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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DNA TESTING Ro_Group1: Beldean Andreea Ilies Ioana Lazurca Bianca Man Andreea Purcel Sanda

DNA Testing - Advantages & Disadvantages

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Advantages and disadvantages of DNA Testing

Text of DNA Testing - Advantages & Disadvantages

  • ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DNA TESTINGRo_Group1: Beldean Andreea Ilies Ioana Lazurca Bianca Man Andreea Purcel Sanda

  • IntroductionDNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid :is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organism, with the exception of some viruses;is often compared to a set of blueprints; segments that carry this genetic information are called genes; sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information.

  • DNA testing:is the process of analyzing genetic material from an individual to determine identity, susceptibility to disease and other important information;has increased in popularity in the recent years in the fields of criminology, biomedicine, biotechnology and family law; proves how much related these people are, and if two people having the same surname are related; can also find out if two descendants hail from the same ancestor.

  • AdvantagesOne major application of DNA testing is in forensic identification;DNA test results are much clearer than fingerprints and it is with these results and proof that it is possible to find criminals; DNA evidence from blood, skin or hair can be matched to the DNA of a suspect to determine information about where an individual was and who they may have come in contact with;DNA analysis is especially important in cases of rape, where doctors can often examine a victim and find traces of the rapist's DNA, which can the be compared to suspects to determine the guilty party.

  • More and more old crimes are being solved by resubmitting evidence for enhanced DNA testing.Another major advantage of DNA analysis is the ability to screen for certain genetic diseases or risk factors.Prospective parents can be tested to determine if they carry genes that are responsible for certain conditions that may be present in other members of their families. Women involved in certain fertility treatments can also get information about an embryo before it is implanted.

  • DNA plays a vital but never solitary role in disaster victim identification DNA testing has now become routine and expected in disaster victim identification in the event of a plane crash, large fire or terrorist attack.Dental records and X-rays along with fingerprints are normally the primary used in victim identification. A DNA fingerprint is identical for every part of your body, whether it is your brain, kidney or foot. It cannot be changed, so it will be identical no matter what is done to a body.DNA will be used as a last resort and only after all conventional means of identification are exausted.

  • Because DNA can be amplified in the laboratory using a process called polymerase chain reaction, an amount of tissue as small as 10 microliters may be sufficient to perform identity testing.This also allows the police to send small samples to multiple independent labs, reducing the possibility of an error affecting the results.DNA is also more stable than the proteins contained in blood.Therefore it can be used to solve cases that are older and in which the samples may be more degraded, or which have been exposed to materials such as solvents or detergents.

  • The chance of a DNA match between two persons who aren't twins is from 1/7000 to 1/1,000,000,000, depending on the frequency of the patterns being compared.This is a much more specific test than other methods such as blood type, and DNA is present in any of kind of body tissue, so it is more likely to be found at a crime scene than blood.DNA testing is also more reliable than eyewitness testimony

  • DisadvantagesOne key disadvantage of DNA analysis is the potential for invasion of individual privacy;Because a person's DNA reveals so much information about their physical state, it is sensitive information that must be carefully guarded;Information about an individual's ethnic background and parentage could become cause for discrimination;Disadvantages include incomplete coverage, which can lead to false normal results, and the ability to test only for unbalanced rearrangements (duplications and deletions), and not balanced translocations or inversions.

  • There is no consensus on what should happen to DNA samples once they have been taken.Police may try to use the samples to look for matches when investigating future crimes.Additionally, minorities are arrested at a higher rate than the general public, and many jurisdictions take DNA samples from anyone who has been arrested. Storing DNA may also lead to the possibility that insurance companies will access the samples to test individuals for diseases that are caused by genetic defects.

  • The ethical questions concerning genetic modification are often at the forefront of the debate about when, and how, DNA testing should be?Personal rights advocates argue that storing DNA is unethical for several reasons: For example, when someone has been proved to be unrelated to a crime by a DNA sample, but then is matched to a different crime for no other reason than that sample on file, it is questionable whether the police had probable cause to use the collected DNA as evidence. Some jurisdictions hold on to samples for years, even when the suspect has been cleared of any guilt.

  • Although DNA fingerprinting is very accurate, it also is very sensitive and can be contaminated easily.According to the Woodrow Wilson Biology Institute, the slightest contamination can affect the test, and it is difficult to keep a sample contaminant-free. Also, if different people or equipment are used to measure the length of the DNA sequences, they might get different results. As of 2010, there are no standards for labs, nor any kind of licensing requirements. This could lead to poor test quality and reliability.

  • ConclusionsDNA is present in each of our cells and contains the instructions that allow our bodies to function. Each of our DNA patterns are different, just as our bodies differ. The only exception to this rule is identical twins. Criminologists can use DNA present at a crime scene to determine who was present when the crime was committed by comparing these patterns. While there are several benefits in using DNA analysis to solve crimes, there are still some drawbacks that must be considered.

  • References Rose & Goos. DNA A Practical Guide. Toronto: Carswell Publications. Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis by Peter Gill, Central Research and Support Establishment, Forensic Science Service, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PN, UK, Pavel L. Ivanov, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy 117984, Moscow, Russia, Colin Kimpton, Romelle Piercy, Nicola Benson, Gillian Tully, Ian Evett, Kevin Sullivan, Forensic Science Service, Priory House, Gooch Street North, Birmingham B5 6QQ, UK, Erika Hagelberg"Mistaken identity claim over murder". BBC News. February 15, 2003.Retrieved April 1, 2010. Advantages and disadvantages of DNA analisys, by Dennis Hartman , eHow Contributor ,updated april 15, 2010