Don Bouchard Maine Department of Education ESL Professional Development Thursday, April 2, 2009

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Don Bouchard Maine Department of Education ESL Professional Development Thursday, April 2, 2009 Slide 2 1. To become familiar with aspects of academic language for delivering comprehensible content instruction to English Language Learners (ELLs). 2. To understand some of the complexities of English print regarding academic use. 3. To learn some of the ways to scaffold academic language. Slide 3 ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE Slide 4 A man walks into the doctors office and says Doc, I have a pain in my shoulder. Slide 5 The doctor examines him and says, You have acute inflammation of the anterior bursa and have developed severe bursitis. Slide 6 Patient: Oh, what does that mean? Doctor: You have a pain in your shoulder! Slide 7 . . , . . . , , , . 1. ? 2. ? 3. ? Slide 8 Tib neeg muaj ob txhais ceg. Aub thiab miv muaj plaub txhais ceg--kab thaib yoov muaj rau txhais ceg. Tiamsis, kab thaib yoov co ceg tsis zoo tibyam. Ib co ceg zoo rau txoj kev dhia. Ib co ceg zoo heev rau txoj kev, nce ntoo, vuag khoom, khiav, los yog ua luam dej. 1. Tib neeg muaj pestsawg txhais ceg? 2. Kab thaib yoov muaj pestsawg txhai ceg? 3. Kab thaib yoov siv lawv co ceg ua dabtsi? Slide 9 Tib neeg muaj ob txhais ceg. Aub thiab miv muaj plaub txhais ceg--kab thaib yoov muaj rau txhais ceg. Tiamsis, kab thaib yoov co ceg tsis zoo tibyam. Ib co ceg zoo rau txoj kev dhia. Ib co ceg zoo heev rau txoj kev, nce ntoo, vuag khoom, khiav, los yog ua luam dej. 1. Tib neeg muaj pestsawg txhais ceg? 2. Kab thaib yoov muaj pestsawg txhai ceg? 3. Kab thaib yoov siv lawv co ceg ua dabtsi? Slide 10 People have two legs. Dogs and cats have four legsand insects have six. But not all insect legs are the same. Some legs are good for jumping. Others are perfect for climbing, grabbing, running or swimming. 1. How many legs do people have? 2. How many legs do insects have? 3. How do insects use their legs? Slide 11 Learning in school is done primarily through language. Yet the language of school is seldom explicitly discussed or taught in schools. - Schleppegrell, 2004 Slide 12 Academic language is the language of school used to require new/deeper understanding of content subjects. Academic language involves a variety of aspects: -word level: vocabulary -sentence level: grammar -extended level: discourse Slide 13 Word level: Vocabulary Non-specialized: pain General academic: inflammation Content specific academic: bursitis Slide 14 Sentence level: Grammar Language patterns and grammatical structures specific to the content areas. You have acute inflammation of the anterior bursa. Complex textbook sentences Slide 15 Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae of the synovial fluid of the body. The bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone and become inflamed. (source: Wikipedia) Slide 16 More Spoken LikeMore Written Like -conversation -Texting a friend -Academic Discussion -Academic Lecture -Newspaper article -Academic Journal Article Slide 17 Conversational Anglo-Saxon based words Concrete, situated in here & now More immediate, current Slide 18 Academic Recorded, in the past Latin-Greek based words Detached style More abstract, not tied to specific settings Slide 19 A genre is a type of text used in schools. 1. Personal genres personal experiences recounts, accounts, narratives 2. Factual genres facts procedures, recounts, reports 3. Analytical genres analyze events or argue for certain interpretations accounts, explanations, expositions Slide 20 RECOUNT What I did on my vacation ACCOUNT Why I got into trouble at school NARRATIVE Why I didnt know about the quiz after lunch Slide 21 PROCEDURES How to dissect a frog RECOUNT Steps to take to obtain a drivers license HISTORICAL Major events in War War II Slide 22 ACCOUNTS The events leading up to the Iraq war EXPLANATIONS How to find the area of a cylinder EXPOSITIONS The South deserved to become independent Slide 23 Personal genres are typically used at the elementary level; ELLs must quickly adjust to factual and analytical genres to learn the complex, cognitively demanding uses of academic language in the various content areas. Slide 24 Print is the basis of academic language; however, oral communication in the form of: Discussion Question posing/response Lecture is also important to cultivate along with reading and writing. Slide 25 1. When delivering instruction, think in terms of: I do - you watch; I do you help; You do I help; You do I watch. Slide 26 Focused Lesson Instruction -builds vocabulary -provides practice in fluency -models rhythm, stress, intonation -uses standard grammar -focuses on targeted language structures Slide 27 Guided Instruction -responsibility is shared -focus on challenging aspects of language, such as grammar, mechanics, ideas, comprehension Slide 28 Collaborative Learning -independent, small