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    What is a Load Flow Study A load flow study is done on a power system

    to ensure that

    Generation supplies the demand (load) pluslosses.

    Bus voltage magnitudes remain close to ratedvalues

    Generation operates within specified real and

    reactive power limits Transmission lines and transformers are not

    overloaded.

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    A Load Flow Study Specifically

    Investigates the Following Busbar voltages

    Effect of rearranging circuits and

    incorporating new circuits on system loading. Effect of injecting in-phase and quadrature

    boost voltages on system loading.

    Optimum system running conditions and load

    distribution. Optimum system losses.

    Optimum rating and tap range oftransformers.

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    The Load Flow Problem The starting point of a load flow

    problem is a single line diagram of the

    power system, from which input datafor computer solutions can be obtained.Input data consist of bus data,

    transmission line data and transformerdata.

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    The Load Flow Problem Each bus k is categorized into one of the following bus types:

    Swing bus- There is only one swing bus which forconvenience is normally numbered as bus 1, and is a referencebus for which V1and d1are 1 and 0orespectively

    Load Busor PQ bus- Most buses in a typical load flowprogram are load buses. Pkand Qkare specified and theprogram computes Vkand dk.

    Voltage Controlled bus or PV bus- These aregenerally generator buses where Pkand Vkare specified andQkand dkare computed.

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    The Load Flow Problem There are two methods of solving the

    load flow problem.

    A) The Gauss Seidel Method

    B) The Newton Raphson Method

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    The Gauss-Seidel Method This method solves, by an iterative process,

    the following equation that represents a powersystem having N buses

    1

    *

    1 1

    11 1

    k

    k Nk k

    k kn n kn n

    n n kkk

    P jQV i Y V i Y V i

    Y V i

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    GPLS POWER SYSTEM GPLS power system, with an installed

    capacity of 105 MW, consists of the following:

    Demerara Interconnected System Berbice Interconnected System

    Anna Regina System

    Bartica System

    Wakenaam System

    Leguan System

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    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY

    WERE AS FOLLOWS:

    To model the (GPLS) Demerara system for loadflow studies.

    To perform load flow studies on GPLs presentDemerara 60 Hz system.

    To use a static model of the frequency convertersand perform studies on the Demerara 50 and 60

    Hz system. To perform load flow studies on GPLs future

    Demerara power system (all load converted to 60Hz.).

    To analyse the results of the load flow studies.

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    Demerara Interconnected System Data Installed Capacity76 MW

    Peak Load - 67 MW

    Three power stations, two at Garden ofEden and one at Versailles, generating at13.8 kV, 60Hz

    Two power stations at Kingston generatingat 11 kV, 50 Hz

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    Demerara Interconnected System Data Demerara Power, an Independent Power

    Producer, owns and operates two power

    stations at Garden of Eden and Kingston

    All other power stations are owned by GPL

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    Demerara Interconnected System Data

    The 25 MVA rotary frequency converterstation at Sophia has machines rated at

    13.8 kV, 60 Hz and 11 kV, 50 Hz whichoperate as motors or generatorsdepending on the flow of power

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    Demerara Interconnected System Data

    A 69 kV transmission system connects the

    Garden of Eden stations and the Sophiafrequency converter station

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    The Newton-Raphson Method The Newton-Raphson method solves the

    nonlinear equationy= f(x) where thex,y

    and fvectors for the power flow problem aredefined as

    1

    1

    ( ) cos( )

    ( ) sin( )

    2,3,......

    N

    k k k k kn n k n kn

    n

    N

    k N k k k kn n k n kn

    n

    Y P P x V Y V

    Y Q Q x V Y V

    k N

    d d

    d d

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    Single Line Diagram of theDemerara Interconnected System

    KINGSTON

    B

    11 KV

    SOPHIA

    69KV

    SOPHIA

    13.8KV

    SOPHIA

    11KV

    DEMERARAPOWER

    GOE

    DEMERARA

    POWER

    KINGSTON

    VERSAILES

    GOE

    11 KV

    11 KV

    69 KV

    13.8 KV

    13.8 KV

    69 KV

    11 KV/4KV

    69/13.8KV

    13.8/69KV

    11(50Hz)/

    13.8(60Hz)

    KV

    DATEORIGINAL

    LATESTREVISION

    SCALE

    JOBNO.

