Domestic Violence.Though domestic violence, also called intimate partner violence (IPV), is not...
Domestic Violence. The National Association of Social Workers Comprehensive Overview Social workers are at the forefront in preventing domestic violence and treating victims of domestic violence. Prepared By: Rita A, Webb, ACSW, DCSW Senior Policy Associate Diversity & Equity Issues
Domestic Violence.Though domestic violence, also called intimate partner violence (IPV), is not limited to any one socioeconomic, ethnic, racial, or religious group, the burden of
Domestic Violence: National Association of Social Workers Comprehensive Overview
Young women between the ages of 18-24 are at ahigh risk of domestic violence victimization(NCADV, 2014), while African American womendisproportionately face the likelihood of domesticviolence homicide (VPC Report, 2014). Thisalarming domestic violence data is only a snapshot of the complexity of issues and concernsaffecting women, men and children, anddemonstrates that violent and aggressive acts inintimate relationships can have a tremendouseverlasting impact.
Social Work: Implications forPractice, Programs & Policy Social workers have immeasurable possibilities to directly and indirectly impact the lives andwell-being of individuals, families and communitiesimpacted by domestic violence. In multiple settingswhere social workers practice, direct programs, ordevelop policy there is increasing opportunity forthem to influence and enhance the provision ofservices and influence ending the vicious cycle of violence.
Researchers suggest that domestic violence is across cutting issue that impacts a number ofindividuals, who seek services in a variety ofsettings where social workers practice, such asmental health, substance abuse, medical, schools,
aging, child welfare, shelters, courts, child andfamily services. (Danis, 2014). In order to addressthis problem, social workers need to be skilled indomestic violence screening, risk assessment, andintervention. Social workers increasing involvementin addressing domestic violence can greatlyenhance and promote preventative interventions,increase the provision of services, and advocate forbetter outcomes for both survivors and batterers.
This NASW Domestic Violence Tool Kit is anaggregate of work that reflects the Association’scommitment for social workers to addressdomestic violence.
Violence Policy Center (VPC). (2014). When Men Murder Women: An Analysis of 2012 Homicide Data. Retrieved from:www.vpc.org/studies/wmmw2014.pdf
Danis, F. (2014). Domestic Violence: Cross-Cutting Issue for SocialWorkers. Retrieved from: www.ncdsv.org/images/SocialWorkDVwheelNOSHADING-NCDSV.pdf
Domestic Violence is a preventable problem that regardlessof age, economic status, sexual orientation, race, nationalityor religion significantly affects individuals, families andcommunities. Even though both men and women are victimizedby domestic violence, women are more likely to experienceserious physical, if not lethal violence, in their lifetime.
Recent headline news of domestic violence within the NFL has sparked much-needed national conversation.
Statistics on the prevalence of domestic violenceindicate the problem is a worldwide epidemic.
A 2013 report of the World Health Organization,titled “Global and Regional Estimates of ViolenceAgainst Women: Prevalence and Health Effects ofIntimate Partner Violence and Non-Partner SexualViolence,” found that intimate-partner violenceaffects 30 percent of women worldwide.
According to Domestic Violence Statistics(domesticviolencestatistics.org), every nine secondsin the United States a woman is assaulted or beaten,and the abuser most often is a member of her ownfamily. DVS reports that domestic violence is theleading cause of injury to women — more thancar accidents, muggings and rapes combined.
Domestic violence is a serious and deadlyproblem. Every day in the United States, morethan three women are killed by their husbands orboyfriends. The WHO estimates that 38 percent ofall women murdered are killed by their intimatepartner. Domestic violence also has a devastatingeconomic impact on victims. DVS says the costsof intimate-partner violence in the U.S. aloneexceed $5.8 billion per year: $4.1 billion is fordirect medical and health care services, whileproductivity losses account for nearly $1.8 billion.
This year marks the 20th anniversary of theViolence Against Women Act, which provides$1.6 billion toward investigation and prosecutionof violent crimes against women, imposesautomatic and mandatory restitution on thoseconvicted, and allows civil redress in casesprosecutors chose to leave unprosecuted.
The Act establishes the Office on Violence AgainstWomen within the Department of Justice. TheVAWA emphasizes coordinated community-basedefforts to end domestic violence, sex datingviolence, sexual assault, and stalking.
One of the community-based prevention effortsVAWA funding supports is a program known asthe White Ribbon Day Campaign, whichchallenges men to take active steps to endviolence against women.
In 1991, a group of Canadian men started theobservance. These men pledged to never commit,condone or remain silent about violence againstwomen and girls.
The White Ribbon has spread to more than 60countries around the world since then. The campaignencourages men to wear the ribbon and take thepledge, which is a promise to be part of the solutionto curb, reduce and eventually eliminate domesticviolence and sexual assault against women.
