Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals
2. Types Of Cheese
There are hundreds of types of cheese produced all over the world. Different styles and flavors of cheese are the result of using milk from various mammals or with different butterfat contents, employing particular species of bacteria and molds, and varying the length of aging and other processing treatments. Other factors include animal diet and the addition of flavoring agents such as herbs, spices, or wood smoke. Whether the milk is pasteurized may also affect the flavor
3. How to Make Cheese
Whether it comes from a cow, a goat or a sheep the only basic ingredient is milk.The main steps in cheese making are also very similar.Before the milk is curdled it must be homogenized to obtain the required amount of protein, fat and so on.
4. 1. CurdlingEither rennet (an enzyme found in calves' stomachs), lactic bacteria or both are added to the milk. They cause it to coagulate. The milk separates into a solid - curd - and a liquid part - whey.
5. 2. DrainingThe whey drains off and the curd contracts. This process occurs of its own accord, but draining can be speeded up by stirring, cutting or heating.
6. 3. MouldingThe cheese is shaped by placing the curd in perforated moulds or pressing it in cloth surrounded by a ring made of wood or other materials.
7. 4. SaltingSalt may be added to curd or applied to the outside. It helps to control the development of micro-organisms and obtain the desired appearance and final taste.
8. 5. MaturingCheeses may mature for a few days or several months. As fermentation progresses the curd is transformed into a paste.The taste and fragrance develop. Cheese requires constant attention and must be turned and brushed by hand at regular intervals. The temperature, moisture and flow of air play an essential part in maturing.
9. 6. Packaging
Its packaging preserves the quality of the cheese and the label tells consumers:- the name of the cheese- the place where it was made and the name and address of the producer- the fat content (in relation to dry matter).
10. Type Of Cheese
Factors which are relevant to the categorization of cheeses include:
Length of aging.
Methods of making
Kind of milk.
11. Curd cheeseCurd cheese is only slightly drained and does not mature. It is best known as cottage cheese or fromageblanc.Some types of curd cheese are flavored with pepper, garlic or herbs to give them a stronger taste
12. Soft cheese with a white rindThe rind is white with a slight bloom. The cheeses owe their name to this white mould that develops as they mature. The best known are probably Camembert, Coulommiers
13. Soft cheese with a washed rindThese cheeses have a well-developed flavor and a creamy inside. During the maturing process they are washed with brine then brushed to stimulate fermentation and encourage the rind to develop its orange, slightly moist appearance.They include Pont-l'Evque, Munster
14. Veined cheeseCommonly referred to as blue cheese, these varieties owe their name to the mould that develops on the inside, giving them their specific flavor. The cheese is neither cooked nor pressed. Long needles are inserted leaving tiny passages along which the blue veins can develop.Penicilliumroqueforti or PenicilliumglaucumThe best known are probably Fourmed'Ambert
15. Goat's cheeseSimilar to the soft cheeses with a white rind but made exclusively using goat's milk. Depending on how old they are, they may be fresh, soft, half-dry, dry or hard. Sometimes they are sprinkled with herbs or other aromatic substances, or indeed wrapped in vine leaves.
16. Uncooked pressed cheeseThese semi-hard cheeses are pressed mechanically to speed up draining. After maturing slowly for two or three months they achieve their full, but subtle flavor.They include Cantal, Tomme de Savoie
17. Cooked pressed cheeseThese cheeses mature for a long time, up to six months or even a year. They are pressed, resulting in a firm texture. The holes so typical of Emmental or Comt are caused by carbon dioxide released during maturing.
18. Melted cheeseThis type of cheese is obtained by melting one or more types of pressed cheese, which may have been cooked or not, and in some cases adding milk, cream, spices and other flavouring.They include spreading cheese sold in individual portions.
19. Eating and Cooking
At refrigerator temperatures, the fat in a piece of cheese is as hard as unsoftenedbutter, and its protein structure is stiff as well. Flavor and odor compounds are less easily liberated when cold. For improvements in flavor and texture, it is widely advised that cheeses be allowed to warm up to room temperature before eating. If the cheese is further warmed, to 2632C (8090F), the fats will begin to "sweat out" as they go beyond soft to fully liquid.
A number of food safety agencies around the world have warned of the risks of raw-milk cheeses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration states that soft raw-milk cheeses can cause "serious infectious diseases including listeriosis, brucellosis, salmonellosis and tuberculosis". It is U.S. law since 1944 that all raw-milk cheeses (including imports since 1951) must be aged at least 60 days. Australia has a wide ban on raw-milk cheeses as well, though in recent years exceptions have been made for Swiss Gruyre, Emmental and Sbrinz, and for French Roquefort.
Government-imposed pasteurization is, itself, controversial. Some say these worries are overblown, pointing out that pasteurization of the milk used to make cheese does not ensure its safety in any case.
This is supported by statistics showing that in Europe (where young raw-milk cheeses are still legal in some countries), most cheese-related food poisoning incidents were traced to pasteurized cheeses.
Pregnant women may face an additional risk from cheese; the U.S. Centers for Disease Control has warned pregnant women against eating soft-ripened cheeses and blue-veined cheeses, due to the listeria risk to the unborn baby.
21. World Production and consumption
Worldwide, cheese is a major agricultural product. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, over 18 million metric tons of cheese were produced worldwide in 2004. This is more than the yearly production of coffee beans, tea leaves, cocoa beans and tobacco combined.
22. Top Cheese Producers - 2004(1,000 Metric Tons)
23. When to Eat Cheese
French eats the cheese before dessert
English after dessert
Before or After, as long as the cheese is at the right temperature and served correctly it doesnt matter.
But be aware of the smell do not eat cheese
on your first date!!!!!