(Informed by the Northumberland International Dark Sky Park
Lighting Management Plan November 2015)
Good Practice Guidefor Outside Lighting
inNorthumberlandInternational Dark Sky Park
It is official; Northumberland has the darkest skiesin England,
where everyone has the opportunity toview the galactic beauty of
the night sky includingthe Milky Way. This is an increasingly rare
qualitythat is in danger of disappearing due to the
gradualencroachment of light pollution, into even themost remote
parts of our countryside.
This guidance is for residents and those seekingpermission to
develop within the NorthumberlandInternational Dark Sky Park. It is
also relevant tothose living beyond the boundary of the DarkSky
Park, who want to play their part in reducinglight pollution in
their respective areas.
Whitelee Moor National Nature
Leaplish Waterpark & Calvert Trust
Observatory + 1 mile radius
Black Rig Nature Reserve
Greenlee Lough National Nature
Operation Centre & Hydro Plant
Butterburn Flow Nature Reserve
Ordnance Survey Licence Number 100022521 (2016) NNPA
Northumberland InternationalDark Sky Park (DSP) and
Background:Northumberland International Dark Sky Park(see map
below) encompasses the whole ofNorthumberland National Park and
much of theadjacent Kielder Water & Forest Park. Withinthis
combined area, there is a mosaic of sparselypopulated upland
moorland and large tracts ofconiferous forest, incised by river
valleys whereisolated farmsteads, small hamlets and villages tendto
be found. In relation to categorising the effectthat artificial
lighting has on this remote, treasuredenvironment, a unique
Environmental Zone numbering system has been devised for the
purposes of Dark Sky Park designation.
Good Practice Guide for Outside Lighting in Northumberland
International Dark Sky Park (DSP)
Enviro-Zone Definition Typical Examples Implications Means to
E0-0 Adapt or modify existing outside lights to this end.
Predominantly dark - Some light spill is inevitable up to 50
metres beyond the new light sourceor up to propertyboundary
whichever is nearer to property.
Intrinsically dark - Up to 0.5 lux lightspill is inevitable at
Up to 1 lux light spillis inevitable at theproperty boundary
inclusive of any contribution fromstreet lighting system.
Settlements with littleor no street lightingsystem e.g.
AlwintonIngramHolystoneCollege ValleyGreenhaugh &
Settlements with astreet lighting systeme.g. Kielder
New units must becompliant and residentsencouraged to
modifyexisting outside lightsto prevent no morethan 0.25 lux
strayingbeyond their propertyboundary.
New units must be compliant and residents encouragedto prevent
any lightstraying into theirneighbour's windowsby adapting or
modifying existinglights to this end.
Residents encouragedto prevent any lightstraying into
theirneighbour's windows byadapting or modifyingexisting outside
lightsto this end.
New outside lights mustbe fully-shielded regardless of
lumen*output (ideally less than 600 lumens)
Encourage existinglights to be modified oradapted to this
Residents encouraged to use bulbs with an output less than 600
lumens or ensurenew outside lights arefully-shielded if greater
than 1,000 lumens.*
Residents encouraged to use bulbs with anoutput less than
1,000lumens* and ensurelighting unit is fully-shielded if greater
than 1,800 lumens*.
E1 in E0 area
* A lumen is the recognised measurement of light produced, not a
measurement of the energy of the light source i.e. the higher the
number of lumens, the brighter the light.
Dark E.g. Whitelee Moor National Nature Reserve and one mile
NO NEW EXTERNALLIGHTS ALLOWEDand residents encouraged to modify
existing outside lights.
Predominantly dark - Some light spill is inevitable up to 250
metres beyondthe new light sourceor up to propertyboundary
whicheveris nearer to property.
All remote propertieswithin Dark Sky Parkboundary e.g. Isolated
houses and farmsteads.
New outside lightsmust be compliant andresidents encouragedto
modify existing outside lights to prevent no more than 0.1 lux
straying beyond their propertyboundary.
