Cold War DBQ

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U.S. HISTORY >>>

Unit: Post-War America

DBQ COLD WAR FEARSHistorical Context: After WWII , the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as rival superpowers, each strong enough to greatly influence world events. The policy of containment led the US to halt communist expansion. Thousand became victims of the anti-Communist hysteria that gripped this country in the late 1940s and early 1950s. By the end of the period, no one was immune from accusations. Children of the 1950s grew up with the chilling knowledge that nuclear war could obliterate their world in an instant. The two superpowers embarked on an arms race that enormously increased both the number and the destructive power of weapons. Americans returned to normality after the war by turning their attention to their families and jobs. New technologies and business ideas created fresh opportunities. Americans were enjoying the highest standard of living in the world. The American dream of a happy and successful life seemed within the reach of many people. In the other America, millions of people lived in poverty, untouched by the economic boom. Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of the following Documents (1-11) and your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. High scores will be earned only by essays that both cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on outside knowledge of the period.

DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION (DBQ):

Identify the Cold War fears after the Second World War and describe the impact on the U.S. politically and socially.1. Carefully read the document-based question (DBQ) above. Think about what you already know

about the topic of Post-War America. Decide how you would answer this question before you begin reading. To help you think about what you already know about this topic, fill out the table below.COLD WAR FEARS Political impact Social Impact

2. Now, read and CODE each document underlining key phrases and words that connect to Cold War fears or that describe post-war America politically or socially. Complete the Analysis Chart as you read. 3. Based on your background knowledge AND your reading, write a thesis statement that answers the DBQ using the chart on last page. 4. Write a well-developed paper using the thesis statement.

Document 1 Source: Sen. Joseph McCarthy, speech in Wheeling, WV, 1950 When a great democracy is destroyed, it will not be because of the enemies from without, but rather because of enemies from within. .In my opinion the State Department , which is one of the most important government departments, is thoroughly infested with Communists. ..I have in my hand 57 cases of individuals who appear to be either card-carrying members or certainly loyal to the Communist Party, but who never-the-less are still helping to shape our foreign policy. Document 2 Source: George Kennan, The Source of Soviet Conduct, Foreign Affairs.George Frost Kennan was the US ambassador to the USSR, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.

In these circumstances it is clear that the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of long-term, patient but firm vigilant containment of Russian [expansion]. It will be clearly seen that the Soviet pressure against the free institution of the Western world is something that can be contained..and cannot be charmed or talked out of existence.

Document 3 Source: National Security Council , NSC-68: April 14, 1950 [T]he Soviet Union, unlike previous aspirants to hegemony, is animated by a new fanatic faith, antithetical to our own, and seeks to impose its absolute authority over the rest of the world. Conflict has, therefore, become endemic and is waged, on the part of the Soviet Union, by violent and non-violent methods in accordance with the dictates of expediency. With the development of increasingly terrifying weapons of mass destruction, every individual faces the ever-present possibility of annihilation should the conflict enter the phase of total war.

Document 4 Source: National Security Council , NSC-68: April 14, 1950 "It is quite clear from Soviet theory and practice that the Kremlin seeks to bring the free world under its dominion by the methods of the cold war. The preferred technique is to subject by infiltration and intimidation. Those institutions of our society that touch most closely our material and moral strength are obviously the prime targets: labor unions, civic enterprises, schools, churches, and all media for influencing opinion."

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Document 7 Henry A. Wallace, Letter Sent to President Truman, July 23, 1946Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace was deeply disturbed by the aggressive tenor of President Truman's foreign policy from mid-1945 to mid-1946.

I have been increasingly disturbed about the trend of international affairs since the end of the war, and I am even more troubled by the apparently growing feeling among the American people that another war is coming and the only way that we can head it off is to arm ourselves to the teeth Therefore, I want to give you my views on how the present trend toward conflict might be averted . . ..

Document 8 Source: Newsweek, June 9, 1947 "Our best defense in the United States against the menace of Communism is our own American way of life. The American Communists cannot hope to reach their objective of destroying our form of government unless they first undermine and corrupt it, causing confusion and disrupting public confidence in the workings of democracy."

Document 9Advertisement for fall out shelter and a nuclear survival guide

Document 10

Shelter circa 1955 Document 11 Source: President Eisenhower: The Eisenhower Doctrine on the Middle East, A Message to Congress, January 5, 1957 Russia's rulers have long sought to dominate the Middle East. That was true of the Czars and it is true of the Bolsheviks. The reasons are not hard to find. They do not affect Russia's security, for no one plans to use the Middle East as a base for aggression against Russia. Never for a moment has the United States entertained such a thought. The Soviet Union has nothing whatsoever to fear from the United States in the Middle East, or anywhere else in the world, so long as its rulers do not themselves first resort to aggression. That statement I make solemnly and emphatically. . . . The reason for Russia's interest in the Middle East is solely that of power politics. Considering her announced purpose of Communizing the world, it is easy to understand her hope of dominating the Middle East. . . . International Communism, of course, seeks to mask its purposes of domination by expressions of good will and by superficially attractive offers of political, economic and military aid. But any free nation, which is the subject of Soviet enticement, ought, in elementary wisdom, to look behind the mask.

DBQ Analysis ChartDocument #1 Source Cold War Fear Analyze Connection

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Name: Intro: (State position recognizing counterargument) _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 1st Paragraph: Transition: _____________________________________________ Topic Sentence: ____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Document/Source Analysis how it supports topic sentence

2nd Paragraph: Transition: ____________________________________________________ Topic Sentence: ____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Document/Source Analysis how it supports topic sentence

3rd Paragraph: Transition: ______________________________________________________ Topic Sentence: ____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Document/Source Analysis how it supports topic sentence

CONCLUSION: Transition: ____________________________________________________________ RESTATE POSITION THEN MAKE ONE OF THE THREE: Conclude with a clear statement of your opinion OR Draw a logical conclusion OR Offer a strong opinion of what the future holds

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