programsdepartments/programs2.2. Specialized transition courses for transfer Specialized transition courses for transfer

students (required)students (required)3.3. Specialized transfer orientation programsSpecialized transfer orientation programs4.4. Special Web pagesSpecial Web pages5.5. Peer mentor programsPeer mentor programs6.6. Developmental academic advisingDevelopmental academic advising7.7. Honors programsHonors programs8.8. Financial aid programsFinancial aid programs9.9. One-stop centers (Transfer center)One-stop centers (Transfer center)10.10. Transfer ombudspersonTransfer ombudsperson

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Transfer students need to be Transfer students need to be provided with services similar provided with services similar to those offered to first-year to those offered to first-year students, although we need to students, although we need to recognize that their needs are recognize that their needs are different from first years.different from first years.

Vincent Tinto, 1993Vincent Tinto, 1993

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Receiving institutions need to Receiving institutions need to structure transfer student structure transfer student orientation programs to orientation programs to include the academic, social, include the academic, social, psychological, and cultural psychological, and cultural aspects of campus life.aspects of campus life.

Grites, 2004Grites, 2004

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Six key elements for transfer orientationSix key elements for transfer orientation

1.1. Institution information—history, traditions, Institution information—history, traditions, mission, etc.mission, etc.

2.2. Academic information—policies, programs, Academic information—policies, programs, peoplepeople

3.3. Logistical—parking, financial aid, library, etc.Logistical—parking, financial aid, library, etc.

4.4. Social issues—student activities, Social issues—student activities, organizations, eventsorganizations, events

5.5. Assessments—placement, career, etc.Assessments—placement, career, etc.

6.6. Transition issues—diversity, safety, Transition issues—diversity, safety, commuting, academic and social challenges.commuting, academic and social challenges.

Austin, 1998Austin, 1998

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Keys to Orientation SuccessKeys to Orientation Success1.1. Institutional awareness and commitment to Institutional awareness and commitment to

transfer student issues and needstransfer student issues and needs2.2. Adequate resources and servicesAdequate resources and services3.3. Family involvementFamily involvement4.4. Provide opportunities for peer interactionsProvide opportunities for peer interactions5.5. Involve transfer students in program planning Involve transfer students in program planning

and implementationand implementation6.6. Strengthen relationships with sending Strengthen relationships with sending

institutionsinstitutions7.7. Assess and use results for future program Assess and use results for future program

improvement and developmentimprovement and development Ward-Roof & Cawthorn, Ward-Roof & Cawthorn,

20042004

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What academic issues should be What academic issues should be addressed in orientation?addressed in orientation?

Academic expectations and successAcademic expectations and success Meetings with department and programsMeetings with department and programs Meetings with academic advisorMeetings with academic advisor Library and technology resourcesLibrary and technology resources Academic support services (e.g., tutoring, Academic support services (e.g., tutoring,

study skills)study skills) Honors programsHonors programs Academic research opportunitiesAcademic research opportunities

NACADA Transfer & Transition Survey, 2002NACADA Transfer & Transition Survey, 2002

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What social needs should be What social needs should be addressed in orientation programsaddressed in orientation programsCounseling and career planning servicesCounseling and career planning servicesHealth and wellnessHealth and wellnessVolunteer opportunitiesVolunteer opportunitiesAthletics and intramuralsAthletics and intramuralsClubs and organizationsClubs and organizations Issues for commuter studentsIssues for commuter students

NACADA Transfer & Transition Survey, 2002NACADA Transfer & Transition Survey, 2002

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Transfer CenterTransfer CenterSeparate office or facility designed Separate office or facility designed exclusively to provide services and exclusively to provide services and direction for transfer students.direction for transfer students.

Centralized knowledge, skills, and Centralized knowledge, skills, and resourcesresources

Staffed by professional staff, faculty, Staffed by professional staff, faculty, peer mentorspeer mentors

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Organizational Models: Organizational Models: SharedShared

Total Intake Model

Transfer CenterStudent AcademicSub-unit

(TRANSFER CENTER)(TRANSFER CENTER)

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Examples of 4 year InitiativesExamples of 4 year Initiatives

One-to-one advisingOne-to-one advisingTransfer orientation websiteTransfer orientation websiteInformation sessions during orientationInformation sessions during orientationWeekly email (e.g., Weekly email (e.g., Academic Fitness at Virginia Academic Fitness at Virginia TechTech))Outreach to first generation studentsOutreach to first generation studentsMonitoring midterm gradesMonitoring midterm gradesDiscussing majorDiscussing majorEmail re: locating housing, commutingEmail re: locating housing, commuting

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Retention practices responsible for greatest Retention practices responsible for greatest contribution to retention in 4-year public contribution to retention in 4-year public colleges and universities fall into three colleges and universities fall into three categories:categories:

1.1. Academic advising (including Academic advising (including selected cohorts, more advisors).selected cohorts, more advisors).

2.2. First-year programs (learning First-year programs (learning communities, integration of communities, integration of advising with first-year programs, advising with first-year programs, University 101-type courses.University 101-type courses.

3.3. Learning support (tutoring, SI, Learning support (tutoring, SI, summer bridge programs).summer bridge programs).

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Academic advising is Academic advising is critical to the success of critical to the success of transfer students.transfer students.

Kerr, King, & Grites, 2004Kerr, King, & Grites, 2004

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Academic advising is assisting Academic advising is assisting students to students to share the share the responsibilityresponsibility for academic for academic planning with faculty, with planning with faculty, with students finally being able to find students finally being able to find their own answers and use their their own answers and use their advisors as sounding boards.advisors as sounding boards.