New outside lightsmust be fully-shielded regardlessof lumen*
output (ideally less than 600 lumens).
Encourage existinglights to be modifiedor adapted to this
These Environmental Zones have been determinedby the quality of
the night-time ambient lightfound in each zone and the Exterior
LightingMaster Plan (LMP) recommends differing degrees of stray
light control for each of the five ‘Environmental Zones’.
The LMP has assessed the whole of Northum-berland International
Dark Sky Park as E0-250.However, within the Dark Sky Park, there
areareas having lower levels of ambient night-light (E0-0) as well
as areas of slightly higher levels of ambient night-light (E0-50
Summary of Environmental Zones for Northumberland International
Dark Sky Park:
6 W 9 W 12 W 15 W 20 W
4 W 6 W 10 W 13 W 18 W
25 W 40 W 60 W 75 W 100 W
18 W 28 W 42 W 53 W 70 W
220+ 400+ 700+ 900+ 1300+BRIGHTNESS(lumen)
Approximate lumen output emitted from light sources of varying
Traditionally manufactures have used phrasessuch as ‘warm
white’, ‘brilliant white’ or ‘CoolWhite’ to distinguish between the
different typesof white light but with the increased use of
LEDlighting, packaging for light bulbs these days tendsto identify
the ‘Kelvin’ output of the bulb.
The table below sets out some examples of LED and the Kelvin
Colour of the light emittedMost people probably think that white
light bulbsemit the same colour light but in fact there are
different tones of white light and this tendsto be measured by the
‘Kelvin Scale’ (K).
The preference for new exterior lighting withinthe Dark Sky Park
is for bulbs to emit light between the 3,000 – 4,000 Kelvin range
therebyavoiding the piercing blue white light often seenon LED
Christmas tree lights but also the orangeglow effect synonymous
with out dated sodiumbulb street lighting systems.
Ensure that outside lighting shines downwards
Ensure that fully-shielded outside lighting is used
Shielded bulkhead lightsare much more efficient,minimise glare
and so aresafer
Unshielded bulkhead lightsare very inefficient, as onlya
fraction of the lightshines where it is needed
Positioning of outside lightsAs well as ensuring that the
brightness of youroutside light is compatible to the relevant
‘Environmental Zone’; WHERE and HOW you install your light is just
If flood lighting is unavoidable, ensure that thelight shines
downwards, with no light escapingabove the horizontal plane, and
only to where the light is required, and not onto
Fully-shielded lightsTo be fully compliant with the Dark Sky
Park LMP,the glass window of any outside light should betotally
horizontal with no light escaping above it.
NOTE: Outside lights that have the bulb tuckedout of sight into
the lamp casing, but have a glass bowl beneath are NOT
Fully-Shielded asthe light is refracted upwards from the curvature
of the glass.Unshielded bulkhead lights, no mattertheir luminosity,
should never be installed as theywaste light in all directions,
blinding the personapproaching it and shining only a small fraction
oflight to where it is needed.
Deluce Temde Wall LightAnti-UV polycarbonate diffuser, E27
holder Max 60 Watt outputApprox: £70
Good examples of a fully-shielded light (commonly available)
Lutec Radius LED Outdoor Wall Light – RoundDie-cast aluminium
casing in graphite finishIncludes 3 x 1W CREE cool white LEDs with
117 lumens light outputApprox: £85
Northumberland National Park:
International Dark Sky Association: www.ida.org.uk
British Astronomical Association: www.britastro.org
Greenhaugh First School in Northumberland National Park has a
well designed floodlighting scheme
A good example of a well designed floodlighting schemeGreenhaugh
First School replaced their bulkhead lights will a system of PIR
activated 10w LED floodlights (see pictures below). They have also
made significant savings to their lighting costs.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Northumberland National Park Authority, Eastburn, South Park,
Hexham, Northumberland NE46 1BSFront cover photograph ©: Bellingham
Bridge over the River North Tyne by Neil Denham
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