ESL – English as a second language

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ESL English as a second language. Statistical Information. ESL Statistics. The following slides detail the ESL statistical information gathered thus far (1997-2007). All detailed information has been gathered by the Department of Education & Early Childhood Development, Victoria. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>ESL English as a second language Statistical Information </p></li><li><p>ESL StatisticsThe following slides detail the ESL statistical information gathered thus far (1997-2007). All detailed information has been gathered by the Department of Education &amp; Early Childhood Development, Victoria. </p></li><li><p>In 2007, 110,383 or 20.5% of students in government schools were classified as ESL students. ESL students are defined as having a language background other than English if either the student or one or both parents was born in a non English speaking country (ESL Report 2007, Eduweb). ESL CLASSIFICATION </p></li><li><p>ESL FUNDING CRITERIAA student must fill the following criteria to be eligible for government ESL funding </p><p>English is not the main language spoken at homeStudents has been enrolled in an Australian school for less than five yearsStudents were eligible for SRP funding</p></li><li><p>LANGUAGE BACKGROUNDSThe following shows the main language spoken at homes with non-English language backgrounds. Notice the large percentage of other languages in the diagram. </p></li><li><p>PLACES OF BIRTHThe following outlines the specific areas of birth of all Victorian students. The graph indicates a strong influx of students from overseas. In particular, there is a immigration push from Asia particularly China, India &amp; Sudan.</p></li><li><p>NEWLY ARRIVING ESL STUDENTSThe following shows the countries of birth of newly arriving ESL students. These figures tend to vary yearly due to a number of variables - i.e. international events, changes in immigration policies. The highest number of students came from China, India, Afghanistan, Philippines and Sudan. </p></li><li><p>LANGUAGE BACKGROUNDSThe following outlines the language backgrounds of newly arrived ESL students. The graph shows a large majority are that of Asian and Middle Eastern based dialect. These reflects directly to the influx of immigrants from similar geographic areas. </p></li><li><p>AVAILABLE VICTORIAN SCHOOLINGThere are currently 4 metropolitan language schools available. These schools provide assistance to students as well as information to parents and curriculum resources to schools Blackburn English Language SchoolCollingwood English Language SchoolNoble Park English Language SchoolWestern English Language School</p></li><li><p>FUNDING STATISTICS </p></li><li><p>ESL THENThe following outlines the changes that have occurred over the last 10 years. Notice the significant changes in ESL figures. </p></li><li><p>1997 STUDENT FIGURES In 1997, there were 123,020 ESL students in government schools (23.7%). Of these, 3,207 were newly arrived in Australia. More than 70 languages were spoken in their homes.</p><p> Approx 10,000 more students than in 2007 Approx 3 % increase in ESL students</p></li><li><p>1997 LANGUAGE BACKGROUNDS</p></li><li><p>1997- COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN</p></li><li><p>1997- ESL QUALIFICATIONS</p></li><li><p>Challenges for teachers History of previous country; trauma, war, loss of family etc. Funding and support Communication Curriculum planning Parents of ESL students Racism/prejudice Engaging ESL students Co-Teaching Assessment and reporting</p></li><li><p>Challenges for students Difficulties fitting into Australian student life Culturally distinctive learning styles Learning in a second (usually weaker) language Code-switching; using both languages in the same sentence Communication Learning new technologies Staying engaged in the classroom Making friendships</p></li><li><p>Working with ESL teachers collaborativelyFor: (Co-teaching)Students are not isolated from mainstream students. They learn with their peers.ESL students have the support of a second teacherco-teaching lowers student to teacher ratioReduces pressure/stress having a colleague to plan with</p><p>Against: (Isolating from mainstream)If students are taken from the classroom they feel lost when they come back and behind with workThe teacher needs to re-teach what they missed out on</p></li><li><p>English language supportVictoria has state government owned and operated English Language Centres which run specialised English Language Courses to prepare international students for mainstream classes.Students will be enrolled in a 20 week (2 -term) intensive English language program to prepare for mainstream classes. Tuition fees for English language tuition and school can all be paid together and cost the same as the mainstream classes.</p><p>Victorian Government Schools' intensive English language programs are specifically designed for international students about to enter school. Teachers assess each students English ability and recommend whether they need further Intensive English or whether they can enter straight into classes.