Baroque music samplesChapter 22: Music: Baroque, Rococo, and Classical
The student should be able to:
List the key instruments of the Baroque period.Describe key composers of the Baroque period.Describe key music terms.List key Rococo composersList key composers of the classical period.
HarpsichordSimilar to pianoStrings played by plucking rather than hammeringLost popularity when the pianoforte was invented
Play next:Haydn: Concerto for Harpsichord and Violin in F major, Allegro m by Emanuel Borok, violin / The Chamber Orchestra Kremlin
Figure 3. When the key is pressed, the jack is raised, and the plectrum touches the string and begins to bend. Then the plectrum plucks the string and causes it to sound. The jack hits the jack rail. When the player's hand is released from the key, the jack falls back down under its own weight, and the plectrum pivots backwards to allow it to pass the string.
Johann Strauss Blue Danube Waltz by Classical Child Suite: an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. In the Baroque era, the pieces are usually in the same key, and generally modeled after dance music.
Keyboard wind instrument Commonly associated with church musicFirst invented in the 3rd century BCBach : Fugue, G Major (The Jig) (2:43)
Bach: Organ Chorale Prelude I Call To Thee, O Lord by Michael Coonrod Chorale Prelude:a short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale tune as its basis. They were used to introduce the hymn about to be sung by the congregation, usually in a Protestant, and originally in a Lutheran, church. Play next: Schbler Chorale #6 - J. S. Bach by Arlan Wareham
Trio Sonata by Aardvark String Quartet
Trio sonata: written for two solo melodic instruments and bass continuo, making three parts in all, hence the name trio sonata. However, because the basso continuo is usually made up of at least two instruments (typically a cello or bass viol and a keyboard instrument such as the harpsichord), trio sonatas are typically performed by at least four musicians. The melody instruments used are usually both violins. A well-known exception is the trio sonata in Johann Sebastian Bach's The Musical Offering, which is for violin and flute .Johann Sebastian Bach's trio sonatas for organ (BWV 525-530) combine all three parts on one instrument. Typically the right hand, left hand and pedals will each take a different part thus creating the same texture as in a trio.
Bach Trio Sonata Allegro by Alison Melville
Concerto grosso: in which a small group of soloists (concertino) performed in conjunction with a full orchestra. BAROQUE CONCERTO: 1. Toccata Play next: McFarland Concerto Baroque - Allegro by Ron McFarland
Chorale was originally a hymn of the Lutheran church sung by the entire congregation. In casual modern usage, the term also includes classical settings of such hymns and works of a similar character.
Chorale: Wir singen dir in deinem Heer by Boston Bach Ensemble Play next: Chorale: Brich an, o schones Morgenlicht by Boston Bach Ensemble
Oratorio: sacred or epic text set to music and performed in a church or concert hall by soloists, chorus, and orchestra; George Frideric Handel, most famous today for his Messiah, also wrote secular oratorios based on themes from Greek and Roman mythology. He is also credited with writing the first English language oratorio.
Play next: Arrival of the Queen Sheba (from Oratorio Solomon) Handel by Presenter
Hallelujah from Messiah by George Frederic Handel by Very Classical Ensemble And Others
Opera is a form of musical and dramatic work in which singers convey the dramaconsidered the most Baroque of all artistic forms.
Johann Sebastian BachMember of a large musical familyFavorite instrument was the organHis death in 1750 marked the end of the Baroque Period in musicBach music
George Frideric HandelBorn in Germany, studied music in Italy, and lived mainly in EnglandBest known for his vocal worksWent blind late in his life.Handel's Messiah, HallelujahHandel's music
Antonio VivaldiThe son of a professional violinistWas a Catholic priestComposed The Four Seasons.Vivaldi music
Rococo: the gallant style, a highly refined art of elegant pleasantness suitable for intimate social gatherings in fashionable salons.Gorgeous Rococo music salon ... Music Room - Elaborate Rococo
Couperin music examplesdownloadable Couperin musicLa Visionaire
Franois Couperin was a French Rococo composer, organist and harpsichordist; he was known as "Couperin le Grand" (Couperin the Great) to distinguish him from the other members of the musically talented Couperin family.