It is a promise to take action: “If you see something,say something; if you know something, dosomething; if you hear something, take action.”
On Valentine’s Day 2008, I first took the WhiteRibbon Pledge. Since then, I have had dozens, ifnot hundreds, of discussions with boys and menabout what we can do to end domestic violence.
My personal white ribbon journey has beenenlightening, sobering and inspirational. I’ve metso many people who have influenced anddeepened my commitment.
I met an 18-year-old man who was contributing tothe cause by conducting breakup workshops withhis peers, teaching them how to end relationshipswithout resorting to violence. I met a 47-year-oldman who engaged his friends at the local barduring his Thursday “guys night out” to havefrank discussions on how they were possibly,tacitly contributing to sanctioning domesticviolence within their community, and offeringconcrete ways to be part of the solution.
I met a woman who — after 27 years in anextremely abusive relationship — was helpingother women find strength to stand againstintimate-partner violence. I met a woman whosponsored weekly spaghetti dinners to offer hercommunity a forum for public discourse.
From this day forward, I promise to be part of thesolution to ending domesticviolence against women.
– Angelo McClain, PhD, LICSW
A Message on Domestic Violenceand Social Work Intervention from NASW CEO, Angelo McClain, PhD, LICSW
We can help end domestic violence
I met another man who lost his daughter todomestic violence on a college campus. In hermemory, he had dedicated his life to speaking outagainst domestic violence (especially on collegecampuses) and demanding that men stand firmagainst it.
When I raised my right hand and promised to bepart of the solution to end domestic violence againstwomen, I envisioned a world where masculinityembraces the best aspects of our humanity.
As social workers, we can help individuals,families, groups and communities examine thecauses of domestic violence and create a culturewithout intimate-partner violence.
NASW member Tricia Bent-Goodley, a professorat Howard University in Washington, D.C., wrotea book titled “The Ultimate Betrayal,” whichexamines the issues surrounding domestic violence.Each chapter includes additional resources forfurther reading. The book is available through theNASW Press at naswpress.org.
Article available at:www.socialworkers.org/pubs/news/2014/10/domestic-violence.asp
Domestic violence impacts communities all acrossthe world each and every day. This is an issue thatdoes not discriminate. Domestic violence occursamong all races, ethnicities, religions, sexualorientation, ages, and places of origin. According tothe CDC (Black et al., 2011), someone is physicallyabused by an intimate partner every 20 minutes.This means that over 10 million people experiencedomestic violence each year. Over 85% of reportedvictims are women. According to the NNEDV(2014), more than 20,000 phone calls are placedto domestic violence hotlines in the United Stateseach day. This year, the Violence Against WomenAct celebrates 20 years of providing criticalprotections to survivors of domestic violence allacross the country. VAWA has ensured expandedcriminal justice trainings and responsiveness,targeted culturally specific services, preventioneducation within educational institutions, andexpanded protections for Native American women.Social workers have been critical to responding todomestic violence (Lockhart & Danis, 2010) weprovide supports at all levels of service for victims,families, and perpetrators. Social workers providedirect support and services to survivors, offer case
management and clinical services to children,collaborate with other professionals to ensure thesafety and well-being of survivors and their children,engage perpetrators of abuse through evidence-basedpractices, provide information to organize, mobilize,and educate communities on this issue, craft andpromote structural supports through needed policyadvocacy and implementation, and conductimportant research that informs the field(Bent-Goodley, 2011). Social workers have longbeen important and critical voices in the fight toend domestic violence. As we pay particularattention to domestic violence each October forDomestic Violence Awareness Month, we challengeeach social worker to continue to find ways thatthey can be impactful on this issue. We also bringattention to the critical role social workers play instopping domestic violence and communitiesaround the nation and around the world.
ReferencesBent-Goodley, T.B. (2011). The ultimate betrayal: A renewed look atintimate partner violence. Washington D.C.: NASW Press.
National Committee on Women’s Issues (NCOWI)
NCOWI is mandated by the NASW Bylaws. The purpose of NCOWI is to develop, review and monitor programs of theAssociation that significantly affect women.
Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L.,Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. (2011). The National IntimatePartner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report.Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Lockhart, L.L. & Danis, F.S. (Eds.). (2010). Domestic violence:Intersectionality and culturally competent practice. New York:Columbia University Press.
National Network to End Domestic Violence (NNEDV). (2014). 2013Domestic Violence Counts: A 24 Hour Census of Domestic ViolenceShelters and Services. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2014, fromhttp://nnedv.org/downloads/Census/DVCounts2013/DVCounts13_NatlSummary.pdf
Practice and Professional Development Practice Perspectives arevaluable resources that provide insight on trends affecting socialwork practice.