Academic Advising for StudentAcademic Advising for Student SuccessSuccessSusan Frost, 1991Susan Frost, 1991

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Changing Environment & Changing Students

PRESCRIPTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL

Lynch, 1989; Brown& Rivas, 1994; Creamer, 2000; Brown, 2005

Need for Information

Need for ConsultationChanging Needs for Advising

Moving In Moving Through Moving On I I/S I/S S/I S

I = Institutional Faculty, advisors, etc.S = Student

Changing Contexts for Advising

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Issues for multicultural studentsIssues for multicultural students

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Two-year colleges are the Two-year colleges are the point of access for point of access for significant numbers of significant numbers of students of color.students of color.

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Barriers to success for Barriers to success for multicultural studentsmulticultural students

Lack of identification with teachers and Lack of identification with teachers and counselorscounselorsPoor attitudes and expectations for teachersPoor attitudes and expectations for teachersLack of support systemsLack of support systemsUnclear goalsUnclear goalsFeelings of inadequacy/fear of failureFeelings of inadequacy/fear of failureUndefined valuesUndefined valuesLack of minority presenceLack of minority presence

Quality Education for Minorities Project, 1990Quality Education for Minorities Project, 1990

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Differing experiences for white Differing experiences for white and multicultural studentsand multicultural students

More difficulty adjusting to large More difficulty adjusting to large classesclassesFeel alienated upon transferringFeel alienated upon transferringFeel stigmatized as a “transfer student”Feel stigmatized as a “transfer student”Concerns about emphasis on Concerns about emphasis on competition for gradescompetition for gradesMore difficulty adjusting to academic More difficulty adjusting to academic environment.environment.Greater feelings of insecurity about the Greater feelings of insecurity about the university environment.university environment.

Laanan, 1999Laanan, 1999

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Effective interventions for Effective interventions for Multicultural Transfer StudentsMulticultural Transfer Students

Collaboration between 2- and 4-year Collaboration between 2- and 4-year Transfer focused workshops and orientation Transfer focused workshops and orientation programming programming Advisors who take the initiative to reach out Advisors who take the initiative to reach out and connect students to academic, financial, and connect students to academic, financial, student support services, minority student support services, minority organizations, etc.organizations, etc.Advisors probe students re: major and career Advisors probe students re: major and career choices, and provide support re: personal choices, and provide support re: personal experiences on campus, family issues, etc. experiences on campus, family issues, etc. Peer mentor programPeer mentor program

Laanan, 1999Laanan, 1999

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Cognitive, Emotional and Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral BarriersBehavioral Barriers

Undermining attributionsUndermining attributionsEgo involvementEgo involvementReluctance to seek assistanceReluctance to seek assistance

Rivas & Rivas & Brown, 2007Brown, 2007

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Faculty at 4-year institutions Faculty at 4-year institutions often negatively perceive often negatively perceive the capabilities of the capabilities of community college community college transfers.transfers.

Gonzalez, 2002Gonzalez, 2002

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Community college transfer Community college transfer students are viewed by faculty students are viewed by faculty and staff receiving institutions and staff receiving institutions as possessing less ability and as possessing less ability and preparation and are deemed preparation and are deemed less likely to succeed than less likely to succeed than those entering directly from those entering directly from high school….high school….

Bingham-Newman & Hopkins, 2004Bingham-Newman & Hopkins, 2004

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AttributionsAttributions

When something happens When something happens in life, to what do we in life, to what do we attribute the cause?attribute the cause?

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Shift attributions from Shift attributions from ability to ability to backgroundbackground..

Students’ attributions Students’ attributions andand those of faculty and staff.those of faculty and staff.

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Creating strong and satisfying Creating strong and satisfying transfer experiences requires transfer experiences requires strong partnerships between strong partnerships between students, faculty/staff involved students, faculty/staff involved in matriculation[, teaching and in matriculation[, teaching and advising.]advising.]

Dougherty, 2004Dougherty, 2004

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Establish a Transfer Student Establish a Transfer Student Discussion GroupDiscussion Group

Promote awareness of transfer issues and Promote awareness of transfer issues and collaborate to improve campus climate.collaborate to improve campus climate.Involve key people from Recruitment, Involve key people from Recruitment, Admissions, Enrollment Management, Admissions, Enrollment Management, Academic Advising, services for special Academic Advising, services for special populations (e.g., TRIO, athletes, international).populations (e.g., TRIO, athletes, international).Data Driven (e.g., feeder institutions, students, Data Driven (e.g., feeder institutions, students, areas of interest).areas of interest).Empower the group to make things happen….Empower the group to make things happen….

Heidi Kippenham, 2007Heidi Kippenham, 2007

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Institutions don’t change. Institutions don’t change.

Institutional/organizational Institutional/organizational change happens only when change happens only when individualsindividuals take the initiative to take the initiative to create changecreate change in their areas of in their areas of responsibility.responsibility.

Peter Senge, ProfessorPeter Senge, ProfessorMIT Center for Organizational LearningMIT Center for Organizational Learning

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Supporting the Academic and Supporting the Academic and Social Integration of Social Integration of

Transfer StudentsTransfer Students

Institute for the Study Institute for the Study of Transfer Students (ISTS)of Transfer Students (ISTS)

January 24, 2007January 24, 2007

Thomas BrownThomas [email protected]@tbrownassociates.comwww.tbrownassociates.comwww.tbrownassociates.com