</p><p>After students complete their intensive English language program they continue to receive tuition at school in English as a Second Language (ESL). ESL is available in all schools and students can study ESL in years 11 and 12 and receive credit towards their marks for university entrance.</p><p>Students who want to study the Victorian Certificate of Education, VCE (Years 11&amp;12), should enrol in a 6 month intensive English program before they commence Year 11.</p></li><li><p>Recommendations Know your studentRecognise past and present educational experiences Teachers need to consider the ESL students education experiences they have had in their home country as this plays an important role in determining their success at school now in the future. Walker &amp;Dalhouse, 2009 According to parents interviewed, Sudanese children from their area of southern Sudan are not expected to speak when they are around elders unless they are addressed. Thus, this upbringing makes it unlikely that their children will volunteer to ask or answer questions in classes.Learning environment is safe supportive and inclusiveWhat ESL students may bring to the learning context </p></li><li><p> Here is a compilation of how you can cater of the ESL student in your classroom www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYDOCoPpQc</p></li><li><p>Cued articulation</p><p>using hand signals to develop sound awarenesseach hand movement represents one soundgives clues as to how and where the sound is producedeasy and fun to learn</p></li><li><p>Linking oral language and writing</p><p>classroom talk can support writinglanguage development would be very basic using writing alonecan pair ESL students with other students to support their writing --&gt; Activity: sequencing activity</p></li><li><p>Other suggestions</p><p>speech cornerparagraph framesdiary entriesuse technology</p></li><li><p> Outback adventure, to the center of Australia </p></li><li><p>My experienceBulla: a remote Indigenous Community in the Northern Territory. Bulla School: One teacher school, Transition Year 7, enrolment of 16, anywhere between 4 and 14 students in attendance any given day.Literacy Program used : NALP (National Accelerated Literacy Program)</p></li><li><p>Presentation FocusStatistics Indigenous LiteracyNALP and how it works</p></li><li><p>Indigenous PopulationStatistics(ABS, 2006) </p></li><li><p>Literacy of the landIndigenous children come to school with literacy skills of talking and listening and are able to read the land and symbols. </p></li><li><p>Family and the collective are important values and shared learning, not working as an individual, is the norm.Indigenous literacys are heavily oral and visual (body language, observing nature). </p></li><li><p>By the age of 15, more than one-third of Australias Indigenous students 'do not have the adequate skills and knowledge in reading literacy to meet real-life challenges and may well be disadvantaged in their lives beyond school. (PISA cited in Bortoli and Cresswell, 2004, page 11)</p></li><li><p>In the Northern Territory, only one in five children living in very remote Indigenous communities can read at the accepted minimum standard. (NT DEET, 2006)More than half of Indigenous families living in very remote communities speak an Indigenous language in the home. (ABS, 2001)</p></li><li><p>Indigenous children are traditionally not expected to sit still and look in order to listen and learn. </p></li><li><p>So</p><p>NAPLAN(MCEECDYA, 2009)</p></li><li><p>The department says 14.5 per cent of students sat the NAPLAN test this year.</p><p>The department has attributed the Territory's poor results compared with other jurisdictions to poor school attendance, high teacher turnover and a large number of remote students for whom English is not a first language.</p><p>But chief executive Gary Barnes says the testing results were better in 17 out of the 20 categories this year.</p><p>(ABC News Online, 11 Sep 2009)</p><p>NT Government response to NAPLAN results</p></li><li><p>(Commonwealth of Australia, 2009)</p></li><li><p> Taught for 60-90min every day Set routine followed A single text studied per term Particular passages are focused upon </p></li><li><p>The teaching sequence : Literate OrientationLow Order : Metalanguage Literate interpretation Reading of passage fluently</p><p>High Order: How language choices affect meaning Text marking</p></li><li><p>The teaching sequence : Transformations Sentence/passage written up on strip cards Word analysis Leads into writing</p></li><li><p>The teaching sequence : Spelling Word identification Strategy used flexible</p></li><li><p>The teaching sequence : WritingJoint reconstructed writing : Introduction Re-write passage</p><p>Writing workshops: Use authors strategies Build up to Free Writing workshops</p></li><li><p>Learn using same texts as mainstream peersHighly OralCollaborativeACCELERATED