group focus -linked to the purpose of the lesson -highly organized -varied: partnering, conference focused, interactive Slide 29 Independent Learning -practice and application -employs use of strategies -involves reading and writing Slide 30 2. Use the language of the written register, i.e. model the use of complete sentences & vocabulary with explicit referents. Example: Put the marker on the shelf. Not: Put it over there. Slide 31 Minimize the use of abbreviations, short forms of words, two-word verbs, and idiomatic expressions. Slide 32 3. Minimize teacher talk time; allow for more student talk opportunities through open response questions and elaborated answers. Slide 33 4. Use think - alouds to read aloud content texts. This helps ELLs comprehend text by: -increasing comprehension -inferring-monitoring -summarizing-synthesizing -questioning-connecting Slide 34 5. Display, define, and review the language objective along with the content objective. Content objective: Four ways geography affects climate. Language objective: Read chapter __ on how deserts, mountains, plains, and oceans affect climate. Slide 35 CONTENT OBJECTIVE LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE (academic achievement) (academic language) WHAT YOU WILL LEARN: HOW YOU WILL USE: -Math-Listening -Science-Speaking -Social Studies-Reading -Language Arts-Writing...in your learning Slide 36 6. Use content-related sentence starters for academic writing -openings/introductions-generalization -thesis/topic statements -secondary purpose-closings -organization statements -assertion -comparison/contrast Slide 37 7. Frontload texts by anticipating and teaching to potentially problematical language structures. Vocabulary*Pronouns*Connectors* Clauses*Verb Tenses Slide 38 In order for students to demonstrate academic achievement, they must master academic language. Slide 39 All teachers are language teachers. A teacher who does not know about language is analogous to a doctor who does not know about anatomy. Slide 40 ASPECTS OF ACADEMIC LITERACY Slide 41 Academic literacy is the ability to recognize and use print language in cognitively demanding ways with increasing complexity. Slide 42 With ELLs, learning to read is continuous throughout reading to learn, especially for older learners with low L1 and prior education. Slide 43 General Characteristics (adapted from Fillmore & Snow, 2005) -summarize texts -analyze texts -extract meaning from texts -evaluate evidence and arguments present in texts -recognize and analyze textual conventions -recognize ungrammatical language -condense language into coherently and cohesively -compose and write extended prose -extract precise information from a written text to solve a problem Slide 44 Functions & Features (adapted from Zweirs, 2008) -to describe complexity, higher order thinking & abstraction -figurative expressions -explicitness for distant audiences -detachment -conveying nuances with modals -changing the message with qualifiers -using prosody for emphasis Slide 45 Using Print in Language Arts to... -Connect events or characters of narrative to students lives -Uncover authors messages -Recognize literary devices -Analyze authors craft -Interpret -Persuade -Explain cause & effect Slide 46 Using Print in Social Studies to... -Explain cause & effect -Persuade -Take a perspective Slide 47 Using Print in Science to... -Inquire -Explain cause & effect -Interpret -Compare Slide 48 Using Print in Math to... -Interpret -Problem solve Slide 49 - English print is OPAQUE, i.e., one symbol = many possible sounds. - English has a very complex vowel system. Example: a at(52%)any (22%) angel (8%) all (5%)are (4%) vary (1%) Slide 50 There was once a beautiful bear who sat on a seat near to breaking and read by the hearth about how the earth was created. She smiles beatifically, full of ideas for the realm of her winter dreams. Wolf, Proust and the Squid, p. 128 Slide 51 There was once a beautiful bear who sat on a seat near to breaking and read by the hearth about how the earth was created. She smiled beatifically, full of ideas for the realm of her winter dreams. Slide 52 - An ELLs accent will not affect their understanding of words when they read; however, they must be able to aurally discriminate these sounds when they hear them. - ELLs have an inherent skill that native users of English do not have: they consistently (consciously or not) compare & contrast English with their home language. Slide 53 - For ELLs, words are difficult to acquire if they are: a) acoustically similar b) longer c) difficult to pronounce d) not nouns - Engagement with a text is threatened by unknown words; pursuing a definition threatens this engagement. Slide 54 1. When teaching content, give attention to print English works. Pay special attention to minefields: -pronouns and pronoun referents; -sentence connectors -polysemous words -sentence complexity Slide 55 1. Dictations word, sentence, discourse level after the lesson has