# Batman Smells

• View
221

0

Embed Size (px)

### Text of Batman Smells

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

1/48

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

2/48

What is a Load Flow Study A load flow study is done on a power system

to ensure that

Generation supplies the demand (load) pluslosses.

Bus voltage magnitudes remain close to ratedvalues

Generation operates within specified real and

reactive power limits Transmission lines and transformers are not

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

3/48

Investigates the Following Busbar voltages

Effect of rearranging circuits and

Optimum system running conditions and load

distribution. Optimum system losses.

Optimum rating and tap range oftransformers.

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

4/48

problem is a single line diagram of the

power system, from which input datafor computer solutions can be obtained.Input data consist of bus data,

transmission line data and transformerdata.

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

5/48

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

6/48

The Load Flow Problem Each bus k is categorized into one of the following bus types:

Swing bus- There is only one swing bus which forconvenience is normally numbered as bus 1, and is a referencebus for which V1and d1are 1 and 0orespectively

Load Busor PQ bus- Most buses in a typical load flowprogram are load buses. Pkand Qkare specified and theprogram computes Vkand dk.

Voltage Controlled bus or PV bus- These aregenerally generator buses where Pkand Vkare specified andQkand dkare computed.

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

7/48

The Load Flow Problem There are two methods of solving the

A) The Gauss Seidel Method

B) The Newton Raphson Method

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

8/48

The Gauss-Seidel Method This method solves, by an iterative process,

the following equation that represents a powersystem having N buses

1

*

1 1

11 1

k

k Nk k

k kn n kn n

n n kkk

P jQV i Y V i Y V i

Y V i

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

9/48

GPLS POWER SYSTEM GPLS power system, with an installed

capacity of 105 MW, consists of the following:

Demerara Interconnected System Berbice Interconnected System

Anna Regina System

Bartica System

Wakenaam System

Leguan System

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

10/48

THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY

WERE AS FOLLOWS:

To model the (GPLS) Demerara system for loadflow studies.

To perform load flow studies on GPLs presentDemerara 60 Hz system.

To use a static model of the frequency convertersand perform studies on the Demerara 50 and 60

Hz system. To perform load flow studies on GPLs future

Demerara power system (all load converted to 60Hz.).

To analyse the results of the load flow studies.

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

11/48

Demerara Interconnected System Data Installed Capacity76 MW

Three power stations, two at Garden ofEden and one at Versailles, generating at13.8 kV, 60Hz

Two power stations at Kingston generatingat 11 kV, 50 Hz

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

12/48

Demerara Interconnected System Data Demerara Power, an Independent Power

Producer, owns and operates two power

stations at Garden of Eden and Kingston

All other power stations are owned by GPL

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

13/48

Demerara Interconnected System Data

The 25 MVA rotary frequency converterstation at Sophia has machines rated at

13.8 kV, 60 Hz and 11 kV, 50 Hz whichoperate as motors or generatorsdepending on the flow of power

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

14/48

Demerara Interconnected System Data

A 69 kV transmission system connects the

Garden of Eden stations and the Sophiafrequency converter station

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

15/48

The Newton-Raphson Method The Newton-Raphson method solves the

nonlinear equationy= f(x) where thex,y

and fvectors for the power flow problem aredefined as

1

1

( ) cos( )

( ) sin( )

2,3,......

N

k k k k kn n k n kn

n

N

k N k k k kn n k n kn

n

Y P P x V Y V

Y Q Q x V Y V

k N

d d

d d

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

16/48

Single Line Diagram of theDemerara Interconnected System

KINGSTON

B

11 KV

SOPHIA

69KV

SOPHIA

13.8KV

SOPHIA

11KV

DEMERARAPOWER

GOE

DEMERARA

POWER

KINGSTON

VERSAILES

GOE

11 KV

11 KV

69 KV

13.8 KV

13.8 KV

69 KV

11 KV/4KV

69/13.8KV

13.8/69KV

11(50Hz)/

13.8(60Hz)

KV

DATEORIGINAL

LATESTREVISION

SCALE

JOBNO.