LITERACYPredictable routine</p></li><li><p>ReferencesABC News online, Sep 11, 2009 http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories 2009/09/11/2683511.htmABS 2001/6 http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstatsBortoli and Cresswell, Australias Indigenous Students in PISA 2000: Results from an International Study, Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER), Research Monograph No. 59, August 2004, page 14. Commonwealth of Australia, 2009 http://www.nalp.edu.au/datareports2008.htmMCEECDYA 2009, http://www.naplan.edu.au/NT DEET 2009 http:/www.teaching.nt.gov.au/ </p><p>*Majority of Indigenous Australians are under 20 years of ageNearly half of the NT population is Indigenous**http://www.worldwithoutbooks.org/About/IndigenousLiteracy.aspx*http://www.daretolead.edu.au/servlet/Web?s=169694&amp;p=RES_TEACHING_STUDENT*****The NALP (National Accelerated Literacy Program ) uses Vygotskys ZPD theory as a basis to engage students who are below the literacy achievement levels of their mainstream peers. In this way students are able to engage in tasks beyond a level in which they may do so unassisted. </p><p>Using AL teachers are an integral part in joint construction of literacy skills and collaboration is favoured over individualized pedagogies. The NALP looks at the whole and progressively breaks it down into its parts. The idea is that students need to see what the finished product looks like before they can learn themselves how to create it.* Low order: The teacher builds a common language with the students modeling a literate interpretation of the text. In essence the teacher lends their mind to the students spoon feeding them literate information, how to read illustrations, choice of language, setting, characters, why the author has made such choices etc. The teacher never asks a question of students that they have not previously explicitly taught. Following this the passage is read fluently with students encouraged to follow along. High Order: Links between languages choices (grammar and vocabulary) and meaning are scaffolded. Text marking is often used where the passage is placed on an overhead and students are invited to come and underline specific words.*Transformations Teacher facilitated movement to engagement with word analysis, a precursor to later writing activities. The sentence/passage is written on strip cards large enough for the whole class to gather around and see. Activities such as picking out a word that tells us the scene is at night, picking out grammatical parts, coming up with other words that could be used instead while keeping the texts meaning and so on are used. The strip cards work well here because the students are actively involved in cutting them up and re-writing them. Transformations allows for students to further engage in textural language choices, provides a platform to move into writing and spelling activities and provides a means to move the readers into the role of the writer while being supported.*Spelling Based on word identification and moving students to the recognition of words out of their contexts. Strategies such as visual pattern relationships and onset and rhyme are used. There is greater room for movement in teaching strategies employed during this stage. Breaking up words from the text into syllables and focusing on parts of words is a common strategy. *Writing Joint reconstructed writing: This introduces the writing phase. The students rewrite the section of the text passage studied in the transformations section just as the author did. The students become very familiar with the passage and eventually will be able to rewrite the whole of it. This may seem like a foreign concept in teaching for us but reducing the stress of writing is important for these students so to is experience writing as an author does. Writing workshop: Students now attempt to employ strategies they have learnt about in the lesson. This is teacher directed. For example if the passage has used similes like students will attempt to write their own similes. Students need to have a go here and limiting the amount of writing they have to do is useful and as the students become more comfortable, and this may take some time, they can be led into Free Writing workshops where they can create their own passages of text, using strategies that have been made explicit to them through studying strategies authors use. *The Accelerated Literacy teaching sequence is a powerful and effective tool for literacy teaching. While there are many reasons for why Indigenous students, particularly from remote schools, may have literacy difficulties. These students can learn to read and work at a highly literate level on the same books as their mainstream peers. Other positives about the program are that the routine is predictable, lessening the impact of absenteeism and school transfer. The collaborative and highly oral nature of the program also assists in engagement. </p><p>*</p></li></ul>

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