Eating Right: For You & Your Baby 2 Did You Know? Q: What is your babys main source of nutrients for growing? A: You! Essential nutrients come from:

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Slide 2 Eating Right: For You & Your Baby Slide 3 2 Did You Know? Q: What is your babys main source of nutrients for growing? A: You! Essential nutrients come from: - What is stored in your tissues - What you eat Slide 4 Are You Ready? In this section we will help you learn what to eat and what to avoid before getting pregnant Slide 5 4 Get Ready Assess your current eating plan Most women do not include enough: folic acid high-calcium foods iron fruits and vegetables Slide 6 5 Prevent Birth Defects A: 1 in every 1000 babies Q: How many babies are born in the US every year with a neural tube defect? Slide 7 6 Folate Helps Prevent Birth Defects Folate is needed both before and in the first weeks of pregnancy It can help reduce the risk of neural tube defects 400 mcg per day before pregnancy 600 mcg per day while pregnant Slide 8 7 Which Foods are the Best Source of Folate? Chicken liver, fortified breakfast cereals, beans, asparagus, broccoli, green leafy vegetables, oranges and wheat germ Slide 9 8 Which Foods Are The Best Sources of Calcium? Skim milk Fat free ricotta cheese Yogurt Fortified soy milk Calcium fortified orange juice Sardines with bones Slide 10 9 Wheres the Iron? Liver, meat, fortified breakfast cereal, spinach, beans Slide 11 10 Tips for More Fruits & Vegetables Try to include fruits and or vegetables with every meal Include fresh fruit with breakfast Take bananas and apples with you for snacks Eat a big salad for lunch Eat vegetables at dinner Make a fruit/yogurt smoothie for dessert Slide 12 11 Do I Need A Supplement? Assess your current eating plan Take supplements several months prior to conception if food intake for folic acid and iron is not optimal Slide 13 12 Exercise Check with your physician Begin before you are pregnant Modify your program during the second and third trimesters Benefits: Improves your sense of well-being Helps you control your weight More timely onset of labor Less difficulty with labor pain Slide 14 Im Pregnant! Heres what you need to know about eating when you are pregnant Slide 15 14 Healthy Pregnancy Eating Plan (HPEP) 8 or more servings of complex carbohydrates 4 or more servings of vegetables 3 or more servings of fruits 3 servings of dairy 2-3 servings of extra-lean meat, poultry, fish and/or legumes Slide 16 15 8 or More Servings of Complex Carbohydrates 100 % whole wheat bread Oatmeal and other whole grain cereals Whole wheat noodles or pasta Brown rice Potatoes and sweet potatoes Barley Fortified grain products* *Rich in folic acid Slide 17 16 4 or More Servings of Vegetables Asparagus* Bean Sprouts Green Beans Beets Broccoli* Cabbage Carrots Cauliflower Chard* Eggplant Kale* Spinach* Tomato Turnip Greens* *Rich in folate Slide 18 17 3 or More Servings of Fruit Bananas Blueberries Cantaloupe* Grapefruit* Grapes Kiwi* Melon Oranges Papaya Peach Pineapple Strawberries* Watermelon *Rich in folate Slide 19 18 3 Servings of Nonfat Dairy Skim milk Yogurt Lowfat cheese Lowfat ricotta cheese These are the best sources of calcium Slide 20 19 2 Servings of Lean Protein Foods Beans and peas* Lentils* Lean chicken Seafood Tofu Lean red meat *Rich in folate Slide 21 20 Seafood Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish because they contain high levels of mercury Eat up to 12 ounces (two average meals) a week of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury Five of the most commonly eaten fish that are low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish Another commonly eaten fish, albacore (white) tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna So, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to six ounces (one average meal) of albacore tuna per week Check local advisories about the safety of fish caught by family and friends in your local lakes, rivers and coastal areas If no advice is available, eat up to six ounces (one average meal) per week of fish you catch from local waters, but dont consume any other fish during that week Slide 22 21 Fluids Needed for baby: Building your babys body cells & circulatory system Delivery of nutrients Excretion of wastes Slide 23 22 Fluids Needed for you: Helps to combat constipation Regulate body temperature Reduces risk of urinary tract infections Consume at least 8 cups of fluids per day (water, juice, decaffeinated beverages) Slide 24 23 Foods to Limit or Avoid Alcohol Caffeinated beverages Candy Cookies/cakes/pies/doughnuts Drinks made with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup Meats that are less than 95% fat-free Chips and other snack foods high in fat and salt Slide 25 24 Avoid Drugs Use of street drugs can affect fertility and have lifelong and serious consequences Optimal nutrition might help, but it can not fully compensate for the harsh effect of drugs Never self-medicate when you are pregnant Always check with your