REVISIONS

N O. D A TE D ES CR IP TI ON

DRAWNCHECKED

GUYANA POWER& LIGHT

DEMERARA INTERCONNECTED

SYSTEM AS OF 2006 -

DEMERARA INTER-CONNECTED

SYSTEM SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

11 KV/4KV

3X12.5MVA

2X6.87MVA 2X6.87 MVA

2X6.87 MVA

2X6.87 MVA

2X6.6257 MVA

2X2.5 MVA

12.5MVA

16.7 MVA

12.5MVA

16.7 MVA16.7 MVA

16.7 MVA 16.7 MVA 16.7 MVA

6.25 MVA

NOTTOSCALE

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

17/48

Methodology of Study

Data Collection

Data Analysis

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

18/48

Data Collection

The following data was collected:

Single line diagram of the GPL Demerara system.

Reactances of all generators at the DemeraraPower stations, and GPLs Garden of Eden andVersailles power stations and the Sophiafrequency converters.

Impedances of all transmission and distributionlines and transformers.

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

19/48

Data Collection

Hourly operations data for the system for

weekdays (2) and Saturday and Sunday

Data from recent power analyser

recordings giving feeders power factor andvoltages

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

20/48

Analysis of Data

The loads (MW and MVar) for the variousbusbars were calculated using hourly feedercurrent and voltages from the log sheets

and the corresponding hourly power factordata recorded on a power demand analyser.

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

21/48

Analysis of Data

Sophia was found to be the major loadcentre for the Demerara system with an

evening peak of nearly 30 MW The peak 60 Hz load is about 45 MW

and is primarily residential

The 50 Hz load is mainly industrial/commercial and has a day peak ofaround 20 MW.

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

22/48

Demerara 50 AND 60 HZ System Loads (Weekday)

0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

1:00

2:00

3:00

4:00

5:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00

11:00

12:00

13:00

14:00

15:00

16:00

17:00

18:00

19:00

20:00

21:00

22:00

23:00

24:00

TIME (HRS)

(MW)

50 Hz System

60 Hz System

Total System

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

23/48

Analysis of Data

50 Hz system hourly power factorsrange from 0.79 to 0.89 and the 60 Hz

system power factors are from 0.81 to0.85.

The frequency converters produce

between 20 to 30 % of the MVarrequirement of the Demerara system.

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

24/48

Analysis of Data

Comparison of power analyzer data andstation logs revealed that the Sophia

panel meters were overstating theSophia 13.8 kV voltages.

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

25/48

Sophia Panel Meter and Power Analyser Voltage Readings

12.8

13.0

13.2

13.4

13.6

13.8

14.0

14.2

14.4

1:00

2:00

3:00

4:00

5:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00

11:00

12:00

13:00

14:00

15:00

16:00

17:00

18:00

19:00

20:00

21:00

22:00

23:00

24:00

Time (Hrs)

Voltage(kV)

Panel Meter

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

26/48

Analysis of Data

The Demerara Power generators areused as the base load generators for

the system, with GPLs Garden of Edenand Versailles stations being used tomaintain bus voltages levels and for

peaking purposes.

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

27/48

Demerara System Generation by Power Station

0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

1:00

2:00

3:00

4:00

5:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00

11:00

12:00

13:00

14:00

15:00

16:00

17:00

18:00

19:00

20:00

21:00

22:00

23:00

24:00

Time (hrs)

Generation(MW)

VERSAILLES

GPLGOE

DPLK'STON

DPLGOE

• 8/11/2019 Batman Smells

28/48

The 60 Hz machine of the frequencyconverters were modeled as generators

and when they

Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
##### Smells Sweet Dreams
Presentations & Public Speaking
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents
Documents