Violence and abuse have profound costs for allcommunities. Yet, for communities of color, thepreponderance of violence can be linked to a hostof outcomes that have both immediate and longterm implications. Though domestic violence, alsocalled intimate partner violence (IPV), is not limitedto any one socioeconomic, ethnic, racial, or religiousgroup, the burden of exposure for racial minoritiesto domestic violence is reported to be significantlyhigh. The findings indicate that minority womenexperience higher rates of domestic violence thentheir white counterparts. In order to address theprevention of domestic violence in communitiesof color, federal, state and county agencies continueto work cooperatively in support of research,community capacity building projects, reports andinitiatives that increase understanding, and toidentify possible ways to approach the needs ofindividuals in a culturally responsive way. Forsocial workers and others who provide services towomen of color who are survivors of domesticviolence, consideration needs to be given to howthe women characterize help and the social andcultural context in which they have experiencedviolence. Despite the increase in education, legalintervention, medical and community awareness,and the dissemination of more accurate informationon the extent of domestic violence, it is difficult todetermine overall incidence due to under-reporting.For women of color, under-reporting is a greaterconcern because they are statisticallyoverrepresented as victims and survivors of
domestic violence. Even between racial and ethnicgroups of African Americans, Hispanics, AmericanIndians/Alaskan Americans, Asians and PacificIslander women, there is considerable variation inthe rates of domestic violence. Surveys indicatethat key components of these findings are therespondents’ willingness to disclose domesticviolence and the role of social, demographic, andenvironmental factors (USDOJ, OJP, 2000).
To read more visitwww.socialworkers.org/practice/practice_tools/domestic_violence_and_women_of_color.asp
key federal legislative programs that provide states, counties andterritories grant funding and technical assistance resources toimprove and expand for legal, health, mental health, socialservices and school response to domestic violence and abuse.www.socialworkers.org » NASW Lunchtime series, “New Domestic Violence Policies:Implications for Social Work Practice.” Hosted by TriciaBent-Goodley and Rita Webb, this webinar provides an overviewof important areas to consider within the Family Violence andPrevention Services Act, the Affordable Care Act, and the ViolenceAgainst Women Act. www.socialworkers.org
» NASW Spring 2013 Practice Perspective, “The Adverse ChildhoodExperiences (ACE) Study: Implications for Mothers’ and Children’sExposure to Domestic Violence.” www.socialworkers.org » NASW February 2011 Practice Perspective, “Domestic Violenceand Women of Color: Complex Dynamics.”www.naswdc.org/sections/areas/news.asp?news=220 » NASW August 2010 Practice Update, “Women and DomesticViolence: Implications for Social Work Intervention.”www.socialworkers.org
The extent of consequences for women who haveexperienced physical violence each year dependson the severity and frequency of the abuse.Violence hinders a woman’s ability to practice herright to self-determination, which affects manyareas of her life and choices
To read more go to:www.socialworkers.org/assets/secured/documents/practice/diversity/WKF-MISC-51610%20DiversityPU.pdf
Women and Domestic Violence: ImplicationsFor Social Work InterventionDiversity & Equity Practice Update, 2010Rita A. Webb, MS
For many immigrant women who are abused andrecently arrived to this country, the pain andanguish of domestic violence is often heightenedby limited English-speaking ability, uncertainty oftheir legal rights and adjustment to new anddifferent cultural and social systems.
To read more go to:www.socialworkers.org/assets/secured/documents/practice/diversity/WKF-NL-67710.DomesticViolence.pdf
Domestic Violence and Human Trafficking:Double Jeopardy for Immigrant Women in the United StatesDiversity & Equity Practice Update, 2010Rita A. Webb, MS
Of the 76 million children living in the UnitedStates, it is estimated that 46 million can expect to have their lives affected by violence, abuse,crime, and psychological trauma (U.S. Departmentof Justice, 2012). Approximately 15 millionchildren witness domestic violence each year(Futures Without Violence, 2008). Even asbystanders to domestic and family violence,children may experience psychologicaltraumatization as if abused themselves. Both
children and adults exposed to violence may findit difficult to talk about their traumatic experiences.Some children may even experience severe tomoderate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)(Groves, 2012).