    REVISIONS

    N O. D A TE D ES CR IP TI ON

    DRAWNCHECKED

    GUYANA POWER& LIGHT

    DEMERARA INTERCONNECTED

    SYSTEM AS OF 2006 -

    DEMERARA INTER-CONNECTED

    SYSTEM SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

    11 KV/4KV

    3X12.5MVA

    2X6.87MVA 2X6.87 MVA

    2X6.87 MVA

    2X6.87 MVA

    2X6.6257 MVA

    2X2.5 MVA

    12.5MVA

    16.7 MVA

    12.5MVA

    16.7 MVA16.7 MVA

    16.7 MVA 16.7 MVA 16.7 MVA

    6.25 MVA

    NOTTOSCALE

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    Methodology of Study

    Data Collection

    Data Analysis

    Load Flow Study

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    Data Collection

    The following data was collected:

    Single line diagram of the GPL Demerara system.

    Reactances of all generators at the DemeraraPower stations, and GPLs Garden of Eden andVersailles power stations and the Sophiafrequency converters.

    Impedances of all transmission and distributionlines and transformers.

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    Data Collection

    Hourly operations data for the system for

    weekdays (2) and Saturday and Sunday

    Data from recent power analyser

    recordings giving feeders power factor andvoltages

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    Analysis of Data

    The loads (MW and MVar) for the variousbusbars were calculated using hourly feedercurrent and voltages from the log sheets

    and the corresponding hourly power factordata recorded on a power demand analyser.

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    Analysis of Data

    Sophia was found to be the major loadcentre for the Demerara system with an

    evening peak of nearly 30 MW The peak 60 Hz load is about 45 MW

    and is primarily residential

    The 50 Hz load is mainly industrial/commercial and has a day peak ofaround 20 MW.

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    Demerara 50 AND 60 HZ System Loads (Weekday)

    0.0

    10.0

    20.0

    30.0

    40.0

    50.0

    60.0

    1:00

    2:00

    3:00

    4:00

    5:00

    6:00

    7:00

    8:00

    9:00

    10:00

    11:00

    12:00

    13:00

    14:00

    15:00

    16:00

    17:00

    18:00

    19:00

    20:00

    21:00

    22:00

    23:00

    24:00

    TIME (HRS)

    LOAD

    (MW)

    50 Hz System

    60 Hz System

    Total System

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    Analysis of Data

    50 Hz system hourly power factorsrange from 0.79 to 0.89 and the 60 Hz

    system power factors are from 0.81 to0.85.

    The frequency converters produce

    between 20 to 30 % of the MVarrequirement of the Demerara system.

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    Analysis of Data

    Comparison of power analyzer data andstation logs revealed that the Sophia

    panel meters were overstating theSophia 13.8 kV voltages.

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    Sophia Panel Meter and Power Analyser Voltage Readings

    12.8

    13.0

    13.2

    13.4

    13.6

    13.8

    14.0

    14.2

    14.4

    1:00

    2:00

    3:00

    4:00

    5:00

    6:00

    7:00

    8:00

    9:00

    10:00

    11:00

    12:00

    13:00

    14:00

    15:00

    16:00

    17:00

    18:00

    19:00

    20:00

    21:00

    22:00

    23:00

    24:00

    Time (Hrs)

    Voltage(kV)

    Panel Meter

    Analyser Readings

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    Analysis of Data

    The Demerara Power generators areused as the base load generators for

    the system, with GPLs Garden of Edenand Versailles stations being used tomaintain bus voltages levels and for

    peaking purposes.

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    Demerara System Generation by Power Station

    0.0

    10.0

    20.0

    30.0

    40.0

    50.0

    60.0

    70.0

    1:00

    2:00

    3:00

    4:00

    5:00

    6:00

    7:00

    8:00

    9:00

    10:00

    11:00

    12:00

    13:00

    14:00

    15:00

    16:00

    17:00

    18:00

    19:00

    20:00

    21:00

    22:00

    23:00

    24:00

    Time (hrs)

    Generation(MW)

    VERSAILLES

    GPLGOE

    DPLK'STON

    DPLGOE

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    Load Flow Studies

    The 60 Hz machine of the frequencyconverters were modeled as generators

    and when they

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