physician Slide 26 25 Eat Frequently Aim for 3 meals and 2 to 3 snacks Eat every 2-3 hours or 5-6 times per day Take food with you Eating habits will change as pregnancy progresses You may eat more or less depending on how youre feeling each day! Slide 27 26 Calorie Needs Calorie needs will vary per person First trimester: Average of 2000-2200 calories Second & third trimester: Increase by 300 calories Average of 2,300-2,500 calories Vitamin and mineral needs are high Consume foods as close to their natural state as possible Slide 28 27 Weight Gain Expectations Pregnancy is not the time to diet Expect weight gain of 25-35 pounds* Pattern of weight gain is important: slow gain in the 1st trimester (2-4 pounds)* 3/4 to 1 pound a week for the last 2 trimesters* *(for women in normal weight range) Slide 29 28 Side Effects That May Be Lessened by a Proper Diet Fatigue Morning Sickness Constipation Varicose Veins Tooth and Gum Problems Leg Cramps Irritability Skin Problems Colds and Infections Mild Depression Nose Bleeds Mood Swings Slide 30 29 First Trimester Follow Healthy Pregnancy Eating Plan Expect weight gain of 2-5 pounds Discuss supplement needs with your physician or dietitian Stop drinking alcohol, using tobacco, or taking drugs not approved by your physician Discuss exercise regimen with physician, adjust if necessary Slide 31 30 Morning Sickness Eat what and when you can but try to make it nutritious, if possible Nibble on salt-free crackers and dry cereal Eat frequently to avoid hunger Avoid offensive cooking odors Drink fluids Consume beverages and soups between meals Avoid coffee, tea, and spicy or acidic foods Slide 32 31 Nausea Occurs often in the first trimester Try to determine which foods will be appetizing and tolerable for you Mashed potatoes, soups, pretzels, oatmeal, pudding, graham crackers, rice, or pasta may be soothing Sips of soda water with lemon or ginger ale may be helpful for overcoming pangs of nausea Slide 33 32 Constipation Consume ample fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes Increase fluids, especially water Daily exercise helps keep things moving Try 1 tsp of wheat bran if fruits/veggies dont help Use laxatives only as a last resort and under medical supervision Slide 34 33 Fatigue Take a nap, go to bed early if possible Eat well, exercise, listen and respond to your bodys needs Avoid sugary foods and caffeine, or other temporary quick fixes Eat every few hours, always eat breakfast, drink plenty of fluids If fatigue continues, talk with your physician about a blood test for iron Slide 35 34 Food Cravings Common among pregnant women Sweet, sour, salty, and spicy foods Aversions may make it difficult for you to tolerate your favorite foods Cravings may be based on an underlying nutritional need such as iron deficiency i.e. craving ice or dirt Slide 36 35 Crave-Control Tips Eat frequently Set aside a calorie allotment Abstinence may lead to binge eating Choose small servings of your favorite foods Try to choose a healthful version of the craved food, e.g. smoothie instead of ice cream Slide 37 36 Avoid Food Poisoning Clean: Wash hands frequently Keep all food surfaces very clean Use paper towels instead of a sponge Separate - dont cross contaminate: Wash hands and food surfaces after preparing raw meat, poultry, fish and eggs Dont store these raw ingredients over ones that will be served without cooking Slide 38 37 Avoid Food Poisoning Chill: Refrigerate leftovers promptly Heat: Heat or cook foods quickly and to the right temperature Cook meat and poultry to the right temperature Bring reheated foods to a boil before serving Slide 39 38 Second Trimester Continue to follow HPEP Increase calories by about 300 per day Expect weight gain of - 1 pounds a week for a total of 9 - 19 pounds Exercise daily, but adjust the routine, intensity, or duration as needed Slide 40 39 Heartburn Usually occurs in the 2nd trimester Aggravated by large meals, foods that produce gas such as beans and cabbage, and fatty or spicy foods Avoid discomfort by eating small, frequent meals, eat a light dinner at least 3 hours before bedtime, chew and eat slowly Slide 41 40 Heartburn Decrease or limit problematic foods like: coffee chocolate processed meats rich pastries fried foods alcohol carbonated beverages Avoid lying down after eating a large meal Slide 42 41 Third Trimester Follow HPEP (dont forget your additional 300 calories) Expect weight gain of.7 to 1.4 pounds a week for a total of 9 to 19 pounds Continue taking a supplement if necessary Exercise daily Rest! Slide 43 42 What Makes Up Weight Gain? Maternal stores: 7 pounds Tissue fluid: 5-6 pounds Maternal tissue: 3-4 pounds Baby/fluid/placenta : 10-11 pounds Slide 44 43 Gestational Diabetes Diabetes that exists only during pregnancy Resolves itself after delivery Arises after 20 weeks of gestation May affect as many as 5-10% of all pregnancies Symptoms: increased urination, increased thirst, high blood glucose Slide 45 44 Gestational Diabetes It is treated largely through diet changes and m