To read more go to:www.socialworkers.org/assets/secured/documents/practice/children/acestudy.pdf
The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE)Study: Implications for Mothers’ & Children’sExposure to Domestic ViolenceChildren, Youth & Families Practice Perspectives, 2013Rita A. Webb, MS
In recent years, the problems of elder abuse,neglect, and exploitation have garnered increasing attention within the United States. This publication describes the nature, incidence,and risks of elder mistreatment; highlights recentfederal elder justice initiatives; and providesstrategies, tools, and resources to help social
In 2011, SPS did an edition of the InterSections inPractice for their members on the broad categoryof violence, including domestic violence.” Thisedition is described as: “The focus turns todiscourse on multiplicity of issues that arise whensafety and security are compromised at deeplevels. The very institution we generally perceivewill provide sanctuary can just as likely invokeanxiety. In homes and families, in schools andworkplaces, the insidious impact of emotional
and physical violence is given voice.” Domesticviolence is addressed in several articles of thispublication as seen from diverse demographicssuch as age, ethnicity, and diversity.
To read this special Intersections in Practice on Domestic Violence go to: www.socialworkers.org/assets/public/documents/practice/domestic_violence/SEC-NL-77211.InterSectionsNL.pdf
NASW Specialty Practice Sections (SPS)InterSections in Practice, 2011
New Domestic Violence Policies:Implications for Social Work PracticeThis presentation examines the implications and opportunities for social work practice,advocacy, and research in domestic violencethrough new policies.
To learn more about this webinar go to:www.naswdc.org/ce/online/lunchtime/lCourses/Default.aspx?courseID=98819e6c-b62e-4d9b-99bb-0f63aa894561&header=OFF
The Cultural Context of Domestic Violence with AfricanAmerican WomenThis presentation will introduce some of theconsiderations practitioners should have related to domestic violence and how it intersects withculture for African Americans.
To learn more about this webinar go to:www.socialworkers.org/ce/online/lunchtime/lCourses/frmthankyou.aspx?courseID=e05b
NASW Webinars on Domestic ViolenceNASW Webinars on Domestic Violence continuing education creditfor social workers. Besides live teleconferences, members can accessthe transcripts and audio/pod cast component of the teleconferencethrough NASW’s website:
Anderson (Saenz) v. Roe (United States Supreme Court, 526 U.S. 489 (1999)Case Description: Challenge to California’sone-year waiting period for welfare benefits fornew residentsNASW Supported: RoeOutcome: WonDate Brief Filed: 12/8/1998» Text of Brief (PDF Document)www.socialworkers.org/ldf/brief_bank/default.asp
Hispanic Interest Coalition ofAlabama v. Bentley(United State District Court for the NorthernDistrict of Alabama, Northeast Division, No. 5:11-cv-02484-SLB; 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 137846 ) Case Description: Request for preliminaryinjunction against harsh immigration policiespassed by Alabama legislature as HB 56.NASW Supported: Hispanic Interest Coalition of AlabamaOutcome: Mixed. Court temporarily enjoinedenforcement of portions of HB 56.Date Brief Filed: 8/5/2011» Text of Brief (PDF Document)» List of Amici Organizations (PDF Document)» Motion for Leave to File Brief (PDFDocument)www.socialworkers.org/ldf/brief_bank/default.asp
Legal Defense Fund (LDF)As part of its mission, LDF has supported precedent setting lawsuitsand makes available legal resources of interest to NASW members andsocial workers generally. Below are amicus briefs NASW joined inrelated to domestic violence.
By Grace: The Challenges,Strengths and Promise of AfricanAmerican Marriages (2014) Tricia B. Bent-Goodley
The book examines contemporary and historicalissues that have affected black marriages,relationships, and families.
To read excerpts go to:www.naswpress.org/publications/diversity/inside/african-american-marriages-chapter.html
The Ultimate Betrayal A Renewed Look at Intimate Partner Violence (2011)Tricia B. Bent-Goodley
Intimate partner violence, also called domesticviolence, is a complex problem that hasdevastating effects on every socioeconomic, racial and ethnic group.
To read excerpts go to:www.naswpress.org/publications/children/ultimate-betrayal.html
Social Works Speaks, 9th Edition,National Association of SocialWorkers Policy Statements2012-2014 The ninth edition of Social Works Speakspresents, in one comprehensive and unabridgedcollection, the policy statements adopted by theNASW Delegate Assembly in 2011. The DelegateAssembly, NASW’s key policymaking body,meets every three years. Social Work Speaks is the result of the Delegate Assembly’s systematicapproach to policy development and guidesNASW’s advocacy efforts in social policy.
In relationship to domestic violence social policy,two policy statements address domestic violencein their policy statements: Family Planning andReproductive Choice and Women’s Issues.
To read the Forward of this book go to:www.naswpress.org/publications/practice/inside/speaks-foreword.html
To purchase this book go to:www.naswpress.org/publications/practice/speaks.html
JournalsSocial Work Expertise and Domestic ViolenceFatality Review Teams Social Work (2014) 59 (1):73-80 first published online January 2, 2014doi:10.1093/sw/swt048