Scarlatti music samplesGiuseppe Domenico Scarlatti: was an Italian composer.
Music Sample 1: Sonata in B-flat, L500
Music Sample 2: Sonata in B-flat, L497
Classicism in Music (1760-1827): From Haydns musical maturity to Beethovens death.
Briefly, the characteristics of classicism are a concern for musical form with a greater emphasis on clarity with more concise melodic expression and clarity of instrumental color.
What does the term Classical mean?From 1750 on artists, musicians, and architects wanted to get away from the strange opulence of the Baroque period and move to emulate the clean, uncluttered style of Classical Greece. This period is called Classical because of that desire to emulate the works of the ancient Greeks.
Characteristics of the Classical PeriodThe Church and Monarchs were no longer the principle benefactors of the arts due to the political upheaval in Europe at the time.The aristocracy were the main patrons of the arts. They wanted impersonal but tuneful music from their composers. This led to the term absolute music - which is music that is written for musics sake.
All of the Classical composers were employed by various wealthy patrons. Much of their music was written for parties, ceremonies, or simply as a commission for a new work.The center of Classical music was Vienna, which is where all of the major composers lived and worked.There was also a sense of Nationalism in the compositions.
Instruments of the Classical PeriodModern FluteClarinetFrench HornValved TrumpetTrombonePercussion
Haydn symphoniesHaydn symphoniesJoseph Haydn - Symphony No.82 "The Bear"
Haydn's Surprise symphonyFranz Joseph Haydn: was one of the most prominent composers of the classical period, and is called by some the "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet". Surprise Symphony
The Symphonic FormAn extended work for orchestra - usually 20 - 40 minutes in length.Usually contains three or four movements which contrast each other. In a four movement symphony the order usually is a fanfare type or fast opening movement, followed by a slower movement. The third movement is usually a dance, and the final movement is fast.Joseph Haydn - Symphony No.85 "The Queen"
Symphonic form mastered by Franz Joseph Haydn - he wrote 104 of them.Joseph Haydn - Symphony No.83 "The Hen"
Ludwig van Beethoven: German composer and virtuoso pianist. He was an important figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras inWestern classical music, and remains one of the most famous and influential composers of all time. Fur EliseMoonlight Sonata.Beethoven music examplesLudwig van Beethoven - Symphony No.3, Op. 55 "Eroica"
When Beethoven entered his thirtieth year, he began to suffer from an annoying roaring and buzzing in both ears. Soon his hearing began to fail and, for all he often would enjoy untroubled intervals lasting for months at a time, his disability finally ended in complete deafness. All the resources of the physician's art were useless. At about the same time Beethoven noticed that his digestion began to suffer. ... At no time accustomed to taking medical advice seriously, he began to develop a liking for spirituous beverages, in order to stimulate his decreasing appetite and to aid his stomach weakness by excessive use of strong punch and iced drinks. ... He contracted a severe inflammation of the intestines which, though it yielded to treatment, later on often gave rise to intestinal pains and aching colics and which, in part, must have favored the eventual development of his mortal illness. Ludwig van Beethoven - Piano Concerto No.5, Op.73 "Emperor"
Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphony No.9, Op.125 "Choral"
Beethoven MystiqueA nature like his is today called insanity in the layman (invariably ignored), eccentricity in the wealthy (invariably encouraged), and artistic temperament in the composer (invariably accepted). His personal conduct could be very embarrassing. He was seen returning to a ballroom still buttoning up his trousers from a lavatory visit. Late in life he spoke of Napoleon, using very explicit language. He once threw a chair at a prince - very determined behavior, considering the nobleman was one of Beethoven's own patrons and was helping to support the composer financially. His usual disregard of conventional, external considerations often caused friction and conflict with everyone - neighbors, janitors, servants, friends, landlords, waiters, and aristocrats. "His talent astonished me, but his is a totally untamed personality, and he is not entirely wrong in finding the world detestable, though this attitude does not make it more pleasant, either for himse